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©r fl&e .ifibt ISoolts of iWoscs; 






1? L A C K I E & SO N, 





fiEC. NOV 1881 




CHx\P. XL 

1 . The people complaining, God punisheth them with fire, which at 
Moses' prayer is quenclied. 4. Tltey lust for flesh, and loath manna. 
10. Moses, grieved at their murmuring, complaineth to God of his charge. 
16. God divideth his burden unto seventy elders whii'h hear it with him, 
18, and promiseth to give the peopk flesh. 24. The seventy elders have 
the spirit of p>rophecy. 31. God by a mind bringeth quails tjito the 
camp, which the people gathering and eating, do die of a plague at Ki- 
hrothlmttaavah. 35. T'he camp rcmoveth to Hazeroth. 

' And the people was when they were complaincrs, evil in tlie 
cars of Jeliovah -. and Jehovah heard, and liis anger was kindled ; 
and a fire of Jeliovah burnt amono; them and consumed them in tlie 

Ver. 1. — And the PEorLH,] Ilitlierto in 
this hook, God's grace to liis people hath been 
manifested in tlie ordering, directing, and go- 
verning of them in tlie wilderness, towards 
their promised inheritance: now followeth their 
unthankfulness and unworthy carriage among 
so great blessings, by their many murmnrings 
and rebellions; whereby both the disobe- 
dient nature of man, and the impossibility of 
the law to bring men unto God, is declared. 

Whf.N they « ERK CO.MPLAINERS,] Ol", CIS 

complaincrs f that is, even complaincrs, very 
murrnurers f grudging, and showing them- 
selves discontented with their estate; and 
(as is likely) for their so long travel in the 
wilderness, ' three days jomney ' before they 
came to a resting place, Num. x. 33, and 
thus Sol. .larchi here expoundeth it. So 
whereas they should have rejoiced in the 
Lord now among them, they showed them- 
selves as mourners, sorrowful, and (as the Gr. 
translateth) murmuring. Of such 'murmur- 
crs ' and ' complaincrs,' tlie apostle also spcak- 
fcth, Judo ver. Ki. l''\ii.,] This seemelh to 
Vol.. II. 

have reference to the first, the people was evil, 
that is, wicked, and so displeasing the Lord: 
the Gr. referreth it to the latter, the people 
muriHured evil tlmigs before the Ijord. A 
FIRE (1F JEHOVAH,] That is, as the Gr. ex- 
poundeth \i,from the Lord, and the Chald. 
from before the Lord : though it may also 
mean a great and vehement fire. Their re- 
bellions before the law was given at mount 
Sinai, God punished not, Exod. xiv. 11 — 15; 
XV. 21, 26 ; xvi. 2—4, 9, 20, 27, 28; xvii. 2 
— 5, save only when they made the molten 
calf at the mount, Exod. xxxii. 27, 2S, 36. 
But their sins committed after, he punisheth 
severely, as here and after is to be seen : for, 
' the law worketh wrath,' Kom. iv. 15. And 
' all these things happened unto them for en- 
samples to us,' 1 Coi'. X. 5 — 11. Consumed,] 
Ur, devoured, Heb. did eat. TheGr. trans- 
lateth, ^devoured a part of the camp. Li 
that the fire consumed 'in the utmost part,' 
it is piobable that there the sin began among 
them that were faint and weary with tra\ el ; 
as Deut. xxv. 18. 


utmost 'part of the camp. ^ And the people criea out unto Moses, 
and. Moses prayed unto Jehovah, and the fire sunk down. ^ And 
he called the name of tliat place Taberah, because the fire of Je- 
hovah burnt among them. * And tlie mixed multitude that was 
among them lusted with lust, and the sons of Israel also returned 
and wept ; and said. Who shall give us fiesli to eat ? * We remem- 
ber the fish which we did eat in Egypt for nought : the cucumbers, 
and the melons, and tlie leeks, and the onions, and the garlick. 
* But now our soul is dried away, there is nothing at all, only our 

Ver. 2.— Sunk Do^^•N,] That is, went out, they had ' for nought,' without price, getting 

or, was quenched; in Gr. ceased. Tlieir 
seeking to the Lord in their afflictions, and 
his mercies towards them, are mentioned in 
Psal. Ixxviii. 34— 3S. 

Ver. 3. — He called,] That is, Moses 
called: or, as the Gr. translateth, the name 
of that place was called : see the notes on 
Gen. xvi. 14. Taberah,] That is, burn, 
ing : which name was given to imprint a 
memorial of their sin and of God's judg- 
ments in their hearts, as Moses after men- 
tioneth them, in Deut. ix. 7, 22, 24. 

Ver. 4. — The mixed multitude,] Or, 
the gathered multitude^ so called in Heh. of 
gathering; in Gr. and Chald. oi mixture: 
and in the Chald. said to be Jonathans, they 
are called, the strangers that were gathered 
among them. These were that ' mixed peo- 
ple' that came up with Israel out of Egypt, 
mentioned in Exod. xii. 38. Lusted with 
LUST,] That is, lusted gieatly and greedily. 
Returned and wept,] That is, againivept, 
the Gr. saith, they sat and wept. The Is- 
raelites that a little before complained, were 
punished, and repented ; now again, by the 
example of the strangers among them, return 
to their sinful course. Chazkuni here saith, 
" After that (the sons of Israel) had mur- 
mured already themselves alone, (ver. 1,) 
they turned and murmured with the mixed 
multitude, and wept for desire of flesh." So 
this was another mutiny, diflering from that 
forespoken of; though in time and place near 
together. Who shall give,] A wish, 
meaning, that some ivould give us flesh: 
and a tentation, as not believing that God 
could do it. This their lusting is rehearsed, 
in Psal. cvi. 14; Ixxviii. 18 — 20, 'they 
tempted God in their heart, asking meat for 
their soul (or lust:) and they spake against 
God, they said. Can God furnish a table in 
the wilderness ? Behold he smote the rock, 
and the waters giished out, and streams over- 
flowed: can he give bread also? or can he 
prepare flesh for his people? 

Ver. 5. — We remember,] They stirred 
and inflamed their lust with remembrance of 
their former Egyptian diet. For nought,] 
This may be referred to the ' fish ' which 

them out of the rivers freely; or, for nought, 
that is, for very little, very cheap; as nothing 
is used for \e.Ty little, Acts xxvii. 33 ; John 
xviii. 20, none for very few, Jer. viii. 6; 1 
Cor. ii. 8. It may also have reference to 
the former, we remember for nought, that is, 
in vain: so the Heb. chinnam, and Gr. do- 
rean, sometimes signifieth a thing done or 
spoken in vain and without eflect, as Prov. 
i. 17; Ezek. vi. 10; Gal. ii. 21. Garlic,] 
These gross meats used to be eaten by the 
poorer sort in Egypt, and by the Israelites 
when they were slaves there, they now re- 
member, (forgetting their slavery;) and pre- 
fer before the manna which God gave them 
from heaven, which was both pleasant and 
wholesome. Of the things here spoken of, 
and other the like, the Hebs. themselves say: 
" Some meats are exceeding evil, and it is 
not meet that a man should ever cat of them, 
as great fishes that are salted and old, &c. 
and some meats are evil, but not so bad; 
therefore it is not meet for a man to eat of 
them, save a little and very seldom; and he 
may not use to make them his meat, or to 
eat them with his meat continually, as great 
fishes, cheese, &c. and leeks, and onions, and 
garlic, &c. these meats are naught, which a 
man should eat of but a very little, and in 
winter days; but in summer not at all," 
Maim, in Misn. tom. i. in Degnoth, chap, 
iv. sect. 9, 

Ver. 6. — Our soul is dried,] The soul 
is often put for the body, or whole man, and 
for the appetite or desire of meat, drink, and 
other things: so here they complain that they 
had no nourishment by the ' wheat of heaven' 
(as manna is called, Psal. Ixxviii. 24,) nei- 
ther was their appetite satisfied: and here- 
upon it is said, they asked ' meat for their 
souls,' Psal. Ixxviii. 18, to satisfy their fleshly 
lust. Our eyes are,] Or, our eyes behold 
only the manna; that is, we see no other 
food; neither can we expect for any other, 
but depend upon manna only. For ' the 
eyes unto' any, signify hope and expectation, 
as Psal. XXV. 15; cxli. S. Manna was unto 
them both a corporal food, and a spiritual, 
figuring Christ himself, with his word and 


eyes are unto the manna. ' And the manna was as coriander seed, 
and the colour of it as tlie colour of bdellium. " The people went 
about and gathered it, and j^round it in mills ; or beat it in a mor- 
tar; and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it; and the taste of 
it was, as the taste of the best moisture of oil. ^ And wlien the 
dew fell down upon tlie camp in tlie niglit, tlie manna fell down 
upon it. '" And Moses heard the people weeping throughout their 
families; everij man in the door of his tent; and the anger of Je- 
hovali was kindled greatly, and in the eyes of Moses it ivas evil. 

" And Moses said unto Jehovah, Wherefore hast thou done evil 
to thy servant ? and wherefore have I not found grace in thine 
eyes, that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me ? 

grace, John vi, 31 — 33; I Cor. x. 3. So 
the loathing of manna, and longing for the 
meats of Egypt, figured the rejecting of 
Christ and his graces, for to have nourish- 
ment and life by the works and righteousness 
of men, Gal. iii. 3, 10; iv. 9. Such men's 
'eyes' cannot see the 'manna which is iiid,' 
Rev. ii. 17. 

Veb. 7. — Manna,] In Ileb. man: the 
reason of this name, see in the notes on 
Exod. xvi. 14. Cliazkuni on that place 
saith, "Man, in the Egyptian tongue, is as 
mah, (that is, what) in the Heb. : and they 
asked one of another, man, that is, what is 
this.?'"' Coriander,] Of it, see Exod. xvi. 
31. These are the words of Moses, con- 
demning the people's ingratitude, by the de- 
ijcription of mainia, which they disdained. 
The colour,] Heb. the eye, that is, the col- 
our, or appearance, as the Gr. and Cliald. 
explain it: so eye is used for colour, i(c. in 
Lev. xiii. 55; Ezek. i. Iti; viii. 2; x. 9. 
Bdellium,] In Heb. bdolach, in Gr. (and by 
Sol. Jarchi's exposition) crystal: which is 
white and transparent: so manna is said to 
be ' white,' Exod. xvi. 31. Of bdellium, see 
Gen. ii. 12. 

V'er. 8 Went about,] Or, we7it to and 

fro, to search, find, esjiy, as in Jer. v. 1 ; 
Amos viii. 12 ; Dan. xii. 4, therefore this 
word is applied sometimes to the eye, as in 
2 Chron. xvi. 9, It figured the labour and 
diligence that mun should use to get ' the 
meat which eiiduruth unto eternal lite,' John 
vi. ,27. Grocnd it,] Tlie grinding and 
beating of it, &c. figured also the alHictions 
of Christ, wherei)y he «as prepared to be for 
us the bread of life, John vi. 48 — 51 ; Heb. 
ii. 9, 10; 1 Pet. iii. IS, But though the 
manna was thus hard as wheat to be ground, 
yet it used to melt as it lay on the earth, 
with the heat of the sun, that tliey gathered 
it only in the morning, Exod. xvi. 21. 
Baked,] Or, boiled, cooked; the word is 
sometimes used for baking, as in 2 Sam. xiii. 

8, though usually it signifieth to boil. The 
best moisture of oil,] Fresh oil, which 
hath no rank favour. The Heb. leshad, is 
the best oily moisture in man's body, Ps. 
xxxii. 4, so here it is the best sweet mois- 
ture of oil, which is the uppermost part. It 
had also the taste of ' wafers with honey,' 
Exod. xvi. 31. And here the Gr. translatetb 
it 'wafers of oil,' and the Chald. paste, (or 
cakes) with oil.' So it was both pleasant and 
wholesome food, and the taste of ' oil ' and 
' honey ' figured the sweetness of grace, 
which we by faith perceive in Christ the true 
manna, Ps. cxix. 103; Song v. 10'; 1 Pet. 
ii. 3. 

Ver. 9. — Fell down upon it,] And 
upon the manna fell dew again, which when 
it was drawn up by the sun, then the man- 
na appeared, Exod. xvi. 13, 14, so the man- 
na lay as it were hidden between two dews. 
But after was manifested, and given them of 
God freely e\tiry day, a wheat which they 
sowed not, nor laboured for, but had for the 
taking up, a meat which they knew not, 
neither had their fathers known it: whereby 
they were taught, that man liveth not by 
bread only, but by every word that proceecl- 
elh out of the mouth of the Lord, Dcut. 
viii. 3. 

Ver. 10 Throughout,] Or, by their fa- 

viilies; so the sin was generally spread among 
the people. In the nooR,] That is, openly; 
and sinned not in secret only, but as it were 
proclaimed their iniquity, and stirred up 
themselves, and one another, to follow their 

Ver. 11. — Done evil to thy servant,] 
That is, afflicted me: for et'// when it cometh 
from God, meaneth trouble and affliction 
wherewith he cliastiseth liis servants, and 
exerciselh their faith and patience; as Jer. 
xviii. 8; Is. xlv. 7; Amos iii. 6. That thou 
layest,] \\<ih. for to lay, or to put: so it 
hath reference to the former part of the 
speech. See the notes on Gen. vi. 19. The 


'^ ILave I conceived all this people ? liave I begotten them, that 
tliou shouldest say unto me, Bear them in tliy bosom, as a nursing 
fatlier beareth tlie sucking child, unto the land wliich thou swarest 
unto tlieir fathers ? '^ Whence should I liave flesh to give unto 
all this people ? for they weep unto me, saying. Give us flesh that 
we may eat. " I am not able myself alone to bear all this people, 
for it is too heavy for me. '^ And if thou do thus unto me, kill 

BURDEN,] The weighty care and charge: so 
in Deut. i. 12. The Gr. here translattth it 
anger; but after in ver. 17, violence, or as- 
sault. This showeth the great charge that 
lieth upon governors: so Paul mentioneth 
' the care of all the churches,' which came 
npon him daily, 2 Cor. xi. 28. 

Ver. 12. — Have i conceived,] So also 
the Gr. translateth it; but the Chaid. saith, 
" Am I the fatlier of all this people ? are 
they my sons?" Begotten them,] Heh. 
begotten it; or, brought it forth ; speaking of 
the people, as of one man, begotten, as by a 
father; or brought forth, as by a mother. So 
the apostle applieth both similes to himself, 
saying to the Corinthians, 'Ye have not 
many fathers ; for in Christ Jesus I have be- 
gotten you through the gospel,' 1 Cor. iv. 
15, and to the Gal. ' My children of whom 
I travel in birth again, until Christ be formed 
ia you,' Gal. iv. 19. In this complaint of 
Moses, the weakness of the law is signified, 
which begetteth no children to God, Rom. 
vii. 4, 5, &c.; viii. 3, but by the word of 
truth, the gospel, and by belief in Christ, we 
are born of God, Jam. i. 18; 1 Pet. i. 23 
— 25; I John V. 1. In thy bosom,] That 
is, lovingly, tenderly, carefully: which Moses 
the lawgiver could not do as is done by Christ, 
of whom it is said, ' He shall feed his flock 
like a shepherd, he shall gather his lambs 
with his arm, and bear them in his bosom, 
he shall gently lead those that are with 
young,' Is. xl. 11. A ndrsing father,] 
This showeth the love, mildness, gentleness 
which should lie in governors ; and so it is 
said unto the church, ' Kings shall be tliy 
nursing fathers,' &c. Is. xlix. 23. Aud the 
apostle saith, ' We were gentle among you, 
even as a nurse chcrisheth her children: we 
exhorted, and comforted, and charged every 
one of you, as a father doth his children,' 1 
Thes. ii. 7, 11. Accordingly the Hebs. 
liave this rule for all governors of the church, 
" It is unlawful for a man to govern with 
slateliness over the congregation, and with 
haughtiness of spirit, but with meekness and 
fear. And every pastor that bringeth more 
terror upon the congregation than is for the 
name of God, he shall be punished, and shall 
not see himself to have a leamed wise son: 
as it is said, (in Job xxxvii. 24.) ' Men do 

therefore fear him ; he respecteth not any 
that are wise of heart.' And so it is not 
lawful for him to govern them with contemp- 
tuous carriage ; although they be the (com- 
mon) people of the land: neither may he 
tread upon the heads of the holy people, al- 
though they be unlearned and base, they are 
the sons of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and 
the armies of the Lord that brought them out 
of the land of Egypt by great might, and by 
strong hand ; but he must bear the toil of the 
congregation, and their burden ; as Moses 
our master, of whom it is said, 'Asa nursing 
father beareth the sucking child,'" &c. Maim, 
in Misn. torn. 4, in Sanhedrin, chap. xxv. 
sect. 1, 2. That which Moses speaketh of a 
' nursing father,' the Chald. that goeth in the 
name of Jonatlian, and Targum Jerusalemy, 
calleth pedagoga, which word Paul usetb, 
when he saith, 'the law was our pedagogue 
(or schoolmaster) unto Christ,' Gal. iii, 24, 
whose graces were figured by that ' land ' 
whither Moses now was to lead them ; as is 
showed in the annot. on Gen. xii. 5. 

Ver. 13. — Flesh to give,] By these 
complaints Moses showeth his insufficiency 
to govern this people, and to svipply their 
wants: neither indeed could he bring them 
into the promised land, but died ere they 
came thither, Deut. xxxiv. whereby the im- 
possibility of the law was signified, that it 
could not bring men unto God, or satisfy, or 
restrain the Uists that reign in our members, 
though the law itself ' is holy,' Rom. vii. 5 
— 12. 'But what the law could not do, in 
that it was weak through the flesh, God (hath 
done) sending his own Son,' Rom. viii. 3, 
who giveth us not flesh to satisfy our carnal 
lusts, but his own flesh to be the food of our 
souls, which he hath given * for the life of 
the world,' and which whoso eateth, ' hath 
eternal life,' John vi. 51, 54. 

Ver. 15. — If thou do thus,] To leave 
the whole burden upon me still. Here the 
word thou, spoken to God, is of the feminine 
gender, contrary to common rule of speech, 
at, for attah: which some think doth intimate 
Moses' trouble of mind, as if he could not 
perfectly utter his words: and the like is in 
Deut. v. 27, where the people, terrified with 
the majesty of God when he gave his law, 
said unto Moses, ' Speak thou (at) unto us.' 



me I piay thee, kill me, if I luive foimd grace in tliiiic eyes, and 
let me not see mine evil. 

"* And Jeliovah said unto Moses, Gather unto me seventy men 

Sol. Jarchi here saitli, "The strength of 
Moses became feeble as a woman, when the 
holy blessed (God) showed him the punish- 
ments that he would brinj; upon Ihem (the 
people-) for this ho said before him, ' If thus, 
kill me first.' " Kill jie,] Or, /tilling me: 
that \s, kill me quite, and out of hand ; the 
word is doubled, for more vehemency and 
speed. See mine evil,] That is, my misery 
and affliction. By 'seeing evil,' is meant 
the feeling or sufl'eriiig of misery ; as to ' see 
death,' is to die, Luke ii. 2G ; Ps. Ixxxix. 
49, and as on the contrary, ' to see the salva- 
tion of God,' nieaneth the fruition or enjoy- 
ing thereof, Ps. 1. 23 ; xci. Ifi. Com- 
pare with this, Elijah's speech, I Kings xix. 

Vek. 10. — Gather u.nto me,] In Chald. 
gather before me; and Thargum Jonathan ex- 
plaineth it, gather in my name sevent;/ ivorihy 
men. This is answerable to the number of 
the seventy souls of the house of Israel, 
which went down into Egypt, Gen. xlvi. 27; 
Exod. i. 5 ; Deut. x. 22, and to the seventy 
elders which went up unto the Lord at mount 
Sinai, Exod. xxiv. 1, 9. From hence the 
Hebs. in their commonwealtli, continued 
their chiefest senate in Jerusalem of seventy- 
one elders, as here there were seventy, and 
Moses the prince. So they record in Tal- 
mud Bab. in Sanhedrin, chap. i. and Maim. 
in Sanhedrin, chap. i. sect. 3 — 5, explaineth 
it thus; "there was in Israel, first a great 
court (or judgment hall) in the sanctuary ; 
and that was called the great Synedriou, and 
their number was seventy-one, as it is writ- 
ten, 'Gather to me seventy men,' &c. and 
Moses was chief over them, as it is said, 
' And let them stand there with thee,' Num. 
xi. 16, lo here are seventy-one. The great- 
est in wisdum among them all, they set him 
for liead over them, and he was called Nasi 
(the prince) in 'i'^tYy place, and he stood in- 
stead of Moses our master. And they placed 
the greatest among the seventy, next unto 
the liead, and he sat on his right hand, and 
was called Abbethdin (the father of the 
judgment hall.) And the residue of the 
seventy sat before him, according to their 
years and according to their dignity: whoso- 
ever was in wisdom greater tlian his fellow, 
WHS nearer unto the prince on his left hand. 
And they sat as in the form of an half circle 
round, so that the prince, with the father of 
the court, mif;ht see them all. Moreover 
they set two judgment halls, each of twenty- 
three judges, the one at the door of the court 
fiif the sanctuary,) the other at the door of 

the temple. And in every city of Israel 
wlierein were 120, (fathers of families) or 
more, they set a lesser Synedriou, which sat 
in tlie gate of the city, as it is written, ' And 
establish judgment in the gate,' (Amos v. 
15.) And their number was twenty-three 
judges, and the wisest among them was head 
of them; and the residue sat in a round-like 
half a circle, that he which was head might 
see them all. If it were a city which had 
not 120 men in it, they set therein three 
judges, for there is no judgment hall of less 
than three, that there might be more or 
fewer, if there happened to be among them 
dissension in judgment. But every city 
which had not. in it two wise men, the one 
fit to teach the whole law, and the other 
skilful to hear, and skilful to demand and 
make answer; they set no synediion therein, 
although it had in it two thousand Israelites," 
&c. The officers,] In Gr. the scribes; 
and Thargum Jonathan addeth, " in Egypt:" 
as if these were such as are mentioned in 
Exod. V. 14, and of them Sol. Jarchi also 
understandeth it. W'hat these ' ofiicers ' were 
after in the commonwealth of Israel, is noted 
on Deut. xvi. IS. Here it seemeth to be 
meant of such elders and officers as were 
well known and had approved themselves for 
wisdom and good carriage, for which they 
might with comfort be preferred to this high 
senate: 'for they that have ministered well, 
(as the apostle saith,) purchase to themselves 
a good degree,' 1 Tim. iii. lo. Afterwards 
in Israel about the choice of these chief ma- 
gistrates, it is thus recorded; " Our wise 
men have said, that from the great synedrion 
they sent into all the land of Israel, and 
made diligent inquiry; whomsoever they 
found to be wise, and afraiil to sin, and 
meek, &c. they made him a judge in his 
city. And from thence they preferred him 
to the gate of the mountain of the house (of 
the Lord:) and from thence they promoted 
liim to the gate of the court (of the sanc- 
tuary,) and from thence they advanced him 
to the great judgment-hall," Maim, in San- 
hedrin, chap. ii. sect. 8. St.and there,] 
Or, present themselves there with thee. Tliey 
were to stand before the tabernacle, to present 
themselves unto God, and to receive authority 
from him; and with Moses, who was to be 
chief over tbem. The Hebs. from the word 
jrith, gather a likeness unto Moses, saying, 
" They constitute none in the synedrion but 
priests, Levites and Israelites whose gene- 
alogy is known, &c. as it is said (in Num. 
xi. IC,) ' with thee;' which are like thee in 



of the elders of Israel, wliom tlioii knowest, tliat tliey are the 
elders of the people and tlie officers of tliem, and take them unto 
the tent of the congregation, tliat they may stand there with 

" And I will come down and will speak witli thee there, and I 
"will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon 
them, and they shall bear with thee the burden of the people, and 
thou shalt not bear it thyself alone. '^ And say thou unto the people, 
sanctify yourselves against to-morrow, and ye shall eat flesh ; for 
ye have wept in the ears of Jeliovah, saying, Who shall give us 
flesh to eat ? foi' it was well with us in Egypt ; therefore Jehovah 
will give you flesh, and ye shall eat. '^ Ye shall not eat one day, 
nor two days, nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days. ^^ Un- 
til a month of days, until it come out at your nostrils, and it be 
unto you loathsome, because that you liave despised Jehovah who 
is among you, and have wept before liim, saying, Wherefore now 
came we forth out of Egypt? ^' And Moses said. The people 
amongst wliom I am, are six hundred thousand footmen ; and thou 
liast said, I will give them flesh, and they shall eat it a month of 
days. ^^ Shall the flocks and tlie herds be slain for them to suffice 

wisdom, religion, and genealogy," Maim, in 
Sanhcdrin, cliap. ii. sect. 1. 

Ver. 17. — I WILL COME DOWN,] To wit, 

in sign or apparition ; as the Chald. traiislat- 
eth, / u'ill reveal myself ; and Thargum 
Jonathan addelh, " I will reveal myself in 
tlie glory of my majesty ;" this was in the 
cloud, ver. 25. I will take,] Or, will se- 
parate ; iu Chald. will increase of the spirit 
that is on thee; meaning, the gifts of the 
Spirit, as ' prophecy,' ver. 25, and other 
meet for their charge: for • there are diversi- 
ties of gifts, but the same Spirit,' 1 Cor, xii. 
4. So 'spirits' are named for 'spiritual 
gifts,' 1 Cor. xiv. 12, 32, and the 'Holy 
Spirit,' for the gifts of the Holy Spirit, John 
vii. 39 ; Acts xix. 2,G. Thus the 'spirit of 
Elijah rested on Elisha,' 2 Kings ii. 15, 
when he had the same gifts and power of 
prophecy, miracles, &c. Neither was Moses' 
spirit hereby dimiin'shed ; for as Sol. Jarchi 
saith, " Moses in that hour was like unto the 
lamp that was left (burning) on the candle- 
stick, (in the sanctuary) from which all the 
other lamps were lighted, yet the light there- 
of was not lessened any whit." God showed 
hereby, that none without gifts of his Spirit, 
are fit for oflice and government, Exod. xviii. 
21 ; Deut. i. 13 ; Acts vi. 3. The Hebs. 
have this rule, " Any synedrion, king, or 
governor, that shall set up a judge for Israel, 
that is not fit, and is not wise in the wisdom 
of the law, and meet to be a judge; although 
lie be wliolly amial)lc, and have in him other 
good things, yet l,c that sctteth him up, 

transgresseth," &<' Maim, in Sanhedrin, 
chap. iii. sect. 8. 

Ver. 18. — SANCTipy,] In Chald. /jrcjoare 
yourselves: so to ' sanctify war,' is to prepare 
therefore, Jer. vi. 4 ; Ii. 28. It meanetli au 
holy preparation to receive the gifts that they 
desired. Sol. Jarchi expoundeth it, " Prepare 
yourselves for vengeance ; and so he saith 
(in Jer. xii. 3,) Sanctify (that is, prepare) 
them for the day of slaughter:" the twentieth 
verse showeth that this may be implied. 
Wept in the ears,] In ver. 20, ' wept be- 
fore' the Lord; and so the Ciiald. tunieth it 
here. It meaneth, that the Lord had seen 
and heard their complaint: for weeping is 
often joined with lifting up the voice, or cry. 
ing out; as Gen. xxvii. 39; Judg. ii. 4; 
xxi. 2; 1 Sam. xi. 4; xxiv. 16; xxx. 4. 

Ver. 20. — Until a month of days,] To 
wit, ye shall eat, as the Gr. expresseth. 
Meaning a 'whole month;' as a 'year (;f 
days' is an whole year, 2 Sam. xiv. 2S. So 
in Gen. xxix. 14. Loathsome,] Heb. to 
loathsomeness or alienation; which the Gr. 
Iranslateth to choler; the Chald. to offence, 
that is, offensive. Have despised,] Or, 
contemptnuiisly refused, set at nought; which 
the Gr. translateth, disobeyed the Lord ; the 
Chald. rejected the word of the Lord. Who 
IS,] The Chald. saith, whose majesty (or di- 
vine presence) remaincth among you. 

Ver. 22. — To suffice them,] So the 
Gi'. and Chald. expound the Heb. mutsa, 
which usually signifieth to find ; but here is 
ujed for obtaining that vrhich is sufliciciit: so 

CHAP. xr. 

Ihem ? or shall all tlie fislics of the sea be gathered together for 
them to suffice them. 

^ And Jehovah said unto Moses, Is Jehovah's hand waxed short? 
thou slialt see now, whether my word sliall come to pass unto thee, 
or not. ^* And Moses went out, and spake unto the people the 
words of Jehovah ; and lie gathered the seventy men of the elders 
of the people, and made them stand round about the tent. ^^ And 
Jehovah came down in a cloud, and spake unto him, and took of 
the spirit that was upon him ; and gave it unto the seventy men 
the elders ; and it was when the spirit rested upon them, they pro- 
pliesied, and did not add. ^"^ And there remained two of the men 
in the camp ; the name of tlie one was Eldad ; and the name of 
tlie second, Medad ; and the spirit rested upon them ; and they 
were of them that were written, but went not out unto tlie tent, 
and they prophesied in the camp. 

people ; see Exod. vii. 1 ; Gen xx. 7. And 
thus Paul saith, ' He tliat prophesieth, speak - 
eth unto men to edification, and exhortation, 
and comfort,' 1 Cor. xiv. 3. Sometimes it 
was a singing of praise unto God ; as they 
that prophesied ' with harps, with psaltei iis 
and with cymbals ; to confess and to praise 
the Lord,' 1 Chron. xxv. 1, 3. Did not 
ADD,] That is, prophesied no more but that 
day, as God spake the ten commandments, 
and ' added not,' that is, spake no more, or 
after such a manner to the people, Dent. lii. 
2. Thus the Gr. here translateth, and they 
added no more: and Sol. Jarchi saith, '' they 
did not add, i. e. they prophesied not save 
that day only ; so it is expounded in Siphre." 
Howbeit the Chald. translateth it, ceased not; 
in a contrary signification, which sometimes 
is in the Heb. words. But seeing the Chald. 
so expoundetli that also in Deut. v. 22, ttiat 
the Lord ' ceased not,' which seemelh to 
mean a continuance till all tliose ten words 
were finished ; we may likewise understand 
him liere to mean a continuance for that day; 
(as Saul in Naioth ' prophesied all tliat day 
and all that night,' I Sam. xix. 24,) and not 
a continuance always ; for this seemeth to be 
a temporary gift and miracle for confirmation 
of their oflice ; as in 1 Sam. x. 6, 1 1. 

Vkr. 2(). — Medad,] In Gr. Modud. The 
sriRiT,] In Cliald. the spirit of prophecy. 
That were written,] By Moses in a 
book ; or in papers (as the liubs. think) and 
so were appointed among the rest to come to 
the tabernacle, ver. 16, 24. But went ni»t 
OUT,] For what cause, the scripture shewelh 
not: but by comparing this their fact with 
others, it is probable, that as Saul when he 
should have been made king, withdrew and 
hid ' himself among the stull,' 1 Sam. x. 22, 
so these two, unwilling to take the charge 
upon them, withdrew their shoulders, and 

in Josh. xvii. IG ; Judg. xxi. 14. Here 
Moses showeth that the thing promised was 
impossible in man's judgment ; both in re- 
spect of the multitude of men, and length of 
time: and therefore he mentioneth beasts 
and fishes which also are flesh, 1 Cor. xv. 
39, but speaketh not of fowls, as thinking 
least of all that they should be filled with 
th«m: yet God sufficed them with such, ver. 
31. So Philip said unto Christ, 'Two hun- 
dred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for 
(this multitude) that every one may have a 
little,' John vi. 7, 9. 

Ver. 23. — Hand waxed short,] That 
is, power abated; the Gr. expoundeth it. 
Shall not the Lord's hand he sjifficient ? the 
Chald. thus, Shall the word of the Lord he 
hindered? Hand is often used for 'power,' 
as being the instrument wherewith power is 
shewed, Deut. xxxii. 30 ; Josh. iv. 24 ; viii. 
20, ' shortness ' signifieth lessening; and is 
applied sometimes to the Lord's Spirit, as in 
Mic. ii. 7, ' is the Spirit of Jehovah short- 
tened?' Sometimes to his hand, as here, 
and in Is. lix. ], 'Behold Jehovah's hand is 
not shortened, that it cannot save:' and in Is. 
1. 2, ' Is my hand shortened at all, that it 
cannot redeem ? or have I no power to deli- 
ver?' where the latter sentence explaineth the 

Ver. 25. — They prophesied,] This was 
a gift and effect of God's Spirit upon them: 
and is elsewhere so explained : as, ' upon the 
handmaids in tliose days, I will pour out my 
Sjjirit,' Joel ii. 29, that is, ' I will pour out 
ol my Spirit, and they shall prophecy,' Acts 
ii. IS. So in Acts xix. 2, 6. And when 
Saul was anointed to be king, ' the Spirit of 
God came upon him, and he prophesied,' 1 
Sam. X. 6, 10. Prophesying was not only a 
foretelling of tilings to come, but sometimes 
a declaring of the word of God unto the 


'" And there ran a young man, and told Moses, and said, Eldad 
and Medad do prophesy in the camp. ^^ And Joshua the son of 
Nun, the mmister of Moses, one of his choice young men, answered 
and said, My lord Moses, forbid thou them. '' And Moses said 
unto him, Enviest thou for me ? but O who shall give that all the 
people of Jeliovah were prophets; that Jehovah would give liis 
Spirit upon them. ^^ And Moses gathered himself into the camp ; 
he, and the elders of Israel. '^^ And there went forth a wind from 
Jehovah, and brought quails from the sea, and let them fall by the 
camp, as it ivere a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's 

came not to the tabernacle: yet the Lord by 
his Spirit found them out: tor whither shall 
men go from his spirit ? or whither shall 
they flee from his presence ? Ps. cxxxix. 7. 
The Hebs. have here their uncertain conjec- 
tures : Sol. Jarchi saith, " They were all 
written expressly by their names, and should 
have been taken by lots. For the count was 
made for the t\YeIve tribes, out of every tribe 
six, except two tribes, of which were but 
five. Moses took seventy-two papers (or 
scrolls) and on seventy of them he wrote an 
elder, and on two, a part : and he chose six 
out of every tribe, so there were seventy and 
two. Then he said unto them, Take up your 
papers out of the basket. AVhoso took up 
with his hand (a paper on which was written) 
an elder, he was sanctified (to that office:) 
but he in whose hand came up a part, luito 
him he said, the Lord will not have thee." 

Ver. 28. — Of his choice voung sien,] 
In Gr. his chosen one : the Chald. saith, o/" 
his young men. The original word signifieth 
also youth: whereupon some translate it, the 
minister of Moses from his youth : but this 
seemeth not fit, for Moses's shepherd's life in 
Midian, from which he came but a little 
before this, argueth the contrary. Forbid 
THOU THEM,] This he spake of envious zeal 
for his master Moses' sake, (as the ver. fol- 
lowing showeth ;) that he would not have 
the use of the gift of prophecy common; or, 
because they obeyed not Moses to come out 
as he commanded. So the disciples forbade 
one that cast out devils in Christ's name, 
because he followed not with them, Luke ix. 
49, 50 , Mark ix. 38. Thargum Jonathan 
explaiiieth it, ' my lord Moses, request mercy 
from before the Lord, and forbid them the 
spirit of prophecy.' 

Ver. 29. — Enviest thou,] Or, hast thou 
envious zeal or jealousy for my sake ? which 
is a prohibition, have it not: as 'think ye that 
I am come to give peace on earth ?' Luke xii. 
f)\; that is, 'think it not,' Matt. x. 34. 
BOT O WHO SHALL OIVE,] Or, and O who, 
&c.; this is an earnest wish, as would God, 
ur the like: the word and, setteth forth the 

earnestness of his passion, as Acts xxiii. 3 ; 
Ps. ii. 6. His spirit,] That is, the gifts of 
his spirit; as the Chald. saith, ' his spirit of 
prophesy.' So Paul wisheth that all the church 
could prophesy, and saith, ' follow after love, 
and zealously desire spiritual gifts, but ra- 
ther that ye may prophesy, 1 Cor. xiv. 1. 

Ver. 30. — Gathered,] That is, got him- 
self, or as the Gr. saith, departed. The 
elders,] Who were authorised of God to be 
of the high counsel or synedrion with Moses 
and his assistants: and thus they differed 
from those inferior magistrates which had 
been appointed before by Jethro's advice, 
Exod. xviii. 21, 25. And as then all hard 
causes were brought unto Moses, Exod. xviii. 
26 ; so after this, such causes were brought 
to the high court or synedrion first ordained 
here. This is showed by the Heb. canons 
in Talmud Bab. Sanhedrin, chap. 1 ; and 
Maim, in Sanhedrin, chap. v. thus : " they 
set up no king but by the mouth of the senate 
of seventy-one (elders:) neither make they 
any lesser synedrion for every tribe and for 
every city, but by the senate of seventy-one. 
Neither judge they a whole tribe revolted, (to 
idolatry,) nor a false prophet, nor the high 
priest in judgment of life and death, but by 
the great synedrion. But money matters 
are judged hy the court of three judges. 
Likewise, they make (or judge) no elder re- 
bellious, (Deut. xvii.) nor any city drawn to 
idolatry, (Deut. xiii.;) neither cause they 
the suspected woman to drink the bitter 
water, (Num. v.) but in the great synedrion. 
Neither do they add unto (or enlarge) the 
city or the court-yard, neither go they forth 
to permitted war," &c. [whereof see the 
notes on Deut. xx. l,]but by the great syne- 
drion ; as it is said, (in Exod. xviii. 22,) 
' every great matter they shall bring unto 

Ver. 31. — A wind,] God ' made an east 
wind to pass forth in heaven ; and brought on 
a south wind by his strength,' Ps. Ixxviii. 
26. Brought yuAiLS,] Such fowls as he 
had fed them with before, in Exod. xvi. 13 ; 
them now God again brought swiftly, and as 


journey on tliat side, round about the camp -. and as it were two 
cubits above the face of the earth. ^- And the people stood up all 
that day, and all the night, and all the next day, and they gathered 
tlie quails ; he thai gathered least, gathered ten liomers : and spread- 
ing tiiey spread them for tliemselves round about the camp. ^^ The 
flesh was yet between their teeth ; it was not yet cut off, when the 
anger of Jehovah was kindled agahist the people, and Jehovah 
smote the people with a very great plague. ^* And he called the 
name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried 
the people that lusted. ^' From Kibroth-hattaavah, the people 
journeyed unto Hazeroth : and they were in Hazeroth. 

with violence ; which the Chald. translateth 
made to fly. Let theji fall,] Or, spread 
them abroad j so this word is Englished in 
I Sam. XXX. l(i. Two cubits,] Sol. Jaichi 
suilli, •' they flew so high as against a man's 
heart, that he was not toiled in gelting them, 
either by reaching high or by stooping low. 

Ver. 3'2 — Ten ho.mers,] Or, icn heaps, 
as the Chald. translateth: for the Heb. homer 
sometimes signifieth an heap, as in Exod. 
viii. 3 ; sometimes a kind of measure con- 
taining ten epliahs or bushels, Ezek. xlv. 11 ; 
the which measure is called also a cor, Ezek. 
xlv. 14 ; and so Thargum Jerusalem inter- 
preteth it here. Thus also the Gr. translat- 
eth it ten cars ; (for of the Heb. cor, the Gr. 
coros, in Luke xvi. 7 ; and Lat. corus are 
derived.) And Chazkuni here explaineth it, 
" ten homers ; there are in an homer thirty 
seahs (or pecks,) so ten homers contain three 
hundred seahs: lo he that gathered least, had 
asayy day ten seahs." Of the seah or peck, 
see the notes on Gen. xviii. 6. This abun- 
dance of fowls was miraculous, whereupon it 
is said, ' God rained flesh upon them as 
dust ; and feathered fowls as the sand of the 
sea,' I's. Ixxviii. 27. And with these they 
filled their greedy lust ; (' feeding themselves 
without fear,' as Jude ver. 12;) though the 
Lord had threatened to punish them, ver. 20. 

Ver. 33. — Not yet cut off,] To wit, 
from their mouth, that i«, not taken from 
them, which the Gr. translateth hefurc it 
(that is, the flesh) failed. Thus the phrase 
is opened in Joel i. 5, ' the new wine is cut 
ofV from your mouth ;' that is, taken away 
from you. Or, by cutting may be meant 
chewing. The psalmist alleging this, saith, 
' they were not estranged from their desire ; 
Vol. II. 

the meat was yet in their mouth when the 
anger of God came up against them,' &c. Ps. 
Ixxviii. 30, 31. And here Chazkuni observ- 
eth liow they were plagued of (!od, " after 
that he had sufficed all of them with flesh ; 
that men should not say he had not plagued 
them, but because he was not able to suffice 
them all with flesh. A very gke.\t plagpe,] 
Or, vehement great smiUny : Abr. Ezra writ- 
eth, that ' it was the pestilence; God gave 
them their request when they lusted for flesh ; 
but sent leanness into their soul,' Ps. cvi. 14, 
15. 'The anger of God came up against them, 
and slew of the fat of them ; and smote down 
the choice young men of Israel,' Ps. Ixxviii. 

Ver. 34. — He called,] meaning, Moses 
called, and by the name of the place, left a 
memorial of their sin and punishment, for a 
warning to them after, Deut. ix. 22 ; and to 
us, ' that we should not lust after evil things 
as they lusted,' 1 Cor. x. (i. Or, as theGr. 
translateth it, * the name of the place «as 
called;' see ver. 3. Kibroth-hattaavah,] 
That is, as the Gr. cxpoundeth it, graves (or 
monuments) of lust. Where lust may bo 
used for the men that lusted ; as circumcision, 
in Rom. ii. 26, is for men circumcised ; 
pride, for the proud man, Jer. 1. 31, 32 ; Ps. 
xxxvi. 12; and many the like. See the 
notes on Gen. xlv. 7. 

Ver. 35. — Were in Hazeroth,] Or, 
Chatseroth, in Gr. yiseiroth ; here they were 
that is, abode or continued, (as Daniel was, 
that is, continued, Dan. i.21 ; and they were, 
that is, continued there, Ruth i. 2.) The 
cause of w hich abode, was a new trouble which 
Moseb' sister and brother raised against him, 
Num. xii. 





1 . Mary and Aaron speak against Moses about his wife and office. 
4. The Lord calleth them all hefore him, justifieth Moses, magnijietli his 
office, rehuketh the murmurcrs, and departeth in anger. 10. Mary is 
made a leper, Aaron confesscth sin, Moses prayeth God to heal her. 

1 4. The Lord commandeth her to he shut out of the camp seven days. 

15. The people's journey is stayed till she was brought in again ; then 
they go on into Pharan. 

^ And Mary and Aaron spake against Moses, because of tlie 
Ethiopian woman whom he had taken -. for lie had taken an Etliio- 
pian woman. ^ And tliey said, Hath Jehovali spoken only indeed 
by Moses ? hath he not spoken also by us ? And Jehovah heard 

Ver. 1. — Mary,] In Heb. Mirjam; in 
Gr. Miriam ; she was a prophetess, sister of 
Moses and Aaron, Exod. xv. 20 ; and she 
it was that began the quarrel, as in the ori- 
ginal it appeareth, ' Mary she spake ;' there- 
fore she, not Aaron, was plagued with le- 
prosy, V. 10. As Satan prevailed first with 
Eve, then by her with Adam, Gen. i. 3; so 
here first with Maiy, and then by her, with 
Aaron the high priest. And as the former 
sin of lust for flesh began among the baser 
sort, Num. xi. 4; so this sin of ambition and 
vain glory began among the chiefest of the 
church: for these three, Moses, Aaron, and 
Mary, were the chief guides whom God sent 
before his people, Micah vi. 4. Because,] 
Or, upon occasion, for the sake. Ethio- 
pian,] Heb. Cushite ; which the Gr. trans- 
lateth Ethiopia7i. This seemeth to be no 
other than Zipporah the Midianitess, whom 
Moses had married, Exod. ii. IG, 21; and 
because the Midlanites dwelt in Cusli his 
land, they were called Cashites (or Ethio- 
pians ;) and it may be also because they were 
tawny coloured like them. For otherwise 
Cash was the son of Cham, Gen. x. 6; 
whereas Midian was the son of Abraham, the 
son of Shem, Gen. xxv. 1, 2. The Chald. 
instead of Cushith, saith Fair, which may be 
spoken by the contrary. Josephus, Philo, 
and some others take this wife not to be 
Zipporah, but another Ethiopian. Taken,] 
To wit, to wife, that is, married : so in 1 
Chron. ii. 19, 21 ; 2 Chron. xi. 20; Neh. 
vi. 18; X. 30. By this it seemeth, the mar. 
rying of that woman (who was not of the 
stock of Israel, and who hindered him from 
circumcising his son, Exod. iv. 24 — 26,) was 
the occasion of their murmuring. Howbeit, 
the Hub. doctors make in's not companyint; 

with his wife, to be the occasion: for that he 
being a prophet, daily conversant with the 
Lord, and frequenting his tabernacle, ab- 
stained from her lest he should have legal 
pollution, which would have kept him from 
the sanctuary, Lev. xv. IC — 31. Compare 
also Exod. xix. 15. Thus the Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, " for he had put away (or ab- 
stained from) the fair wife which he had 
taken." And Sol. Jarchi thus, " for he had 
taken a Cushite woman, and had now put her 

Ver. 2. — By Moses,] Or in Moses ; as 
speaking of inward revelation by the Spirit: 
the Thargum called Jonathan's, paraphraseth 
thus ; " hath the Lord spoken only indeed 
with Moses, who is separated from copulation 
of the bed," meaning with his wife. Also by 
us,] Or, in us : as David said ' the Spirit of 
Jehovah spake in me,' 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. 
Here Sol. Jarchi addeth for explanation, 
" hath he not spoken also by us, and yet we 
have not separated ourselves from the way of 
the earth;"meaning,from mutual society,such 
as is between man and wife ; a phrase taken 
from Gen. xix. 31. But it may be under- 
stood, as before is noted, that they would not 
have Moses esteemed the only prophet, who 
had so stained himself by marriage with a 
strange woman. Their drift was by disgrac- 
ing Moses for his infirmity, to grace and ad- 
vance themselves ; against which it is said, 
• let us not be desirous of vain-gloiy, provok- 
ing one another, envying one another,' Gal. 
V. 26. Heard it,] That is, took notice of 
this their speech, to reprove and punish it. 
So of Reuben's sin, it is said, * Israel heard 
it,' Gen. xxxv. 22. Or, God is said to hear 
it, as a witness of that which it may be they 
murmured in secret: as in I's. lix. S, ' swords 

CHAP. Xll. 


it. ^ Now the man Moses ivas very meek, above all the men wJiich 
■wc7'e upon the face of tlie eartli. 

* And Jehovah said suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and 
unto Mary, Come out ye tliree unto the tent of the congregation, 
and they three went out. * And Jehovah came down hi the pillar 
of the cloud, and stood in the door of the tent, and called Aaron 
and Mary -. and they two came forth. ^ And he said, Hear now my 
words : if there shall be a prophet among you, I Jehovah will make 
myself known unto him in a vision, I will speak unto liim in a 
dream. ' My servant Moses is not so, he is faithful in all mine 

are in tlieir lips, for who (say they) doth 
hear ? and in Ps. Iv. 20, ' God will hear 
anil aflliit them.' See also Ps. xciv. 7, 8, 9. 

Vkk. 3. — ]Meek, ] The original word hatli 
alllnity with affliction and lowliness, for hy 
affliction, this virtue is furthered. Lam. iii. 
21 — 30 ; and is seated m the heart and spi- 
rit, as the apostle mentioneth ' a meek and 
quiet spirit,' 1 Pet. iii. 4. As Moses, so 
Christ is set forth for an example of meek- 
ness, Matt. xxi. 5; xi. 29. It is a virtue 
which keepeth a mean in anger, and avenging 
of ourselves when we are olliinded, wronged, 
and contemned. Above all the men,] Or, 
more than any man. Tliis commendation 
the Spirit of God giveth of Moses, though by 
Moses' own pen (as the apostle also writeth 
in his owji behalf, 2 Cor. xi. 5, 6, 10, 22, 
&c. ; xii. 11, 12;) although Moses is noted 
to have beeu \e.yy angry sundry times, Exod. 
xi. S; xvi. 20; xxxii. 19; Lev. x. 16; 
Num. xvi, 15 ; xxxi. 14 ; xx. 10, 11 ; com- 
pared with Ps. cvi. 32, 33. 

V'er. 4. — Said suddenly,] So showing 
the greatness of his displeasure agaiiist them, 
which sullered no delay, Ps. Ixiv. 7; Prov. 
vi. 15; Is. XXX. 13; and preventing any 
that might think Moses complained to (iod 
and sought revenge. Thus God who will be 
a swift witness against evil doers, Mai. iii. 
5 ; suddeidy rose to ])lead the cause of his 
meekest servant. Compare Ps. I. 19, 20, 
21. Ye three,] Both parties are judicially 
summoned to appear before the Lord in the 
tent of liis habitation ; as he riseth up to 
judgment, ' to save all the meek of the earth,' 
Ps. Ixxvi. 9. So in Num. xvi. 16. 

Ver. 5.' — down,] In Chald. j-cwa/- 
cd himself: see Gen. xi. 5. Of the cloud,] 
As the throne of his glory, out of which he 
nsed to appear and speak unto them, Ps. xcix. 
7 ; Num. xvi. 42. Unto these appearances 
those visions of John hath reference. Rev. x. 
J, 2, 3; xiv. 14, &c. 

Ver. 6. — A i'roi'het a.mong vou,] Or, 
"f yet'' ; Ileb. your prophet : which the 
Cliald. cxpouiidelh, " if theic shall be pro- 
phets to (nr amoM") ycith" What this wnrd 

prophet meaneth, sec in the notes on Gen. 
XX. 7; Exod. vii. 1. I Jehovah,] So the 
Chald. also explaineth it: or it may be inter- 
preted, of Jehovah ; that is, a i)rophet of the 
Lord : sotheGr. translateth, a prophet of you 
to the Lord. In a vision,] Or, by « vision 
or siyht ; that is, as the Cliald. saith, in vi- 
sions y so God appeared to Abraham the 
prophet in a vision. Gen. xx. 7 ; xv. 1 ; and 
to Jacob, Gen. xlvi. 2 ; to Eztkiel, Ezek. i. 
1 ; to Daniel, Dan. viii. 2; and others. Job 
iv. 13 ; 2 Cor. xii. 1 ; Acts ii. 17 ; where- 
upon a prophesy is called a vision, Is. i. 1 ; 
Obad. i. 1 ; Nahum i. 1. In a dream,] 
Chald. in dreams : another way by which 
God revealed his word to the prophets. Gen. 
xxxi. 11 ; Deut. xiii. 1 ; 1 Kings iii. 5; 
Jer. xxiii. 25, 28, 32. Dreams are in tlie 
lu'ght, and then as it were in darkness God 
spake with the other prophets ; but as W . 
Menachem here notcth, " it was not so with 
Moses, for God spake not with him but by 
day." Moreover, dreams and visions do soon 
vanish and fly away. Job xx. 8. 

Ver. 7 Not so,] Is not such a prophet 

that I should speak to him by dreams and 
visions. Faithful in all mine house,] 
That is, in all my church ; for the house of 
God is expounded ' the church of the living 
God,' 1 Tim. iii. 15; and so the Chald. here 
translateth it " in all my people ;" and Jona- 
than, ■' in all the house of Israel my |)eoiile:" 
and Chazkuni explainetii it thus, " all the 
men of my house hold him for faithful." 
This is furtiier opened by the a])ostle, saying, 
' consider the ajiostle and high priest of our 
profession, Christ Jesus, who was faithful to 
liim that made him, as also Moses was in all 
his house, &c. And Moses verily was faith- 
ful in all his house, as a servant, for a testi- 
mony of those things which were to be spoken 
after, but Christ as the Sor\ ovjer his own 
house ; whose house we are, if we hold 
last the confidence and the rejoicing of the 
hope firm unto the end,' Heb. iii. 1 — 6. 
Touching Moses' faithfulness, and the confi- 
dence that Israel reiiosed in him, see the 
notes on Exod. xix. 9. 



house. ^ Mouth to mouth will I speak with him, and in vision, and 
not in dark speeches ; and the similitude of Jehovah shall he be- 

Ver. 8. — Mouth to mouth,] That is, 
familiarly, plainly, in mine own presence, 
without any interposed mean ; as the Chald. 
translateth, speech with speech. So when 
Joseph spake without an interpreter, he said, 
' it is my mouth that speaketh unto you,' 
Gen. xlv. 12; and the apostle opposeth it to 
speech by writing ; as, 'I would not write 
with paper and ink, but I trust to come unto 
you and speak mouth to mouth, that our joy 
may be full,' 2 John ver. xii ; and 3 John 
xiv. A like phrase is in Exod. xxxiii. 11, 
' Jehovah spake unto Moses face to face, as a 
man speaketh unto his friend;' and in this 
manner of communication, Moses excelled 
all the other prophets, Deut. xxxiv. 10. 
The Hub. doctors have explained this matter 
thus; " it is one of the foundations of the 
law, to know that God maketh the sons of 
men to prophesy ; and prophesy resteth not 
but on a wise man, great in wisdom, mighty 
in his virtuous qualities, that his affections (or 
natural corruption) prevail not over him in 
any thing in the world, but he prevaileth by 
his knowledge over his aflections continually, 
he. On such a man the Holy Spirit dwel- 
leth, and when the Spirit resteth upon him, 
his soul is associated to the degree of angels 
which are called men, and he is turned to 
another man, and perceiveth in his own 
knowledge that he is not so as he was, but 
that he is advanced above the degree of 
other wise men, as it is said of Saul, 
' and thou shalt prophesy with them, shalt 
be turned to another man,' (1 Sam. x. 
t).) The prophets were of divers degrees : 
as in wisdom one wise man is greater than 
another, so in prophesy, one prophet was 
greater than another. And all of them saw 
not the vision of prophesy but by dreanij by 
vision of the night, or in the day time, after 
that a deep sleep was fallen upon them, Num. 
xii. G ; and all of them when they prophesied, 
their joints trembled, and strength of body 
failed, and their thoughts were troubled, and 
the mind was left changed to understand that 
which was seen ; as it is said of Abraham, 
' and, lo, a terror, a great darkness fell upon 
him,' (Gen. xv. ;) and as is said of Daniel, 
' and my vigour was turned in me unto cor- 
ruption, and I retained no strength,' (Dan. 
X. 8.) The things that were made known to 
a prophet by vision prophetically, were made 
known to him by way of parable, and forth- 
with the interpretation of the parable was 
written in his heart, and he knew what it 
was. As the ladder that Jacob our father 
did see, and the angels ascending and des- 
cending on it, ((Sen. xxviii. 12 ;) and the 

living creatures which Ezekiel saw, (Ezek. i.) 
and the seething pot and almond rod which 
Jeremiah saw, (Jer. i.;) and the ephah which 
Zechariah saw, (Zech. v.) and so the other 
prophets, of whom some spake the parable and 
the interpretation thereof, some the interpre- 
tation only ; and sometime they uttered the 
parable only without the interpretation, as 
part of Ezeitiel's and Zechariah's words: and 
they all prophesied by parables and after the 
way of dark speeches. None of the prophets 
prophesied at all times when they would ; but 
prepared their understanding, and sat joyful, 
and with cheerful heart, and with contem- 
plation. For prophesy cometh not upon men, 
either when they are sorrowful, or when they 
are slothful, but when they are joyful : there- 
fore the sons of the prophets had before them 
psalteries, and timbrels, and pipes, and harp?, 
(1 Sam. X. 6 ;) and they sought for prophesy; 
and this is that which is written, ' and they 
prophesying,' (1 Sam. x. 5 ;) as if he should 
say, walking in the way of prophesy, until 
they do prophesy. Those which forget to 
prophesy, are called sons of the prophets: and 
although they prepared their wits (or under- 
standing,) it might be the Holy Spirit would 
come down upon them, and it might be not. 
All these things that we have spoken of, were 
the way of prophesy for all the former and 
latter prophets, except Moses our master, the 
master of all the prophets. And what differ- 
ence was there between the prophesy of 
Moses, and of all the other prophets ? All 
the prophets prophesied by dreams or by vi- 
sion : but Moses prophesied when he was 
waking and standing ; as it is written, ' and 
when Moses was gone into the tent of the 
congregation, to speak with him, then he 
heard the voice of one speaking unto him,' 
(Num. vii. 89.) All the prophets prophesied 
by the hands of an angel, therefore they did 
see that which they saw in parables and dark 
speeches: Moses prophesied not by the hands 
of an angel, as it is said, ' mouth to mouth, 
I will speak with him,' (Num. xii. 8 ;) it is 
also said, ' the Lord spake unto Moses face 
to face,' (Exod. xxxiii. 11 ;) and again it is 
said, ' and the similitude of the Lord shall 
he behold, (Num. xii. 8 ;) as if he should say, 
there is no parable there, but he seeth the 
thing concerning his Creator, without dark 
speech, without parable. He it is of whom 
the law testifieth, ' apparently, and not in 
dark speeches," (Num. xii. 8 ;) for he pro- 
phesied not by dark speech, but apparently, 
for he saw the thing concerning his Cieator. 
All the prophets were afraid, and troubled, 
and fainted, but Moses was not so ; for the 



liold : and wlicreforc were ye not afraid to speak against my ser- 
vant, against Moses? ® And the anger of Jehovah was kindled 
against tliem, and lie went away. " And the cloud departed from 

Scripture saiUi, ' as a man speaketh unto his 
friend,' (Exocl. xxxiii. 11 ;) as if lie should 
say, As a man is not troubled to hear the 
words of liis friend, so there was strength in 
the mind of Rloses to vmderstaiid the words 
of prophesy, and he stood on his place safe 
and well. None of the prophets prophesied 
at all times when they would: hut Moses 
was otherwise, for at any time when he 
would, the Holy Spirit clothed him, and pro- 
phesy came upon him; and he needed not to 
prepare his mind and make himself ready 
for it, for he was prepared and ready, and 
stood as the angels of ministry, therefore he 
prophesied at all times, as it is said, ' stand 
still, and 1 will hear what the Lord will com- 
mand concerning you,' (Num. ix. 8.) And 
this God caused him to trust upon, as it is 
said, ' but as for thee, stand thou here with 
me, &c. (T)eut. v. ^1 :) whereby thou mayest 
learn that all the prophets, when prophesy 
was taken up from them, returned to their 
tents, which was for things necessary to the 
body of them all, as the rest of the people ; 
therefore they were not separated from their 
wives: but Moses our master returned not to 
his fust tent, therefore he was separated from 
his wife for ever ; and his mind was fast 
bound unto God the rock everlasting, and 
his glory was never taken up from upon him, 
but the skin of his face shined, and he was 
sanctified as the angels." Maim, in JMisn. 
torn. i. ; in Jesude kiituruh, chap. vii. sect. 
1 — (). Now as the apostle compareth Christ 
with Moses, and preferreth liim before Moses, 
Heb. iii. ; so in this gift of prophesy he did 
excel him: for ' the Lord gave liim the 
tongue of the learned, that he knew how to 
speak a word in season,' Is. 1. 4 ; and this he 
learned not by dreams or visions, nor by 
angels, nor by speech comminiicated mouth 
to mouth ; but by clean seeing of God, (which 
no man ever did at any time ;) and being 
' in the bosom of the Father,' John i. 18; 
and having tlie Spirit, not by measure, he 
testified what he had seen and heard with his 
Father, John iii. 32,31; viii. 38 ; and in 
him all fulness dwelt, even ' the fulness of 
the Godhead bodily,' Col. i. 19; ii. 9. 
Will I speak,] That is, I usually speak : 
the time to come is used to signify a continu- 
ed action. In vision,] Or, by sight, or n/j- 
pcarancc, that is upparcntli/ : the Gr. trans- 
lateth, in an appearance or sight : which 
word is opposed (in 2 Cor. v. 7 ;) to faith, 
which is of things not seen, Ileb. xi. 1; and 
here the Lord opposeth it to dark speeches, 
so it meanelh an a]iparent or dear revelation. 

Aben Ezra explaiueth it thus, '' I will show 
him the thing as it is, as the form of the 
tabernacle, (Exod. xxv. 40,) and not in a 
dark speech, (or riddle), like (that in Ezek. 
xvii. 2;) a great eagle with great wings, &c. 
Dark spkeciie-s,] Or, hidden spreekes, rid- 
dles : a dark speech is called in Ileb. Chidah, 
of sharpness, because it requireth sharpness 
of wit, both to propound and expound the 
same, as we have an example in Samson's 
riddle, Judg. xiv. 13, 14, &c. ; and it is of 
the nature of a parable, as in Ezek. xvii. 2, 
3, ' Son of man put forth a riddle, and speak 
a parable to the house of Israel ; a great 
eagle with great wings, long winged, full of 
feathers which had divers colours, came unto 
Lebanon,' &c. And all close and hidden 
doctrine is called a riddle, Ps. xlix. 5. And 
the Holy Spirit translateth it in Gr. sometime 
Ainigma, a riildle, 1 Cor. xiii. 12; (as the 
common Gr. version here hath,) sometime 
* hidden things,' Matt. xiii. 35; from Ps. 
Ixxviii. 2; and so the Chald. of Jonathan 
expoundeth it here. The apostle showeth 
the meaning of this word, when he said, 
' now we see through a glass in a riddle, (that 
is, darkly,) but then (we shall see) face to 
face,' 1 Cor. xiii. 12. Thk similitude,] 
Or, the likeness, image, which the Gr. inter- 
preteth the glory of the Lord. Sol Jarchi 
saith, " this was the sight of (God's) back- 
parts," mentioned in Exod. xxxiii. 23. And 
this prerogative Moses had above all Israel, 
which saw no similitude of God, Dent. iv. 
12, 15; and above all prophets, who saw 
no vision of God so clear as he did. For 
even Moses himself could not see the face of 
God, Exod. xxxiii. 20. ' No man hath seen 
God at any time,' John i. 18 ; neither can 
see,' 1 Tim. vi. 16. Agai.vst my servant, 
AGAINST Moses,] A manner of speech both 
earnest and elegant, like that in Gen. xxi. 
10, ' with my son, with Isaac;' and that in 
2 Sam. vii. 23, ' like my people, like Israel.' 
Sol. Jarchi noteth, " lie saith not against 
my servant Moses ; but against my servant, 
against Moses ; against my servant though 
he were not Moses ; against Moses, for though 
he were not my servant, it were meet ye 
should fear before him, how much more see- 
ing lie is my servant ? According to this 
the apostle speaketh in 2 Pet. ii. 10, ' they 
are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.' 

Vek. 9. — He went a\vav,J Withdrew 
the sign of his glorious presence, not vouch- 
safing to hear their answer; which was a 
token of his great displeasure. 

Veil 10. — '1'iie cluud PErAHTED,] The 



off the tent ; and, behold, Mary became leprous as snow : and 
i\aron looked upon Mary, and, beliold, she was leprous. " And 
Aaron said unto Moses, Alas ! my Loid, I beseech thee, lay not the 
sin upon us, wlierein we have done foolishly, and wherein we have 
sinned. '^ I beseech thee, let her not be as one dead, of whom wlien 
he Cometh out of his mother's womb, half his flesh is even consumed. 
'^ And Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying, O God, I beseech thee, 
Ileal her now. 

" And Jehovah said unto Moses, And if lier fatlier had spitting- 
spitted in her face, should she not be ashamed seven days ? let her 
be shut seven days out from the camp ; and after let her be ga- 

Ver. 12. — As ONE DEAD,] By continu- 
ance of the leprosy upon her, whereby she 
should be shut out of the communion of the 
church, Num. v. 2 ; should defile all that 
touched her as do the dead ; and in the end 
be consumed, and die utterly with that fret- 
ting plague, as the words following show. 
The Chald. expoundeth this verse thus ; "let 
her not now be separated from among us, for 
she is our sister: pray now for this dead flesh 
that is in her, that it may be healed." Is 
EVEN coNSDMED,] Or, is even eaten, to wit, 
with the disease: and by coming out of his 
mother's womb, the Gr. understandeth and 
translateth, an untimely birtk and coming 
out, 8(c. for as of such a dead birth the flesh 
is. half consumed, so is the flesh of a leper. 

Ver. 13 Cried out,] That is, as the 

Chald. translateth, prayed, but earnestly, and 
as grieved for her affliction ; so the word 
usually signifieth. O God,] Hebr. jEI, 
which is one of God's names, signifying his 
might, and including his mercy; as is noted 
on Gen. xiv. 18. So in Thargum Jonathan, 
it is here explained, " And Moses prayed, 
and besought mercy before the Lord, saying, 
I beseech for mercy of the merciful God, I 
beseech God that hath power of the spirits of 
all flesh, heal her I beseech thee," 

Ver. 14. — Had spitting spitted,] That 
is, had but spitted, to nit, in auger. The 
Chald. expoundeth it, had rebuked. Spitting 
on the face, is a sign of anger, shame, and 
contempt, Job xxx. 10 ; Is. I. 6 ; which, if 
it had been from her earthly father, should 
have made her ashamed and sorrowful seven 
days: how much more now that it is from 
her Father which is in heaven ? Seven 
days,] So long every leper was to be shut 
up by the law, for every trial; and also at liis 
cleansing ; see Lev. xiii. 4, 5, 21, 20 ; xiv. 
viii. So long was he unclean that touched a 
dead man. Num. xix. II. Gathered,] 
That is, received in, or as the Gr. translat- 
eth, enter in. So gathering is used for re- 
ceiving or taking in, after that one is neglect- 
ed or forsaken, Judg. xix. 15; Josh. xx. 4; 

cloud of the g'ory of the divine presence of the 
Lord, saith Thargum Jonathan. Leprous as 
SNOW,] That is, leprous white as snow ; and 
this was the sorest leprosy, and most incur- 
able, see Exod. iv. 6; 2 Kings v. 27; and 
they that had this disease, were put out of 
the Lord's camp as unclean, Lev. xiii. ; and 
therefore God departed now away, for (as 
Chazkuni here saith,) " It is not the way of 
the earth, that holiness should stay in an un- 
clean place." This punishment was very 
memorable, both for the suddenness and sore- 
ness of it ; wherefore it is after said, ' re- 
member what Jehovah thy God did unto 
Mary by the way, after that ye were come 
forth out of Egypt,' Deut. xxiv. 9. And if 
God did thus unto so great a woman for 
Moses' sake, what will he do to such as rebel 
against Christ, who is ' counted worthy of 
more glory than Moses,' Heb. iii. 3. ' For 
if they escaped not, who refused him that 
spake on earth ; much more shall not we es- 
cape if we turn away from him that speaketh 
from heaven,' Heb. xii. 25. For Christ is 
not the servant, but the Son, even * the 
Lord from heaven, 1 Cor. xv. 47. 

Ver. 11. — Alas, my lord,] Or, Oh, my 
lord, Heb. u7ito me, to wit, have respect ; the 
Chald. explaineth it, tve pray thee, my lord: 
see this phrase in Gen. xliii. 20. Aaron as 
unwoithy of access himself unto God now 
departed, maketh request unto Moses, hon- 
oureth him (though Aaron himself was both 
the elder brother and the high priest,) with 
the title of hislord,confesseth their sin against 
him, craveth pardon ; and by Moses' media- 
tion, to have their sister cured. Sin,] That 
is, the punishment of sin, (as Lev. xxii. 9 ; 
Num. xviii. 32 ;) which he desireth that by 
Moses' intercession, it might not be laid upon 
them of God. Wherein we ii.we done 
FOOLISHLY,] Or, because tve are become fool- 
ish : the Gr. translateth, because v>e have 
done iynorantly in that we have sinned : in 
which sense it is a lessening of their sin, as 
done through unadvisedness and oversight, 
not maliciously 



thcied in. " And Mary was shut out from the camp seven days; 
and the people journeyed not till Mary was gathered in again. 
'« And afterward the people joui-neyed from Hazeroth, and en- 
camped in the wilderness of Pharan. 

Ps. xxvii. 10. Here Thaigum Jonathan was a special honour unto Mary above otlicr 

addeth this paraphrase, " And I will cause to 
stay, for thy sake, the cloud of my glory, and 
the tabernacle, and the ark, and all Israel, 
until the time that slie is healed, and after- 
ward she shall be gathered in." 

Ver. 15. — Mary was shut,] In Gr. 
u-us separated: this was an example of jus- 
tice against sinners, without respect of per- 
sons: therefore they are after desired to re- 
member this, Deut. xxiv. 9. And even 
kings when tliey were lepers, were separated, 
and dwelt apart, 2 Chron. xxvi. 20, 21. 
The people journeyed not,] But stayed 
mourning for her, till she was cured ; which 

lepers, for whom there was no such stay, 
Num. V. 2, 4. Because this Mary was one 
of those whom God sent before his people, 
Mic. vi. 4 ; Exod. xv. 20. Sol. Jarchi 
saith, " The Lord imparted this honour unto 
her, because she once stayed for Moses when 
he was cast into the river, as It is written. 
And his sister stood afar off," &c. Exod. ii. 4. 

Ver. 16.. Wilderness of pharan,] Or, 

of Paran; which had been ' Ishmael's' habi- 
tation. Gen. xxi. 21, and the place where 
they pitched in this wilderness was called 
< Rithmah,' Num. xxxiii. 18, and ' Cadesh- 
barnea,' Num. xiii. 3, 26 ; Deut. i. 19, &c. 


1. The Lord cnjoincth Moses to send one man of every trihe, to search 
the land of Canaan. 4. Their names and tribes. 17. Their instruc- 
tions. 2\. Their acts and return after forty days. 2Q. Their relation 
of the goodness of the land, and strength of the inhabitants. 30. Caleb 
encourageth the people, but the others discourage them, and bring up an 
evil report upon the land. 


^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ^ Send thou men, 
that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give to the 
sons of Israel: one man, one man for a tribe of his fathers, shall 

or at least, permitted the thing which they 

Ver. 2.' — Send thou,] Or, send for thee: 
which Sol. Jarchi expoundeth to tliis sense; 
" I command thee not ; if thou pleasest, 
send: forasmuch as Israel came and said, we 
will send men," &c. Deut. i. 22. That 
they may search,] Or, and let them search, 
or Mj5;5/, by searching round about: and the 
word implicth the action of tlie heart and 
mind, not of the eyes only, Eccl. i. 13 ; vii. 
25. Thus God let them go search or espy 
the land, which he himself before ' had espied 
for tliem,' Ezek. xx. C, and went before them 
in the way, to search them out a place to 
pitch their tents in, in fire by night, and in 
a cloud by day, Deut. i. 33. Of Canaan,] 
That is, as the Gr. translatetli, of the Cu- 
naaniles: named as the chief, tor it was tiie 
land of seven mighty nations,' Deut. vii. 1. I 
(.ive,] Or, am giving: so he spcaketh as of a 

BS3 Here beginneth the thirty-seventh 
section of the law: see Gen. vi. 9. 

Ver. 1. — Jehovah spake,] By Moses' re- 
lation after,it appeareth, thatwhenGodhad led 
his people from mount Horeb toCadesh Barnea, 
through the great and fearful wilderness, and 
they were come to the mountain of the Amo- 
rites; then Moses said, 'See, the Lord thy 
God hath given the land before thee; go up, 
possess it. And all the people came near 
unto Moses, and said. We will send men 
before us, and they shall search out the land 
for us, and bring us word again, by what way 
we shall go up, &c. That word liked Moses 
well; and he took of them twelve men, and 
sent them to spy out the land,' Deut. i. 19 
— 24. So where here it is said, ' Jehovah 
spake,' &c. it is not meant, that this motion 
came first from the Lord; but the people 
first spake of it to Moses, he consulted with 
the Lord about it ; and the Lord approved, 



ye send every one a ruler among them. ^ And Moses sent them 
from the wilderness of Pliaran, at the mouth of Jehovah : all those 
men were heads of the sons of Israel. * And these were their 
names: Of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur. 
* Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori. ® Of the tribe 
of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh. ' Of the tribe of Issachar, 
Jigal the son of Joseph. ®0f tlie tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the 
son of Nmi. ^ Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu. 
" Of the tribe of Zabulon, Gaddiel the son of Sodi. '' Of tlie 
tribe of Joseph, of the tribe of Manasses, Gaddi the son of Susi. 
'^ Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli, " Of the tribe 
of Aser, Sethur the son of Michael. " Of the tribe of Naphtali, 
Nahbi the son of Vophsi. '^ Of the tribe of Gad, Gevel the son 
of Machi. '® These are the names of the men which Moses sent 

thing present, for more assurance. One 
MAN, ONE MAN,] An Hebrew phrase, mean- 
ing, of every tribe one man, excepting the 
tribe of Levi, for of them none was sent; 
because they were to have no inheritance in 
the land, Deut. xviii. 1. A euler,] Or, a 
prince ; not of the baser sort, because the 
business was weighty: whereupon their re- 
bellion following was of the more note. 

Ver. 3 — At the mouth,] Or, accord- 
ing to the 77ioutk, that is, the word of the 
Lord, as the Chald. translateth ; and the Gr. 
bi/ the voice of the Lord: and this Sol. Jar- 
chi expoundeth, " by his permission." So 
in the commentary called Phesikta, fol. 47, 
it is said, " The election of the spies was 
according to the mouth of the Lord; not 
that God commanded them to send them. 
If thou sayest, why did he not forbid them 
to send? To accomplish tlieir desire, and to 
render them their recompense, and to give 
unto Joshua and Caleb a good reward." 
Heads,] That is, as the Gr. saith, chief- 
rulers ; and Chazkuni expoundeth them, 
" captains over thousands:" as in Exod. xviii. 

Ver. 4. — Shammua,] In Gr. Samiel son 
of Zacchour 

Ver. 6. — Shaphat,] In Gr. Saphat son 
of Souri. 

Ver. 6. — Caleb,] In Gr. Chaleb son of 
Jephonne. See 1 Chron. iv. 15. His 
name signifietli hearty : and he brought 
Moses word again, as it was in his heart, 
Josh. xiv. 7. 

Ver. 7. — Jigal,] In Gr. Igad. 

Ver. 8. — Hoshea,] In Gr. ^uses son of 

Ver. 9.— Palti,] Or, as in Gr. Phalti. 

Ver. 10. — Gaddiel,] In Gr. Goudiel son 
of Soudi. 

Ver. 11. — Of Joseph,] He was father of 
Ephraim in ver. 8, as well as of Manasseh 

here; and sometime Joseph is named for 
Ephraim, Ezek, xxxvii. 16, 19; Rev. \ii. 
8. Here he is named as father of Manas- 
seh, who was his first-born, Josh. xvii. 1, 
although the Heb. give another reason; 
namely, '' Because both of them uttered an 
ill report ; Joseph, of his brethren, (Gen. 
xxxvii. 2,) and the prince of Manasseh, of 
the land: which Hoshea of Ephraim did not," 
Chazkuni on Num. xiii. 

Ver. 13. — Sethur,] In Gr. Sadour. 

Ver. 14. — Nahbi,] Or Nachbi; in Gr. 
Naabi son of Sabi, 

Ver. 15. — Gevel,] In Gr. Goudiel. 

Ver. 16. — These are the names,] Chaz- 
kuni here observeth, " He sent no spy of the 
tribe of Levi, because he had no portion in 
the land." Nun,] Called also, Non, 1 
Chron. vii. 27, in Gr. Nave. Joshua,] Or, 
Jehoshua, called sometime ' Jeshuah,' Neh. 
viii. 17, in Gr. Jesus; and so the New Tes- 
tament writeth him. Acts vii. 45 ; Heb. iv. 
8, that signifieth a 'Saviour,' Mat. i. 21. 
And this name Moses gave him by the 
Spirit of God ; either as foreseeing that he 
should be his successor, and save the people 
from their enemies the Canaanites ; or, (as 
Sol. Jarchi here notetli) praying for him, that 
the Lord would save him from the counsel of 
the (wicked) spies. But Chazkuni expound- 
eth it, " Moses had called Hoshea the son of 
Nun, Joshua, not that he now first called him 
Joshua, but before when he was made his 
minister, and found grace in his eyes." We 
find him called ' Joshua,' before they came 
to mount Sinai, Exod. xvii. 9, and after this, 
when Moses is ready to die, he is called 
'Hoshea,' in Deut. xxxii. 44. Where Chaz- 
kuni saith thus ; " At the first when he was 
taken to be Moses' minister, Moses called 
him Joshua ; for so is the manner of kings, 
to change the name of their ministers. Gen. 
xli. 45 ; Dan. i. 7. But now when he is 



to spy out the land : and Moses called Hoshca the son of Nun, 
Joshua. " And Moses sent thern to search the land of Canaan, 
and said unto tliem, Go up this way southward, and go up into 
the mountain. '^ And see the land what it is, and the people that 
dwellcth thereon, whether they he strong or weak, whether they he 
few or many. '" And what the land is that they dwell in, whether 
it he good or bad, and what the cities he that they dwell in : whe- 
ther in tents or in strong-holds. ^^ And what the land is, wliether 
it he fat or lean, whether there be wood therein or not : and be ye 
of good courage, and take of the fruit of the land ; (Now the 
days were the days of the first ripe grapes.) ^' And they went up 

made king himself, his first name is restored : 
nevertheless, through ail the scripture he is 
called Joshua, because he was accustomed 
tliereto already." By this reason, the change 
of his name should seem to diminish from his 
dignity ; whereas it was changed for his hon- 
our ; as were the names of Abram, Sarai, 
Jacob, and others, Gen. xvii. 5, 15 ; xxxii. 
28; Neh. ix. 7; Is. Ixii. 2; Mark iii. 16, 

Ver. 17. — Southward,] Or, by the south; 
as in ver. 22, meaning, " the south part of 
the land of Canaan," as Chazkuni explaineth 
it. For that was nearest unto them, and the 
worst part of the land, because it was wilder- 
ness, and waterless, as the original word 
Neyeb signifieth dry ground: and Caleb's 
daughter said to her father, ' Thou hast given 
mc a south (that is, a dry) land, give me also 
springs of water,' Judg. i, 15, and, 'rivers 
in the south,' Ps. cxxvi. 4, meaneth, refresh- 
ing after bondage and affliction. The Gr. 
here translateth, go np by this wilderness: 
and so in that part was a wilderness. Josh. 
XV. 1 — 3. And Sol. Jarchi saith, "Go up 
this way by the south; that was tlije worst 
part of the land of Israel : for so is the manner 
of merchants ; they show the worst things 
first, and afterward they show the best." 
The mountain,] Which was inhabited hy 
AmakkiteSjCanaanites, and Amoiites, Num. 
3iiv. 40, 45; Deut. i. 44. Of this, Chazku- 
ni giveth a reason thus ; " And when ye 
shall know how to subdue the mountain, the 
valley will be easy to subdue." 

Ver. 18, — The land what it is,] This 
is again repeated in ver. 19, and the third 
time in ver. 20, which may thus be distin- 
guished: by 'the land' liere, is meant, 'the 
people' of the land, as after Moses explain- 
eth it; by 'the land,' in ver. 19, is meant, 
the air of the country, and the cities, villages, 
tents, wliich were by the hand of man set 
thereon ; and by ' the land,' in ver. 20, is 
meant the soil or ground itself, and fruits 
that grew thereon. And the i-eoi'le,] And 
is here for explanation, tha' is, or, I mean the 
Vol. II. I 

people: see the notes on Gen. xiii. 15. So 
in Ps. Ixvi. 4, ' Let all the earth bow down 
to thee,' that is, all peoples of the earth: 
likewise in Ps. xcvi. 1, and ex. 1, and often in 
the scriptures. So, ' house ' for household, 
or people in it, Gen. xlv. 11, 18. ' Cities' 
for citizens. Josh. xvii. 12. Whether 
THEY,] Heb. whether it be strong, &c. speak- 
ing of the people, as one in multitude. 

Ver. 19.' — Good or bad,] This seemeth 
to respect the wholesomeness of the country, 
for air, waters, &c. as in 2 Kings ii. 19, 
' the situation of this country is good, but the 
water is bad, and the land causeth to mis- 
carry.' To this Chazkuni referreth it, saying, 
"or bad, if it cause the inhabitants thereof to 
miscarry, or to be barren," as 2 Kings ii. 
19, and hereupon they answered, ' It is a 
land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof,' 
Num. xiii. 32. In tents,] Or, in cavips, 
troops' the Chald. calleth them, villages (or 
unwcdlcd towns,) the Gr. changeth the order 
saying, in walled or in unwalled tow7is. 

Ver. 20. — Fat or lean,] This respect- 
eth the soil itself, which if it be 'fat,' is fer- 
tile ; if ' lean,' barren. The Chald. chang- 
elh the metaphor, saying, *' whether it be 
rich or poor." So in Neh. ix. 25, 35, 
' They took strong cities, and a fat land ;' and 
in Ezek. xxxiv. 14, 'fat pasture.' Wood,] 
Or, trees, as the Gr. and Chald. interpret it. 
and Thargum Jonathan, trees of food ; that 
is, of fruit to be eaten. Be ve of good 
courage,] Or, strengthen, encourage your- 
selves. The first ripe grapes,] Or, the 
first fruits of grapes. And then, as Chaz- 
kuni observeth, " They had need to have 
courage, because the keepers (of the vine- 
yards) watched them there. 

Ver. 21.— Of zin,] Or, of Tsin : there 
was a wilderness into which they came be- 
fore, called ' Sin,' so named of an Egyptian 
city Sin near it, Exod. xvi. 1 ; Ezek. xxx. 
15, It). This desert of 'Zin,' seemeth to 
be so named, as being a thorny wilderness; 
fur Zinnim (in the form plural) sit^nifieth 
'thorns,' Job v. 5. And as the former 



and searclied the land, from the wilderness of Zm, unto Reliob, to 
the entrance of Hamath. ^^ And they went up by the south, and 
he came unto Chebron : and there were Ahiman, Sheshai and Tal- 
mai, the children of Anak -. now Hebron was built seven years, 
before Zoan in Egypt. ^ And they came unto the bourne of Esh- 
col, and cut down from thence a branch, and one cluster of grapes ; 

' Sin' bordered upon ' Egypt,' so ' Ziii ' bor- " Who is my brother?" and that he was so 
dered on the land of 'Canaan,' Num. xxxiv. called, because "none in the world was bro- 
ther to him (that is, like unto him) in 
strength;" yet Caleb slew him and his two 
brethren; Josh. xv. 14; Judg. i. 10. She- 
shai,] In Gr. Sesei. Talmai,] In Gr. 
Thelamei. Children of Anak,] In Gr. 
generations of Enak: in Chald. sons of the 
giant (or, of the mighty man.) Anak was 
the son of Arba, whereupon Chebron was in 
former times called Kirjah Arba, that is, 
•the city of Arba/ Josh. xv. 13; Gen. xxiii. 
2. Before Zoan,] Or, Tsoa?i, called in 
Gr. and Chald. Tones: (as of Tsor or Zor, is 
Tyrus in Gr.) This declareth not only the 
antiquity of Chebron, but by consequence the 
goodness of the land. For the Anakims 
which reigned over all, seated themselves in 
the best places. Sol. Jarchi saith; " It may 
be that Cham builded Chebron for his younger 
son Canaan, before he builded Zoan for Miz- 
raim his elder son, &c. Of all countries, 
none excelled Egypt; as it is written, 'Like 
the garden of the Lord, like the land of 
Egypt,' (Gen. xiii. 10.) And Zoan was the 
most excellent in the land of Egypt, for 
there the kings dwelt, as it is written, ' For 
his princes were at Zoan,' (Is. xxx 4,) but 
Chebron was seven times better than it." 

Ver. 23. — Bourne,] Or, valley, brook. 
The Heb. nackal signifieth both ' a valley,' 
Gen. xxvi. 17, 19, and 'a river' or 'brook' 
running in a valley: our English word 
' bourne,' answereth to them both. ' Eshcol' 
signifieth a 'cluster;' and of the Israelites 
cutting of the cluster, this place had the 
name, for a memorial, ver. 24. The Gr. 
translateth it, the valley of the cluster: this 
place is reported to have been in the tribe of 
Dan, within a little of the valley ' Sorek ' 
mentioned in Judg. xvi. 4. A branch,] 
To wit, of a vine, " and one cluster of grapes 
upon it,'' as the Gr. version saith; and so 
Jarchi explaineth it, "a branch of a vine, 
and a cluster of grapes hanging upon it." On 
A STAFF,] Or, on a bar; the Gr. translateth, 
on bars (or levers) and omitteth the words 
following, 'by two:' which seemeth to favour 
the exposition that Chazkuni giveth here, 
" they bar it on a bar of the branch, with 
two other bars." But the more simple and 
plain meaning is set down in Thargum Jona- 
than, thus, " on a bar, on the shoulders of 
two of them." 

3, 4; Josh. xv. 3. Rehob,] Or, Rechob, 
called in Gr. Roob, (as ' Rechabham or Re- 
hoboam,' I Kings xii. 1, is written in Gr. by 
the Holy Spirit, 'Roboam,' Matt. i. 7.) 
This ' Rehob' was a city in the west part of 
the land of Canaan, near unto Sidon, which 
fell by lot to the tribe of Aser, Josh. xix. 2S ; 
Judg. i. 31. To THE entrance,] Or, to 
the entering i7i of Hamath : so in Num. 
xxxiv. 8; Josh. xiii. 5; Judg. iii. 3; Amo? 
vi. 14, and so the Chald. here translateth it, 
Hamath or Chamath, called also ' Hemath 
the great,' Amos vi. 2, was a city on the 
north part of Canaan, and on the east side, 
(as ' Rehob' was on the west) Num. xxxiv. 
8 ; Josh. xiii. 6. By this description of 
their voyage, they went from south to north, 
and from west to east, so viewing the whole 
land. This ' Hamath' is in Thargum Jona- 
than called ' Antiochia,' (and so Hamath 
was after named of king' Antiochus:) and it 
was situated under mount Lebanon, by the 
river Jabok. 

Ver. 22. — By the south,] Or, south- 
ward; Gr. by the wilderness: see ver. 17. 
And he came to chebron,] Or, unto He- 
bron; a place in the south parts of Canaan, 
where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with their 
wives, had been buried. Gen. xxiii. 2, 19; 
xlix. 31, see the notes on Gen. xiii. IS. By 
'he came,' Sol. Jarchi and others, under- 
stand " Caleb only;" as if the twelve spies 
went not in one company, but one or two of 
them together: and Caleb's coming thither is 
specially mentioned in Josh. xiv. 9, * the 
land whereon thy feet have trodden, shall be 
thine inheritance;' and in ver. 12, 'now 
therefore give me this mountain, whereof the 
Lord spake in that day;' and in ver. 14, 
Chebron ' therefore became the inheritance 
of Caleb. Others understand 'he came,' 
that is, "they came;" as Chazkuni saith, 
" It is the manner of the scripture, to speak 
of many spies and liers in wait, in the singu- 
lar number; as (in Josh. viii. 19,) The lier 
in ambush rose quickly out of his place.'' 
TheGr. translateth, " they came;" the Chald. 
hath in some copies " Atha, he came;" in 
other some " Atho, they came." Ahiman,] 
Or, as the Gr. writeth him, Achiman: he 
was one on the heathen giants dwelling in 
Chebron: the Hebs. interpret his name, 



and they bare it on a staff, by two : and (they brought) of the 
pomegranates, and of the figs. '^* That place was called the bourne 
of Eshcol, because of the cluster which the sons of Israel cut 
down from thence. ^^ And they returned from searching the land 
at the end of forty days. "^^ And tliey went and came to Moses 
and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of tlie sons of Israel, 
unto the wilderness of Pharan, to Kadesh : and brouglit back word 
unto them and unto all the congregation ; and shewed them the 
fruit of tlie land. ^' And they told him, and said. We came unto 
tlie land whither thou sentest us : and surely it fioweth with milk 
and lioney, and this is the fruit of it. '^^ Nevertheless, tlie people 
is strong tliat dwelleth in the land ; and the cities fenced very 
great : and moreover, we saw tlie children of Anak there. "^ Ama- 
lek dwelleth in the land of the south : and the Chethite, and the 
Jebusite, and the Amorite dwelletli in the mountain ; and the Ca- 

Ver. 25. — At the end of forty days,] Fenced,] With strwig holds, high walls and 
In Gr. after forty days. In Thargum Jona- 
than there is added, " in the month of Ab 
(which we call July) at the end of forty 
days." And Chazkuni cxplaineth it further, 
that they began on the twenty -ninth "of Si- 
van (which we name May) and ended on the 
eighth of Ab (or July.") So many days, our 
Lord Christ after his resurrection, viewed his 
disciples, ' being seen of them forty days,' 
Acts i. 3. And according to this number of 
days, the Israelites had years allotted them to 
wander and perish in the wilderness, because 
they believed not God, but refused to go into 
the good land proffered them. Num. xiv. 33, 
34. Of the mystery in this number forty, 
see more in the notes on Deut. xxv. 3. 

Ver. 26.— To Kadesh,] Called also' Ka- 
desh-barnea,' Deut. i, 19. There was a city 
of the Edomites called ' Kadesh,' Num. xx. 
16, whereupon the wilderness by it was called 
also ' Kadesh,' Ps. xxix. 8, and the same 
was called ' the wilderness of Zin,' Num. 
xxxiii. 36. Cliazkuni here saith, " The 
wilderness of Pliaran, and the wilderness of 
Zin, and Hazeroth, and Kadesh-barnea, and 
Rithmah, (Num. xxxiii. IS,) were one near 
to another." This Kadesh in Gr. Kades. 
The Chald. iiameth Rekam. 

Ver. 27. — They told hiji,] To wit, 
Moses, in the hearing of all the congrega- 
tion. And ho.n'ey,] That is, with all good 
things: see the notes on Exod. iii. 8. 
Thus they acknowledged the truth of God's 
promises ; they said, * It is a good land 
which the Lord our God doth give unto us,' 
Deut. i. 25. 

Ver. 28. — Nevertheless,] Or, but that. 
This latter part of the speech, was from the 
ten spies (not from Caleb or Joshua) who 
here take occasion to terrify the i)eople from 
going to possess the lanil, Deut. i. 28. 

munition ; the Gr. expresseth it by two 
worAi, fenced, walled: in Deut. i. 28, and 
ix. 1, it is said, 'fenced up to heaven;' and 
in Deut. iii. 5, ' fenced with high walls, 
gates and bars.' Children of Anak,] In 
Gr. the generation of Enak, in Chald. sons 
of the giant : so in Deut. i. 28, the Gr. 
translateth them, sons of the giants; see be- 
fore on ver. 20. Of these there went a pro- 
verb, ' Who can stand before the sons of 
Anak?' Deut. ix. 2. And of the Gr. bor- 
rowed the word Anakes, to signify kings: 
and by interpretation Anak signifieth ' a 
chain,' Prov. i. 9, which is an ornament for 
kings and great personages, and of old, upon 
their beasts' necks also, Judg. viii. 26. And 
many such men were chained with 'pride,' 
as Ps. Ixxiii. 6. 

Ver. 29. — Amalek,] That is, the Ama- 
lekites, the posterity of Amalek the son of 
Esau; of whom see Exod. xvii. 8, &c. "Be- 
cause they had been smitten by Amalek, 
(Deut. xxv. 17, 18,) the spies do now make 
mention of him, to make them afraid," saith 
Jarchi on Num. xiii. This Amalek (who 
was the 'first of the nations,' Num. xxiv. 
20, and an enemy to Israel) would hinder, as 
they thought, their entrance on the south 
side. In the mountain,] That is, themoun- 
tains, or, as the Gr. translateth, the moun- 
tainy part, for these nations here reckoned, 
were the most mighty; and the Chethites 
possessed mount Thabor, the Jebusites Jeru- 
salem and mountains about it, the Amorites 
mount Heres, &c. Judg. xxi. 31 — 36, and 
these Amorites were high as cedars, and 
strong as oaks, Amos ii. 9, so the land 
seemed in their eyes impossible to be con- 
quered. The coast,] Or, side, Heh. the 
hand of Jordan ; which was towards the east, 
as the sea was to the west. 



iiaaiiite dwelletli by the sea, and by tlie coast of Jordan. ^° And 
Caleb stilled tlie people before Moses, and said. Going up, let us 
go up and possess it, for we are well able to overcome it. ^' But tlie 
men that went up with him, said. We be not able to go up against 
the people ; for' they are stronger than we. ^^ And they brought up 
an evil report of the land wliich they had searched, unto the sons 
of Israel, saying. The land through which we have gone to search 
it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the 
people that we saw within it are men of stature. ^^ And there we 
saw the giants, the sons of Anak, ivhich come of the giants : and 
we were in our own eyes as grasshoppers, and so we were in their 

Ver. 30. — Caleb,] And Joshua with him 
afterward. Num. xiv. 6, 7 ; though now at 
first it may be Joshua purposely held his 
peace in prudence, because he was Moses' 
minister, and let Caleb speak. Stilled 
people to keep silence before (or unto) Moses: 
tliat is, the people beginning to murmur and 
speak unto Moses and against him, Caleb 
stilled them. The Chald. expoundeth it, 
" he made the people to attend (that is, to 
hearken) unto Moses ;" and Jonathan in his 
Thargum saith, ♦' he stilled the people, and 
caused them to attend unto Moses." And it 
appeareth by Deut. i. 29, 30; that Moses 
himself spake to encourage the people ; but 
they would not obey. And said,] That is, 
Caleb said, as the 31st ver. manifesteth ; and 
the Gr. addeth, he said unto him. We are 
WELL ABLE TO OVERCOME IT,] Or, prevailing 
we shall prevail over it meaning the land ; 
which the Gr. explaioeth, over them, the peo- 
ple. And this w-as a speech of faith, believ- 
ing in the power and promise of God, for 
Caleb now spake as it was in his heart. Josh. 
xiv. 7. 

Ver. 31. — But the men,] Heb. and the 
men y meaning ten of the twelve, all the 
other spies except Joshua, Num. xiv, 6. 

Ver. 32. — An evil report,] aninfamy 
or defamation : of which Solomon saith, ' he 
that uttereth it is a fool,' Prov. x. 18. And 
for this their sin, these men ' died by a 
plague befpre the Lord,' Num. xiv. 37. This 
infamy, the Chald. calleth an evil name ; the 
Gr. here, a dread of the land } but in Num. 
xiv. 36, the Gr. expoundeth it, evil tvords. 
And whereas the Heb. Dibbah, signifieth but 
a speech or report, though commonly of faults 
which may be done without sin ; the word 
evil is added by Moses, in Num. xiv. 37 ; to 
show that this Uieir defamation was very sin- 

ful. Eateth up,] consumeth ; in Chald. 
killeth the inhabitants • which may be under- 
stood of their civil wars, whereby they de- 
voured one another. For the Amorites had 
conquered the Moabites, Num. xxi. 28, 29; 
the Caphtorims (or Philistines) had destroyed 
the Avims, Deut. ii. 23. This phrase was 
afterwards used against the land, when the 
heathens had destroyed the Israelites in it, 
' thou (land) eatest up men, and hast bereav- 
ed thy nations, Ezek. xxxvi. 13. Of sta- 
tures,] Or, of dimensions of measures ; that 
is, of great stature, tall, and great ; as the 
Gr. translateth, exceeding tall men. And as 
the prophet openeth it, ' high as cedars, 
strong as oaks, Amos ii. 9. An example of 
such a man of stature, we have in 2 Sam. 
xxi. 20, ' that had on e\eYy hand six fingers, 
and on every foot six toes,' &c. ; and ano- 
ther of an Egyptian five cubits high, with a 
spear in his hand ' like a weaver's beam,' 1 
Chron. xi. 23. So in Jer. xxii. 14, a house 
of measures, (or of statuixs,) is for a large 
high house. 

Ver. 33. — Giants,] Heb. Nephilim, such 
as were before Noah's flood ; see Gen. vi. 4, 
with the annot. As grasshoppers,] Or, as 
locusts ; that is, low, wealv, base in compa- 
rison with them, So it is said of God, ' he 
sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the 
inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers,' Is. xl. 
22. In their eyes,] That is, they so es- 
teemed us. And by reason hereof, it may 
be the spies passed through their land more 
safely, while these mighty men despised and 
neglected them, as the Philistine disdained 
to meddle with little David, 1 Sam. xvii. 24. 
The Heb. doctors to show this, feign this ex- 
planation, " we heard them say one to ano- 
ther. There are pismires in the vineyards, 
like unto men." Chazkuni on Num. xiii. 




1. The Israelites neep and murmur at the news thai the spies brought 
out of Canaan; and speak of rettiriiing into Egypt. 6. Joshtia and 
Caleb labour to still and encourage them, hut the Israelites would have 
stoned them. W.God threateneth to destroy llie people. 13. Moses 
entreatetli for them, and obtaineth pardon. 23. The murmurers are 
deprived of entering into the land, and condemned to wander forty years 
in the wilderness and die there. 36. The spies who raised the evil re- 
port, die by a plague. 39. The people hearing the sentence of God 
against them, mourn, and offer themselves to go tip ; hut Moses forbid- 
deth them. 44. Yet they presume to go up, and are smitten by their 

' And all the congregation lifted up, and gave their voice, and 
tlie people wept that night. ^ And all the sons of Israel murmured 
against Moses and against Aaron -. and all the congregation said 
unto them, Oli tliat we had died in the land of Egypt 1 or, in this 
Avilderness, oh that we miglit die! And wherefore doth Jeliovah 
bring us into this land, to fall by the sword ? owy wives and our 
little ones shall be for a prey : were it not better for us to return 
into Egypt ? * And they said every man unto las brother, let us 

Ver. 1. — Lifted ui',] To wit, theirvoice, 
as after followetli, and as is expressed in Gen. 
xxi. 16, ' she lifted up lier voice and wept.' 
Or, all the congregation took up, that is, re- 
ceived, to wit, the evil report which the spies 
gave of the land. Num. xiii. 32. So the 
phrase is used, in Exod. xxiii. 1, ' thou shalt 
not take up a vain report.' This latter, the 
Gr. version favoureth. Gave their voice,] 
That is, cried out. This manner of speech 
is used to signify any loud voice, noise, or 
cry of any creature, or of God In'mself ; as 
in Ps. xviii. 14, ' the Most High gave his 
voice;' in Jer. ii. 15, ' the lions gave their 
voice ;' in Ps. civ. 12, ' the fowls give the 
voice ;' in Ps. Ixxvii. 18, ' the skies gave a 
voice ;' in Hab. iii. 10, ' the deep gave his 
voice;' and in 2 Cln-on. xxiv. 9, men are 
said to give a voice, when they made a pro- 
clamation through Judah and Jerusalem. So 
this people here openly rebelled, and uttered 
their evil hearts without fear or shame. 
That night,] Heb. in or through that jiight, 
which the Gr. expiaineth, that vhnle night. 

\vM. 2. — And against Aaron,] Which 
were the Lord's ministers, therefore their 
nunmuring was not against them only, but 
against the Lord, as Moses told them, in 
Exod. xvi. 2, 8 ; and as after appcareth in 
ver. 3. Oh, that we might die,] Or, 
(^ would God) that we ircre dead : they arc 

words of unbelief and despair, and of great 
unthankfulness: compare Exod. xvi. 3 ; Ps. 
cvi. 24, 25. The Gr. translateth, if we were 
dead: which is a form of wishing, both in 
the Gr. and Heb. tongues, as in 1 Ciuon. iv. 
10, 'if thou wilt bless me,' that is, ' oh, 
that thou wouldest bless me ;' so in Luke xii. 

49, ' if it were (for, oh, that it were) already 
kindled ;' and so the Syriac version there 
expiaineth it. 

Ver. 3. — To fall,] i. e. thai we should 
fall, that is, die by the sword. Here they 
murmur against God himself through unbe- 
lief; as David saith, ' they contemptuously 
refused the land of desire, (the pleasant land,) 
they believed not his word, but murmured in 
their tents ; they heard not the voice of Je- 
hovah,' Ps. cvi. 24, 25. Were it not bet- 
ter,] Or, were it not good? The Gr. 
changeth the phrase thus, ' now, therefore, 
it is better for us to turn back into Egypt.' 

50, ' are they not written,' 2 Kings xx. 20; 
is explained thus, ' behold they are written,' 
2 Chron. xxxii. 32. 

Ver. 4. — Let us make a Captain,] 
Heb. let us give a head : whereby give is 
meant make or appoint, as the Chald. ex- 
pouudeth it ; and by head they mean a cap- 
tain or chief governor ; as in Num. xxv. 4 ; 
1 Chron. iv. 42 ; xii. 20; and as the Gr. 
here expiaineth it. Tliargum Jonathan pa- 



make a captain, and let us return into Egypt. * And Moses and 
Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congrega- 
tion of the sons of Israel. ^ And Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb 
the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that searched the land, 
rent their clothes. ^ And they said unto all the congregation of 
the sons of Israel, saying. The land which we passed through to 
search it, is an exceeding good land. ® If Jehovah delight in us, 
then he will bring us into this land, and will give it unto us, a 
land whicli floweth with milk and honey. ^ Only rebel not ye against 
Jehovah, and you fear not the people of the land, for they are 
bread for us : their shadow is departed from them, and Jehovah is 
with vis, fear them not. " But all the congregation said, to stone 
them with stones : and the glory of Jehovah appeared in the tent 
of the congregation before all the sons of Israel. " And Jehovah 

raphraseth thus, " let us appoint a king over 
us for head." Of this their sin, the Scrip- 
ture saith, ' they dealt proudly, and harden- 
ed their necks, and hearkened not to God's 
commandments ; and refused to hear, and 
were not mindful of the wonders that he 
had done among them: but hardened their 
necks, and in their rebellion appointed a 
captain (or made a head) to return to their 
bondage,' Neh, ix. 16, 17. So their evil 
words and purpose is counted unto them as 
the deed done. Sol. Jarchi openeth their 
words thus, ' let us appoint a king over us ; 
and he saith, the Rabbins have expounded 
this, as meaning idolatry. The same is also 
noted by R. Menachem, who further liken- 
eth this sin to theirs that builded the tower 
of Babel, Gen. xi. So their sia was 
against God, who is ' exalted as head above 
all,' 1 Chron. xxix. 11. 

Ver. 5. — Fell on their faces,] As 
much aflected with the murmuring of the 
people, and they fell down, either to pray 
unto God for them, as in Num. xix. 22 ; or 
to entreat them not to proceed in their re- 
bellion as it followeth, ' before all the assem- 
bly.' And elsewhere it appeareth, that 
Moses spake to encourage the people, saying, 
' dread not, neither be afraid of them : Jeho- 
vah your God, who goeth before you, he shall 
fight for you,' &c. Deut. i. 29, 30. 

Ver. 6. — That searched the land,] 
As appeareth in Num. xiii. 7, 9, 17. Rent 
THEIR clothes,] In sign of sorrow, for the 
people's rebellion and blasphemy; for they 
said, ' the Lord had brought them out of 
Egypt, because he hated them,' &c. ; neither 
did they believe the Lord their God, for all 
that Moses spake unto them, Deut. i. 27 — 
.32. Of rending garments in sorrow, see 
(Jen. xxxvii. 29; Lev. x. 6, in the annot. 

Ver. 9. — Only,] Or, but rcbd not ye ; 
«liich the Gr. interpreteth, bttt be not ye 

apostates (or revollers) from the Lord: the 
Chald. but rebel not ye against the word of 
the Lord. Are bread for us,] Or, shall 
be our bread, our food, that is, we shall de- 
vour and consume them. The Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, ' they are delivered into our 
hand.' So Balaam prophesied of Israel, ' he 
shall eat up the nations his enemies,' Num. 
xxiv. 8. And in Ps. Ixxix. 7, ' he hath 
eaten up Jacob,' that is, consumed: and in 
Ps. xiv. 4, ' they eat my people as they eat 
bread.' Also in Deut. vii. 16, ' thou shall 
eat (that is, consume) all the people. Their 
shadow,] That is, God their defence, covert, 
protection ; which the Chald. cxpoundeth, 
their strength ; so in Is. xxx. 2, ' the strength 
of Pharaoh, and the shadow of Egypt,' do ex- 
plain one another ; and shadow is used often 
for defence: as, ' the shadow of the Al- 
mighty,' Ps. xci. 1 ; and ' Jehovah thy 
shadow,' Ps. cxxi. 5 ; and God saith, ' I 
have covered thee in the shadow of mine 
hand,' Is. li. 16 ; xlix. 2. Jehovah is with 
us,] The Chald. explaineth it, the word of 
the Lord is for our help. 

Ver. 10. — Said to stone them,] That 
is, spake one to another, that they should 
stone Joshua and Caleb. An example of 
notorious obstinacy and outrage ; and at ano- 
ther time, they had almost done the like unto 
Moses, Exod. xvii. 4. So after this Jeru- 
salem stoned the prophets, which spake the 
things pertaining to her peace. Matt, xxiii. 
37. Appeared in the tent,] The Gr. 
explaineth it, appeared in the cloud over the 
tent of the testimony. This is confirmed by 
the like appearance in Num. xvi. 42 ; and 
Sol. Jarchi here saith, " the cloud descended 
there. It was an extraordinary appearance, 
to restrain the people's fury, and to help his 
faithful witnesses. 

Ver. 11. — Provoke me,] Or, despite, 
blaspheme, contemptuottsly provoke me. So 



said unto Moses, How long will this people provoke me ? and liow 
long will they not believe in me, for all the signs wiiich 1 liave done 
amongst them ? '^ I will smite them with the pestilence, and dis- 
inherit tliem, and will make of tliee a nation greater and mightier 
than they. '^ And Moses said unto Jehovah, Then the Egyptians 
shall hear it ; for thou broughtest up this people in thy might, from 
among tliem. " And they will say to the inhabitants of this land, 
for they have heard that thou Jehovah art among this people, that 
tliou Jehovah art seen eye to eye, and that thy cloud standeth over 
tliem, and in a pillar of cloud thou goest before them by day, and 
in a pillar of fire by night. ^' Now if thou shalt kill this people 
as one man, tlien the nations will say, which have heard the fame 
of thee, saying, '^ Because Jehovah was not able to bring tliis 
people into the land which he sware unto them ; therefore he hath 
slain them in the wilderness. ^' And now, I beseech thee, let the 
power of the Lord be great, according as thou hast spoken, saying, 
^^ Jehovah is long-suffering, and much in mercy, forgiving iniquity 

the apostle expoundetli this word blaspheme, 
in Rom. ii. 24 ; from Is. lii. 5; and it im- 
plieth also a contempt or despising, Prov. i. 
30 ; XV. 5 ; Is. v. 24. Not believe in 
ME,] In Gr. not believe me ; which the Chald. 
explaineth, 7iot lelieve in my word. This 
Unbelief is noted as a chief cause of their re- 
bellion, and so of their destruction after in the 
wilderness, Deut. i. 32 ; Heb. iii. 18, 19. 
For all the signs,] Though many signs 
and wonders had been showed, yet they be- 
lieved not: so of their posterity it is said, 
' though Jesus had done so many signs be- 
fore them, yet they believed not in him,' 
John xii. 37. Among them,] Heb. in the 
midst thereof, to wit, of the people. 

Ver. 12. — Smite them,] Heb. smite 
liim, that is, the people, spoken of as one 
man: soever. 15. Pestilence,] In Gr. and 
Chald. death : see the notes on Exod. v. 3. 
Disinherit them,] Deprive them of the 
land promised unto their fathers: the Gr. 
and Chald. translate, destroy them. Make 
OF thee,] Heb. make them to a nation : the 
like speech God used, when they had made 
the golden calf, Exod. xxxii. 10. The Gr. 
here addetli, ' I will make thee and thy fa- 
ther's house,' &c. 

Ver. 14. — They will say,] That which 
after followelh in ver. IG. To the inhabi- 
tants,] Or, ivith the inhabitants, meaning the 
Canaaniles ; so both the one and the other 
people will take occasion to blaspheme. Tiie 
Heb. word which usually sigiiifieth unto, 
is sometimes used for with; as in 1 Sam. 
xxiii. 23 ; Ezra ii. 63. Tiiou Jehovah 
ART,] The Chald. expoundeth it, that thy 
divine prese^ice (or majesty) abideth among 
this people. Art seen,] Or, hast been seen 

eye to eye ; that is, visibly, apparently, plain- 
ly, according to the like phrase in Num. xii. 
8, ' mouth to mouth;' and in Exod. xxxiii. 
11 ; and Deut. v. 4, ' face to face.' The 
Chald. here explaineth it thus, that with their 
eyes they have seen the majesty of thy glory; 
and by Thargum Jonathan, this is releired to 
the giving of the law upon mount Sinai. 
Standeth over them,] As protecting them 
from evil; which in Thargum Jonathan is 
explained, " that they should not be hurt 
with heat or with rain." Compare Exod. 
xiii. 21, 22 ; Num. ix. 17, &c. 

Ver. 15 — As one man,] That is, all of 
them together and suddenly. The fame of 
thee,] The hearsay or report of thee; which 
the Gr. translateth, My name} the Chald. 
the fame of thy might. 

Ver. 16. — Was not able,] Elsewhere 
MoEes showeth that he had respect unto two 
things by which God's name and glory might 
be impeached among the Gentiles; because 
he could not, or because he would not, but 
hated his people, Deut. ix. 28 ; Exod. xxxii. 
12. And this is the first argument of Moses' 
supplication, that God's name might not be 
blasphemed among the heathens. 

Ver. 17. — The power of the Lord,] 
Or, the might, as in ver. 13; that is, as the 
Gr. explaineth it, the poiver of thee, O Lord. 
Lord is here in Heb. Adonai, which the 
Chald. expresseth by the letters for Jehovah, 
and it signifieth my stays or sustainers : see 
the notes on Gen. xv. 2. Be great,] That 
is, be showed to be great; the Gr. translat- 
eth it, be exalted. 

Ver. 18. — Long-suffering,] Heb. long 
of anger; that is, long ere he be angry. 
Here Moses mentioiieth that name of Go<l, 



and trespass : and clearing will not clear (the guilty ;) visiting the 
iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto tlie thii'd and unto the 
fourth generation. ^' Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of this 
people, according unto the greatness of thy mercy, and as thou 
hast forgiven this people from Egypt, even until now. ^" And Je- 
liovah said, I have pardoned, according to thy word. ^^ But as- 
suredly, as I live, all the earth shall be filled with tlie glory of 
Jeliovah. ^' For all tlie men whicli have seen my glory, and my 
signs whicli I did in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and have tempted 
me these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice ; ^^ If they 

which was proclaimed at mount Sinai, when 
the people had formerly sinned in making the 
golden calf, Exod. xxxiv. 5 — 7. In mercy,] 
The Gr. addeth, and. true ; from Exod. 
xxxiv. 6. Forgiving,] Or, as the Gr. trans- 
lateth, taking mvay. Iniquities,] In Gr, 
iniquities, and unriffkteousnesses, and sins y 
the Chald. also addeth the word sifis, as was 
in Exod. xxxiv. 7. This is the second rea- 
son of Moses' request from the nature and 
covenant of God. The guilty,] This word 
is supplied also in the Gr. version. The 
Chald. pavaphraseth, ' being merciful unto 
them that turn to his law, but not clearing 
tliem that turn not.' Visiting,] That is, 
punisliing ; in Gr. recompensing ; see Exod. 
XX. 5. Upon the sons,] Or child reti ; iji 
Chald. upo?i the rchcllious sons. The 
THIRD,] In Chald. unto the third generation 
and unto the fourth generatio7i. Thus Moses 
requested an absolute pardon for all ; but 
that God would in wrath remember mercy, 
though in justice he punished the chief 

Ver. 19. — Even until now,] Or, hither- 
to ; as for example, when they sinned in mak- 
ing the calf, Exod. xxxii. (besides other times,) 
at which time God destroyed them not as they 
deserved, but some of them only perished. 

Ver. 20. — I have pardoned,] Or, / do 
pardo7i, as the Gr. explaineth it, in the time 
present. Howbeit, Chazkuni understaudeth 
it of the time past, that God should say, he 
had pardoned them once when they made the 
calf; but now he would not pardon them, but 
execute vengeance. The formersenseseemeth 
best with the limitation following, 'according 
to thy word,' viz. that he would not destroy 
them all ' as one man,' at once with the pes- 
tilence, having respect to the gloiy of his 
name. For which cause he spared them at 
other times also, both before and after, as he 
showeth by the prophets, Ezek. x. 8, 9, 13, 
14, 21, 22, &c. ; Ps. cvi. 7, 8. And here- 
upon the people after confessed, ' Thou art a 
God of pardons, gracious, and merciful, long- 
sutliering, and of great kindness, and forsakest 
them not,' Neh. ix. 17. 

Ver. 21. — As I live,] lleb. and assured- 
ly I live, and all the earth shall be filled : 
which is a form of oath, often used of the 
Lord, Ezek. xviii. 3; xx. 33 ; v. 11. 
Whereupon it is said, ' and thou shall swear 
Jehovah liveth,' &c, Jer. iv. 2 ; and where 
he saith in the prophet, ' 1 have sworn by 
myself,' Is. xlv. 23 ; the apostle expresseth 
it with these words, ' I live, saith the Lord,' 
Rom. xiv, 11. And the sign of an oath was 
the lifting up of the hand ; so both of them 
are joined in Deut. xxxii. 40, ' I lift up my 
hands to heaven, and say, I live for ever : 
Wherefore the oath which God here sware, is 
signified by the lifting up of his hand, in Ps. 
cvi. 26 ; Ezek. xx. 15. Filled with the 
glory,] That is, all peoples of the earth 
shall see and acknowledge the powerful and 
just administration of the Lord, unto his glo- 
ry and honour. Compare Is. vi. 3 ; and Ps. 
Ixxii. 19, where Christ's kingdom is prophe- 
sied of, with whose glory all the earth is full. 

Ver. 22.- — My glory,] Under this, all 
God's glorious works are comprehended; as 
powers are used for powerful works. Matt. 
vii. 22; xi. 20 ; 1 Cor. xii. 10 ; 2 Cor. xii. 
12. Signs,] Tliat is, miracles, miraculous 
and significant works. Ten times,] Hereby 
may be meant no certain number, but many 
times, as in Gen, xxxi. 7; Job xix. 3; so 
ten is for many, in Lev. xxvi. 26, It may 
also be taken properly, for now they had sin- 
ned ten times ; first, at the Red sea, Exod. 
xiv. 11, 12; then in Marah, Exod. xv. 23, 
24 ; again in the wilderness of Sin, Exod. 
xvi. 2 ; then twice about manna, Exod. xvi. 
20, 27, 28 ; after that at Rephidim, Exod. 
xvii. 1 — 3; then by the calf at Horeb, Exod. 
xxxii.; at Taberah, Num. xi. 1 ; and again 
at Kibroth-hattaavah, Num. xi. 4 ; and now 
the tenth time by their rebellion in Pharan. 

Ver. 23. — If they shall see,] That is, 
as the Gr. translateth it, surely they translate 
not see. This also is an oath, whereby God 
sweareth they shall not see, that is, not go 
in to enjoy the land, as is explained by David, 
in Ps. xcv. 11, ' I swear in my anger, if 
they shall enter into my rest;' which the 



sliall see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall 
any of them that provoked me see it. ^* But my servant Caleb, 
because there was another spirit in him, and he followed me fully ; 
even him will I bring into the land, whereinto he went ; and his 
seed sliall possess it. ^' (Now the Amalekitc and the Canaanite 
dwelt in the valley :) to-morrow, turn ye, and journey you into 
the wilderness, 6^/ the way of tlie Red sea. 

apostle openeth thus, * he sware that they 
should not enter into his rest,' Ileb. iii. 18. 
So ' if a sign be given,' Mark viii. 12; is more 
plainly expounded, ' a sign shall not be 
given,' Matt. xvi. 4. Which I sware 
UNTO,] That is, ' which I sware to give unto 
your fathers,' Deut. i. 35; this was the land 
of Canaan, Gen. xii. 5, 7; called 'the holy 
land,' Zech. ii. 12 ; ' the land of Jehovah,' 
IIos. ix. 3 ; the land of Emmanuel,' that is, 
of Christ, Is. viii. S ; for it was a sign of the 
heavenly inheritance to be obtained by Christ, 
Heb. xi. 9, 10 ; therefore the keeping of 
tiiem out of this land, figured also the ex- 
cluding of them, and of all unbelievers out of 
the kingdom of heaven, Heb. iii. 12 — 19; 
iv. 1—11. 

Ver. 24. — Spirit in him,] Or, zvith him ; 
That is, he was guided by another spirit than 
the ten spies. The same is to be understood 
of Joshua, as appeareth by Num. xxxii. 12, 
though not here mentioned. This other 
spirit was the spirit of faith, which the law 
cannot give. Gal. iii. 2 ; the spirit of adop- 
tion of sons, not of bondage to fear again, 
Horn. viii. 14, 15; by the guidance of this 
spiiit Caleb constantly followed the Lord, 
and obtained the promised inheritance. He 
FOLLOWED ME FULLY,] Heb. he followcd 
after me : so in Deut. i. 36 ; Josh. xiv. 8 ; 
ix. 14. By this manner of speech, is meant 
a full and constant following and obedience 
unto the end ; the contraiy whereof was in 
Solomon, of whom it is said, ' he followed 
not after the Lord, as did David his father, 
1 Kings xi. 6 ; and in this people of Israel 
now generally, of whom God saith, ' they 
followed not after me,' Num. xxxii. 11. The 
Gr. translateth it, he follotvcd mc ; the Chald 
he fulfilled (or acco?iijjltshed) after my fear 
Chazkuni expoundeth it, " he hath accom 
plished the word after me ;" and compareth 
it with that phrase in 1 Kings i. 14, 'I will 
come in after thee, and fulfil (that is, con- 
firm) thy words. His sef.d,] In Chald. his 
sons. Shall possess it,] .S'/iaW inherit it : 
thus both the Gr. and Chald. do interpret it: 
or shall cause to inherit it, that is, leave it 
to tiieir posterity for an iidieritancc ; as it is 
written, ' It shall be thine inheritance, and 
tliy children's for ever,' Josh. xiv. 9. The 
word is also used in a contrary meaning, to 

Vol. U. D 

disinherit, as befoi'e in ver. 2 ; and so it may 
be translated, shall disinherit it, that is, dis- 
inherit and drive out the inhabitants of it, 
and seize upon it, as in Josh. viii. 7, ' ye 
shall disinherit (or seize upon) the city ;' and 
thus it agreeth with Caleb's speech, ' if so 
be the Lord will be with me, then I will dis- 
inherit them (or drive them out) as the Lord 
said,' Josh. xiv. 12. In this latter sense, 
Sol. Jarchi here expoundeth it, " drive it 
out, that is, they shall drive out the Anakims 
and people that are therein." This promise 
Moses related unto Caleb, and in the name of 
the Lord, he sware unto him for the pei"- 
formance of it. Josh. xiv. 9. 

Ver. 25. — Now,] Heb. And. Dwelt,] 
Oi', dwelleth, Heb, sitteth in the valley: after 
in ver. 45 ; they are said to dwell (or sit) in 
the mountain; and sitting as it is often put 
for dwelling, so sometimes for lying iu wait, 
as in Josh. viii. 9 ; which may be meant 
here. Chazkuni expoundeth this place thus ; 
that " as the spies were afraid of Amalek 
(Num. xiii. 29,) so with them the holy bles- 
sed (God) made them afraid." And where- 
as it is here said, in the valley ; and in ver. 
45, in that mountain ; he accordeth them 
thus, that " the most of them sat in the 
valley, and some few of them in the moun- 
tain, and those few warred against them, and 
therefore it is written, ' which sat in that 
mountain,' to imply that there were of tliem 
which sat in another place; or it may be 
they dwelt in the valley, and when they 
heard that the sons of Israel came against 
them, they went up into the mountain and 
lay in wait for them there: and we find that 
sitting sometimes meaneth lying in wait, as 
it is written -(in Ps. x. S,) 'he sitteth in the 
waiting place of the villages.' " To-.mor- 
Row TURN ye,] The people were now in 
Kadesh, from whence they sent the sj)ies. 
Num. xiii. 26; Deut. i. 19; and after this 
their rebellion, and the slaughter following, 
they ' abode in Kadesh many days, and then 
turned and journeyed into the wilderness by 
the way of the lied sea,' Deut. i. 46; ii. 1. 
Chazkuni here saith, " to-morrow meanetli 
after this time ; for lo, tliey abode in Kadesh 
many days before they began to compass about 
mountSeir: and it is like that phrase (Exod. xii. 
34,) when thy son shall ask thee to-morrow." 



^^ And Jeliovah spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 
" How long (shall I pardon) this evil congregation which murmur 
against me ? I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel, 
which they murmur against me. ^^ Say unto tliem. As I live, as- 
suredly saith Jehovah, if I do not so unto you, as ye have spoken 
in mine ears. *^ Your carcasses shall fall in this wilderness, and 
all that were mustered of you, according to your whole number, 
from twenty years old and upward, which have murmured against 
me. ^" If you shall come into the land concerning which I lifted 
up my hand to make you dwell therein, save Caleb the son of 
Jephunneh, and Joshua tlie son of Nun. ^' And your little ones, 
which ye said should be for a prey, even tliem will I bring in, and 
they shall know the land which ye have despised. ^^ V>yxiasfor you, 
your carcasses shall fall in this wilderness. ^^ And your children 
shall feed in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your whore- 

JotTRNEV YOU,] Or, journey for you, which 
some understand to mean, for your good, see 
G'jn. xii. 1. The way of the Red sea, J 
That is, the way towards the Red sea: see 
the notes on Exod. xiii. 17. la this Red 
sea the people had been baptized, 1 Cor. x. 
1,2; Exod. xiv. Baptism was unto repent- 
ance, and with contession of sins, and unto 
the death of Christ, Mat. iii. 6, 11 ; Rom. 
vi. 3; so this sending them back into the 
wilderness towards the Red sea, was to hum- 
ble them by repentance, that through faith 
in Christ they might l>ave entrance into the 
kingdom of heaven ; otherwise they should 
perish for ever, as tiieir carcasses perished in 
this wilderness. 

Vek. 27. — How LONG,] To wit, shall I 
pardon, (as in ver. 19, 20,) or shall I bear 
with. An imperfect speech, such as men 
use in passion of mind, when through grief 
tliey utter not all their words, as may be seen 
in Moses, Exod. xxxii. 32; Ps. xc. 13; in 
David, Ps. vi. 4 ; and sundry the like. 
Which mormur,] Or Mhich cause (the peo- 
ple) to murmur, as in ver. 36. Thus Sol. 
Jarchi expoundeth it, referring the congre- 
gation forementioned to the ten spies ; but 
the Gr. and Chald. translate, which murmur j 
so in the sentence following. 

Ver. 28. — I live,] It is an oath, as in ver. 
21 ; whereby the Lord sweareth in his anger, 
that they sliould not enter into his rest, Ps. 
xcv. 11 ; Heb. iii. 18 ; Num. xxxii. 10, 11. 
Assuredly saith,] Or, the faithful saying ; 
see Gen. xxii. 10. If I do not,] That is, 
as the Gr. explaineth it, surely I will do : 
see before on ver. 23. Spoken in mine 
ears,] In Chald. sjwhen before me : this 
hath reference to their words in ver. 2, where 
they wished they might die in the wilder- 

Ver. 29. — Your carcasses,] The Gr- 
calleth them Cola, that is, meTnbers, which 
word the apostle also useth in Heb. iii. 17, 
for carcasses or dead bodies. So in Lev. xxvi. 
30. Fall,] That is, die, being destroyed of 
the destroyer, 1 Cor. x. 10. Mustered,] 
Numbered as able men for the war, Num. i. 
This sentence was executed upon them, as is 
after showed in Num. xxvi. 64, 65. 

Ver. 30. — I lifted up my hand,] That 
is, stvare, as the Chald. expoundeth it, / 
sware by my word : see Deut. 32, 40 ; and 
the notes before on ver. 21 ; and Gen. xiv. 

Ver. 31. — Your little ones,] Your 
children under twenty years of age : see ver. 
3. Shall know,] In Gr. shall inherit, 
rightly explaining the sense: for to know the 
land is to enjoy the same. And so Moses 
relating this promise, saith, ' they shall pos- 
sess the land,' Deut. i. 39. 

Vek. 32. — But as for you, your car- 
casses] Heb. and your carcasses, you: where 
the latter you is for explanation, to exempt 
their children, you or yours only. 

Ver. 33. — Shall feed,] Or, shall be 
feeding; so likewise the Gr. translateth it: 
by feed, meaning wander as sheep for pas- 
ture in the wilderness: the Chald. of Onkelos 
expoundeth it, " tarry or abide ;" but Jona- 
than saith, "wander;" and Chazkuni ex- 
plaineth it, " fued as sheep sometimes here 
and sometimes there, so your sons shall remove 
hither and thither till their carcasses be con- 
sumed." Thus may we understand that in 
the prophet, ' the Lord will feed them as a 
lamb in a large place,' Hosea iv. 16; that is, 
will let them wander to destruction. So in 
other languages, wander is used for feeding, 
as in Virgil, Bucol. eclog. 2, mille me(s Sicu- 
lis errant in moniibtis agncc. Forty years,] 



doms, until your carcasses be consumed in the wilderness. " After 
the number of the days in which ye searched the land, forty days, 
a day for a year, a day for a year ye shall bear your iniquities, 
forty years ; and ye shall know my breach (of promise.) ^' I Je- 
hovah have spoken, if I do not this unto all this evil congregation, 
tliat are gatliered togetlier against me ; in this wilderness they 
shall be consumed, and tliere they shall die. ^'^ And the men wliich 
Moses had sent to searcli tlie land, and which returned, and made 
all tlie congregation to murmur against liim, by bringing up an 
evil report upon the land ; ^' Even the men died that did bring up 

Num.xxxii. 23, ' wherefore break ye the heart 
(that is, discourage ye) the sons of Israel from 
going,' &c. ; and in Num. xxx. 5, ' if her 
father break (that is, disallow) her, disannul 
her promise.' 

Veb. 35. — Have spoken,] The Chald. 
explaineth it, have decreed by 7ny word. If 
I DO NOT,] That is, surely I will do, as the 
Gr. expoundeth it: it is an oatii, as ))efore in 
ver. 23. This sentence decreed, seized upon 
them, that all this generation died in the 
wilderness. Num. xxvi. C4, 65 ; and upon 
tliis occasion, Moses made the xc. Psalm, 
wherein he bewaileth the shortness and misery 
of man's life, being finished now in 70 or 80 
years ; and entreateth God for mercy. And 
of this and other the like punishments, the 
apostle saith, ' they happened unto them for 
ensamples ; and they are written for our ad- 
monition, upon whom the ends of the world 
are come,' 1 Cor. x. 11 ; 'so we see that 
they could not enter in (to the rest of God) 
because of unbelief: let us study therefore to 
enter into that rest, lest any man fall after 
the same example of unbelief,' Heb. iii. 19 ; 
iv. 11. 

Ver. 36. — The men,] The ten spies. 
M.4DE TO M0RiMUR,] And murmured them- 
selves ; as the Heb. signifieth both their own 
act and that which they caused in others. So 
the Gr. translateth it, " murmured against 
it, unto (or before) the congregation. A- 
GAiNST HIM,] Against Moses, as in ver. 2, 
or, as the Gr. translateth, against it ; for they 
murmured also against the land. Num. xiii. 
32 ; xiv. 3. Evil REPORr,] Or, defamation ; 
in Gr. evil words -^ in Chald. an evil name. 
The word evil is expressed in the next ver. 
see the notes on Num. xiii. 32. 

Ver. 27. — The plague before Jeho- 
vah,] That is, by an extraordinary plague 
from the hand of God ; either the pestilence 
before threatened, ver. 12 ; or some other 
death. And before Jehovah may mean sud- 
den death there by the sanctuary, where ' the 
glory of Jehovah appeared,' ver. 10 ; as it is 
said of Uzzah, ' there he died before God,' 
1 Chron. xiii. 10 ; which another prophet 

Implying the time past also, from their com- 
ing out of Egypt: for one whole year, and 
part of the second were now past already, 
when God gave this sentence against them, 
Num. x. 11. Bear your whoredoms,] 
That is, bear the punishment of your sins ; 
as the Chald. for whoredoms translateth sins; 
though this name whoredom is commonly 
used for idolatiy, Jer. iii. 9 ; Ezek. xvi. 
15 — 17, &c. See Exod. xxxiv. 15, 16; 
Lev. xvii. 7. 

Ver. 34. — After,] Or, according to the 
number; in the Heb. in is used for as, or 
according to, as the Gr. translateth it : see 
the notes on Lev. xxv. 15. A day for a 
YEAR, A DAY FOR A YEAR,] That is, each day 
for a year, or a year for every day : so in 
Ezek. iv. 6, where the prophet in a figure, 
bare the iniquity of Israel so many days as 
they had sinned years. Hereupon in pro- 
phecies, days are put for years, Dan. ix. 24, 
&c. ; Rev. xi. 3. Ye shall know my 
BRE.VCH,] To wit, of promise ; or simply, iny 
breaking off: that is, ye shall know and have 
experience by the punishment which you 
shall suli'er, how great your sin is in breaking 
promise and disannuling your word and cove- 
nant with me, and in breaking oil' from me. 
Tlius my breach may be understood, breach, 
or breaking with me, or from me, as, ' he 
that eateth my bread,' Ps. xli. 10, is ex- 
pounded, ' he that eateth bread with me,' 
John xiii. IS. Or my breach, that is, when 
I brake promise with you, or break oil' from 
you, ye shall know how great evil is upon 
you. For when men forsake God, he also 
forsaketh them, and breaketh his covenant 
with them, that is, performeth not his pro- 
mise, which is conditional if men continue 
in his faith, Deut. xxxi. 16, 17; Zecli. xi. 
10; Jude v. 6; Rom. xi. 22. The Gr. 
translateth, " ye shall know the wrath (or in- 
dignation) of mine anger:" the Chald. " ye 
shall know that ye have murmured against 
me." Sol. Jarchi expoundeth it, " my 
breach in that yo have broken (that is, turn- 
ed away) your heart from (following) after 
me. This word is after used by Moses, in 



the evil report of the land, by the plague, before Jeliovah, ^^ But 
Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, lived, of 
those men tliat went to searcli tlie land. ^^ And Moses spake these 
words unto all the sons of Israel, and the people mourned greatly. 
^^ And they rose up early in tlie morning, and went up into tlie 
top of the mountain, saying, Lo, we be here, and will go up unto 
the place which Jehovah hath said, for we have sinned. ^' And 
Moses said. Wherefore now do you transgress the mouth of Jeho- 
vah? but it shall not prosper, *" Go not up, for Jehovah {s not 
among you, that ye be not smitten before your enemies. ^* For 
the Amalekite and tlie Canaanite is there before you, and ye shall 
fall by the sword, for because ye are turned from after Jehovah, 
and Jehovali will not be with you. ^* But tliey loftily presumed to 
go up to tlie top of the mountain : but the ark of the covenant of 

explainetli, ' there he died by the ark of 
God,' 2 Sam. vi. 7. The Heb. (as Sol. Jar- 
chi and Thargum Jonathan on this place) re- 
port these men's death to have been by an 
inflammation of their tongues, and worms 
issuing out of them, as a just recompense, be- 
cause with their tongues they had sinned. 

Ver. 3S. — Lived,] That is, remained 
alive, safe, and in health. So the Judge of 
all the earth did judgment, and would not 
slay the righteous with the wicked ; as Gen. 
xviii. 25. And they survived not only the 
other spies, but all the rebellious Israelites, 
and went in and possessed the land of pro- 
mise, Josh.xix. 10; xix, 49. This showeth 
the small number of God's elect, though many 
be called to the profession of the faith. The 
Heb. doctors, speaking of Jer. iii. 14, where 
it is written, " I will talie you one of a city, 
and two of a family, and I will bring you to 
Zion, do say, as of six hundred thousand Is- 
raelites, only two entered into the land of 
promise, to wit, Joshua and Caleb; so shall 
it also be in the days of Christ." Talmud, 
in Sanhedrin. chap, xi.; wherein they bear 
witness against themselves, that they fulfilled 
the measure of their fathers in rebelling 
against Christ, and despising the gospel of 
their salvation. 

Ver. 40. — And went up,] That is, gird- 
ed their weapons of war about them, and 
pressed forward of themselves to go up, as 
Moses explainetli it, in Deut. i. 41. For 
tilings which men endeavour and are ready 
to do, are said to be done by them, as Reuben 
delivered Joseph out of his brethren's hand, 
when he endeavoured, by exhorting and per- 
suading them, ' that he might deliver him, 
Gen. xxxvii. 21, 22. See also the annot. on 
Exod. viii. IS. Will go up,] And fight, 
Deut. i. 41. We have sinned,] Against 
Jehovah, Deut. i. 41. Thus they showed a 
Kind of repentance and sorrow for their sin. 

which was not sincere, nor a godly sori'ow, 
for they turned from one evil to another, and 
overthrew themselves- 

Ver. 41. — Moses said,] Being first com^ 
manded of the Lord so to say, Deut. i. 42. 
The mouth,] That is, as the Gr. tianslateth, 
"the word of the Lord:" and the Chald. 
addeth, " against the decree of the word of 
the Lord." But it,] Or, for it, that is, the 
thing which ye do shall not jMosper, that is, 
not have good success: in Gr. " it shall not 
be prosperous unto you." R. Menachem re- 
ferreth this word it, to Shechinah, the divine 
majesty which would not prosper them ; and 
compareth herewith a like phrase in Ezek. i. 
13, ' it went up and down among the living 

Ver. 42. — Jehovah is not among you,] 
Thus, God bade him say, ' for I am not 
among you,' Deut. i. 42. The Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, " for Shechinah (the majesty or 
presence) of the Lord is not among yon." 
Not smitten,] In Chald. not broken^ in 
Gr. and ye shall fall before your enemies. 

Ver. 43.' — From after Jehovah,] In 
Chald. "from after the service of tht Lord," 
which the Gr. translateth, " disobeying (or 
not believing) the Lord." Chazkuni ex- 
plaineth it thus, " Because the spies made 
you afraid of the Canaanite and Amalekite 
that abide there, ye are turned from after tiie 
Lord, and are afraid to go into the land, and 
you trust not in him, therefore he will not 
be with you if you transgress his mouth, to 
go to fight till after 40 years. Jehovah 
WILL not be with vou,] This the Chald. 
expoundeth, " the \vord of the Loid will not 
be for your help." 

Ver. 44. — They loftily presumed,] 
Or, took upon them by violence with a lofty 
presumptuous mind: in the Chald. " they 
dealt wickedly or turbulently." The origi- 
nal word Aphal, (from which Ophel a tower 



Jeliovali and Moses, departed not from within the camp. ^* And 
tlie Amalekite came down, and the Canaanite, which dwelt in that 
mountain ; and smote them, and discomfited tliem even unto Ilor- 

or fori is derived, 2 Ciiron. xxxiii. 14,) sig- 
nifietli ' lifting iijJ,' as in Abak. ii. 4, whicli 
the apostle showeth, to mean a ' drawing back' 
frona God by unbelief, Ileb. x, 38, 39. So 
here in this their prusumptuoiis enterprise, 
their souls were lifted up in them, but with- 
drawn from God. And Moses explaineth 
this by two other words, ' ye pressed forward,' 
Deut. i. 41, and ' ye were presumptuous,' 
Deut. i. 43. The Heb. commentary Tan- 
chuma, compareth it with another like word 
which signifieth darkness, and explaineth it, 
*' they went dark (or obscure) for that they 
went without leave from God :" and Thargum 
Jonathan, thus; "they set forward in the 
dark, before day dawning:" to which the Lat. 
version agreeth, translating it " darkened." 
Departed not, J In Gr. moved not. The 
ark removed not, but at the removal of the 
cloud, Num. ix. 15, &c., which God not 
taking up, showed thereby liis dislike of their 
action. Moses obeying the Lord, would not 
accompany the presumptuous sinners: so they 
went without the Lord, and without the signs 
of his grace, or company of his ministers. 

Ver. 45. — The canaanite,] That is, the 
Amorite, Deut. v. 44, which was of the pos- 
terity of Canaan, Gen. x. 15, 16. Which 
DWELT,] Or, which sat, lay in wait. Dis- 
comfited THEM,] Pursued them as bees do, 
and destroyed them, Deut. i. 44. Because 
'they rebelled against God, and vexed his 
Holy Spirit, therefore he was turned to be 

their enemy, he fought against them,' Is. 
Ixiii. 10. Unto Horbiah,] In Gr. Henna, 
the name of a place, so called of the event, 
signifying utter destruction, or anathema: so 
after in Num. xxi. 3. After this discomfi- 
ture, the Israelites ' returned and wept before 
the Lord:' but he would not hear their voice, 
nor give ear unto them ; so they abode in 
Kadesh many days, Deut. i. 45, 46. These 
things which ' happened unto them for types,' 
1 Cor. x. 11, do show the nature of man, of 
his free will, and works without faitli, that 
they procure nothing but wrath from God, 
and destruction unto men. And as Israel 
carried themselves under Moses, so did they 
under Christ: for the Lord Jesus himself, 
and John the Baptist (as Joshua and Caleb) 
faithfully testified the truth of God's promise, 
and persuaded the people to enter into the 
kingdom of God, Matt. iii. 1—3; iv. 17. 
But the priests, scribes, and pharisees (like 
the unfaithful spies) discouraged the people, 
and would neither go themselves into the 
kingdom of heaven, nor sufier them that 
were entering, to go in. Matt, xxiii. 13^ but 
pretended worldly fears, John xi. 48. Yet 
after they would seem to enter by force, 
' going about to establish their own righteous- 
ness,' but not submitting themselves * unto 
the righteousness of God,' Rom. x. 3, so they 
pleased not God, but filled up their sins al- 
way, and wrath came upon them to the utter- 
most, 1 Thes. ii. 15, 16. 


1 . The Lord teacheth Israel how they should sacrifice unto him in 
the land of Canaan, and what measure of meat-offerings and drbik- 
offerings should be for every sacrifice. 13. The stranger is tinder 
the same latv. 17. The law of the first of the dough for an 
heave-offering. 22. The sacrifice for sin of ignorance, done by Israelite 
or stranger. 30. The ■punishment of sin done with an high hand. 32. 
A man that was found gathering sticks on the Sabbath, is by the com- 
mandment of God stoned to death. 37. The law of fringes on the bor- 
ders of their garments, and use that the people should make of them. 

' x\nd Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, " Speak unto the 
sons of Israel, and say unto them : When ye be come into the 

Ver. 1. — Si'AKE UNTO,] After the should perish in the wilderness, God now re- 
judgment upon the disobedient Israelites, who peateth and culargeth the law of satTificing, 



land of your habitations wliicli I give unto you. ^ And ye will 
make a ^ve-offering unto Jehovah, a burnt-offering or a sacrifice, 
to separate a vow, or a voluntary offering ; or in your solemn 
feasts, to make a savour of rest, unto Jehovah, of the herd, or of 
the flock. * Then he tliat offereth his oblation unto Jehovah, shall 

which tlieir children should observe in the 
land of Canaan: whereby their reconciliation 
unto him, and his grace towards them in 
Christ, was figured : thus after the curse of 
the law for sin, is annexed the grace of the 
gospel through faith. In like manner after 
the destruction of twenty-four thousand for 
the sin of Baal-pehor, in Num. xxv. the Lord 
causeth the people to be mustered, Num. 
xxvi. and appointeth the land to be given 
them for inheritance, and repeateth again the 
law of sacrificing at the solemn feasts, in 
Num. xxviii. and xxix. that upon the exam- 
ple of wrath on the sinful parents, he might 
show his remembrance of mercy in Christ, 
unto the repentant believing children. 

Ver. 2. — Land of your habitations,] 
Wherein you shall dwell: not in the wilder- 
ness, but in the land of promise, (which 
figured the state of grace in Christ) did God 
require the sacrifices of his people, and pro- 
miseth to accept them. So after by the pro- 
phet Ezekiel, he saith, * I will bring yuu into 
the wilderness of the people, and there will 
I plead with you face to face. Like as I 
pleaded with your fathers in the wilderness 
of the land of Egypt, so will I plead with 
you, saith the Lord God. And I will cause 
you to pass under the rod, &c. and I will 
purge out from among you the rebels, and 
them that transgress against me, &c. For 
in the mountain of mine holiness, in the 
mountain of the height of Israel, saith the 
Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, 
all of them in the laud, serve me: there will 
I accept them, and there will I require your 
ofltjrings, and the first fruits of your oblations, 
with all your holy things; with a savour of 
rest will I accept you,' &c. Ezek. xx. 35 — 
38, 40, 41. 

Ver. 3. — A fire offering,] In Chald. 
an oblation hcfore the Lord. Burnt-offer- 
ing,] The law whereof was given in Lev. i. 
A sacrifice,] To wit, of peace-offerings, 
as the Chald. explaineth it: the law concern- 
ing them, see in Lev. iii. And the word 
'sacrifice' being put absolutely, is often used 
for 'peace-oll'erings;' as in Exod. xviii. 12; 
Lev. xvii. 5,8; xxiii. 37; Deut. xii. 27. 
So it is meant here ; for the meat and drink- 
offerings following, were not added to the sin 
or trespass-oflerings. The Heb. canons say, 
"They are not charged with meat and 
drink-ollerings, save for the burnt-offering of 
beasts, and for peace-offerings only ; whether 

they be the oblation of the congregation, or 
of a private person, or the lamb of a woman 
after child-birth (Lev. xii. 6,) and those that 
the high priest oflereth, forasmuch as tlujy 
are burnt-offerings, they are charged to have 
meat and drink-ofl'erings. But the (burnt- 
offerings of) fowls, and the trespass and sin- 
offerings, they bring no meat or drink-of- 
ferings with them, save with the sin-offering 
of the leper, and his trespass-oflering, whose 
meat-ofl'erings are expressed in the law," 
(Lev. xiv. 10,) Maim, in Magn. hakor- 
banoth, chap. ii. sect. 2- To separate,] 
Or, in separating a vow: whereof see the notes 
on Lev. xxvii. 2. Voluntary offering,] 
What these are, and how they differ one 
from another, is noted on Lev. vii. 16, 
After in ver. 8, it is called ' peace-ofierings.' 
And from hence the Hebs. gather, that sin 
and trespass-offerings were not required to 
have meat and drink-ofl'erings with them ; 
for, "sin and trespass-offerings, and first- 
fruits, and tithes, and the passover, for as 
much as they come not by vow or voluntary 
ofiering, they are not charged with the meat 
and drink-offerings," Maim, in Magnus, ha- 
korbanoth, chap. ii. sect. 3. Solemn feasts,] 
Whereof see Lev. xxiii. So the peace-of- 
ferings of the chagigali (or passover men- 
tioned in Deut. xvi. 1, 2, &c.) and the 
burnt-offerings, were to have meat and drink- 
offerings with them: Maim. ibid. chap. ii. 
sect. 3. Savour of rest,] That is, of 
sweet smell, as the Gr. translateth it; which 
the Chald. expoundeth, to be accepted with 
favour: see the notes on Gen. viii. 21; Lev. 
i. 9. Or of the flock,] To except the 
burnt-offering of fowls, as before is noted, 

Ver. 4. — His oblation,] In Gr. his gift; 
so the Heb. korban is interpreted, a gift, in 
Mark vii. 11. Shall bring near,] Or, 
shall offer: so after. Meat-offering,] Iu 
Heb. minchah: of it, and the signification 
thereof, see the notes on Lev. ii. A tenth 
part,] To wit, of an ephah, as is expressed 
in Num. xxviii. 5, and as the Gr. version 
here addeth: of the 'ephah' or bushel, see 
Exod. xvi. 3C. Hence the Heb. gather, as 
Chazkuni here noteth from R. Nathan, "that 
whosoever would voluntarily offer a meat-of- 
fering, might not bring less than a tenth deal. 
An hin,] a measure in the sanctuary for 
liquid things. " The liin is twelve logs," 
saith Maim, in Magnas. hakorbanoth, chap, 
ii. sect. 7. The log was as much as six 



bring near a meat-offering of a tenth jxtrt of fine flour, mingled 
with the fourth jiart of an hin of oil. ■' And the fourth part of an 
liin of wine for a drink-offering, shalt thou make ready for the 
burnt-offering, or for the sacrifice, for one lamb. ^ Or for a ram 
thou shalt make a meat-offering of two tenth parts of fine flour, 
mingled with the third part of an hin of oil. ' And for a drink- 
offering, the third /?ar^ of an hin of wine shalt tliou offer /or a sa- 
vour of rest unto Jehovah. ° And when thou shalt make a young- 
ling of the herd, a burnt-offering or a sacrifice, to separate a vow 
or peace-offerings unto Jehovah ; ^ Tiien shall he bring near with 
tlie youngling of the herd, a meat-offering of three tenth parts of 
fine flour, mingled with half an hin of oil. " And thou shalt offer 
for a drink-offering, half an hin of wine for a fire-offering of a 
savour of rest unto Jehovah. ^' Thus shall it be done for one 
bullock, or for one ram, or for a lamb of the sheep, or of the 
goats. '" According to tlie number that ye shall make ready, so 

eggs, as is noted on Lev. xiv. 10; Exod. 
XXX. 24. So the 'Ilia' contained as much as 
seventy-two eggs: tlie fourth part of an hin, 
as much as eighteen eggs. Oil,] To wit, 
oil olire, as in Thargum Jonathan is ex- 

Ver. 5. — Wine,] Expounded in Thargum 
Jonathan, red wine of the grapes. So in 
those that follow. It is called ' shecar,' or, 
' strong wine,' in Num. xxviii. 7. A drink- 
offering,] Or, an effusion, a poured out 
ottering, because it was " poured out upon the 
altar, but not upon the fire," as Maim, 
showeth, in Magn, hakorbanoth, chap. ii. 
sect. 1. Or for the sacrifice,] To wit, 
of peace-offerings, as the Chald. expoundeth 
it; and by this word or, he showeth that he 
is to bring " for the one by itself, and for the 
other by itself;" saith Chazkuni on Num. xv. 
For one,] That \s, for every one severally, 
as in ver. 12. 

Ver. 6. — Or for a ram,] The Gr. inter- 
preteth it, and for a ram. A ram was of 
the second year, or upward: the lamb of the 
first year. Two tenth parts,] Two omers, 
which was double the measure for a lamb, 
ver. 4, and this the Hebs. understand for the 
ram only, not for the ewe, or goat ; as they 
write, "The quantity of the meat and drink- 
ofierings, for an he-lamb, cr she-lamb, is a 
tenth of flour, and the fourth part of an hin 
ol wine. Likewise for a goat, whether it be 
little or great, male or female; also for an 
ewe, though slie be great. But for a ram, 
two tenth deals of flour, &c. and the third 
part of an hin of wine," Maim, in Magnus, 
hakorbanoth, chap. ii. sect. 4. 

Ver. 7. — Of rest,] In Gr. of sweet 
smell, Dv good odour: as in ver. 3. 

Ver. 8. — AViien tho0 shalt make,] In 

Gr, if ye shall make, that is, shall sacrifice. 
Youngling,] Heb. a son of the herd: mean- 
ing a bullock: as in Exod. xxix. 1. And 
here is no diflerence between young or old, 
as was before between lamb and ram ; but one 
.quantity is for the calf, and for the bull. 
" The bullock or the calf, be it male or 
female, hath for the meat-ofiering three tenth 
deals of flour," &e. Maim. ibid. chap. ii. 
sect. 4. 

Ver. 9. — He bring,] Or, he offer: here 
the person is changed; before he said, 'when 
thou,' ver. 8, now he saith, ' then shall he .' 
the Gr. keepeth the person as before, then 
shall ye offer. Three tenth parts,] Three 
omers ; that is, three times so much as for a 
lamb, ver. 4. 

Ver. 10. — A fire-offering,] In Chald. 
an oblation. This is meant, as Sol. Jarchi 
saith, "but of the meat-ofl'ering and of the 
oil: for the wine was no fire-oflijring, because 
it was not put upon the fire." 

Vek. 11. — Or of the goats,] Be it kid, 
or goat-buck, male or female, old or young; 
for the law putteth no dilTerence, as is ob- 
served ; and so noted by Chazkuni here. As 
for the manner of oflering these meat-olFur- 
ings, the Heb. canons say, that they were not 
charged to bring ' frankincense' with thtni 
(as they were with the meat-oliiirings that 
were brought alone. Lev. ii. 1,) but they 
were charged to have 'salt,' (according to 
the law in Lev. ii. 13,) "and this meat of- 
fering was all of it burnt upon the altar in 
the courtyard, (whereas of all the other nieat- 
oflering, an handful only was burnt, and the 
residue eaten by the priests. Lev. ii. 2, 3,) and 
the wine was poured upon the altar," Maim, 
in Magnas. hakorbanoth, chap. ii. sect. 1. 

Ver. 12. — So shall ye make ready,] 



shall ye make ready for (every) one, according to their number. 
'•^ Every liome-born of the country shall tlius do tliese things, to 
offer a fyre-offering of a savour of rest unto Jehovah. 

" And if a stranger sojourn with you, or yfho-soever be amon^ 
you in your generations, and will make a five-offering of a savour 
of rest unto Jehovah ; as ye do, so he shall do. '' Ye of the 
church, one statute shall be for you, and for the stranger that so- 
journeth: a statute yor ever in your generations; as ye are, so 
shall the stranger be before Jeliovah. '^ One law, and one manner 
shall be for you, and for tlie stranger tliat sojourneth with you. 

'^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ^^ Speak unto the 

Or, thus shall ye do: the Hebs. say, " These sanctification of his people, and of their sci'- 

meat and drink-offerings, whether they be for 
humt-offerings or peace-oflerings, must be ac- 
cording to this measure for every one; (Num. 
XV. 12,) they may not add more to these mea- 
sures, nor diminish ought from them: and if 
they do diminish, or add more, the whole is 
made unlawful. Except it be the lamb of 
burnt-offering which they bring ou the day 
that they wave the omer of first-fruits (Lev. 
xxiii. 12, 13,) for the meat-offering thereof 
is two tenth deals of fine flour, mingled with 
the third part of an hin of oil: but though 
the flour thereof be doubled, yet is not the wine 
doubled, but the wine for the drink-offering, 
is the fourth part of an hin. When they 
measure the meat or drink-offering, either of 
a particular person, or of the congregation, 
they mete it not by a measure of three tenth 
deals for a bullock, or of two for a ram ; but 
they measure all in one tenth deal, which is 
in the sanctuary, and likewise the oil, &c. 
The flour with the oil of the meat-offerings, 
hinder not the wine; neither doth the wine 
hinder them: neither do the meat or drink- 
offerings hinder the sacrifice. But a man 
may bring his oblation to-day, and his meat 
and drink-oflerings ten days after; provided 
that he have not sanctified them in a minis- 
tering vessel. For if he have put them into 
a ministering vessel (of the sanctuary) if they 
abide all rdglit, they become thereby unlaw- 
ful. They may bring no meat or drink-of- 
ferings, save of the common things ; they 
may not bring them of the heave offering, 
nor of the second tithe, nor of the first-fruits, 
but of common things only," Maim, in 
Mag?ias. hakorbanoth, chap. ii. sect. 5, 8, 
12, 13. The burnt and peace-offerings, 
served (as other sacrifices) ' to make atone- 
ment for the house of Israel,' Ezek. xlv. 17; 
Lev. i. 4, and figured Christ's oblation of 
himself, to reconcile us unto God his Father, 
and to be o\ir peace, Heb. ix. 14 ; x. 8, 10; 
Eph. ii. 14 — IG. The meat-ofl'ering (besides 
the signification that it had of Christ, Eph. 
v. 2,) figured in special manner the faith and 

vice of God, Is. Ixvi. 20; Rom. xv. 16; Ps. 
cxli. 2; Mal. i. 10, 11. So the Lord by 
this addition of the meat-offering to the other 
sacrifices in Canaan, taught his people sanc- 
tity in the faith and profession of the gospel, 
both touching their persons and actions: and 
the drink-offerings, of vrine poured out upon, 
and sanctified by the altar, were not only a 
type of Christ's blood shed ' for remission of 
sins,' Matt. xxvi. 28, 29, but of our fellow- 
ship with him in his afllictions, even to be 
'poured out upon the sacrifice and service' 
of Christian's faith, Phil. ii. 17 ; 2 Tim. iv. 
6. See the aimot. on Lev. ii. 

Ver. 13. — Home-born,] The natural Is- 

Ver. 14. — Stranger,] In Gr. proselyte: 
the Gentile converted to the Jewish religion. 
In your generations,] Oj', throughout, 
that is, in all ages successively: so in ver. 

Ver. 15. — Ye of the church,] Or, 
church, or congregctiion : or, concerning the 
church; which in Thargum Jonathan is ex- 
pounded, " the whole church." Before je- 
hovah,] In the exercises of religion before 
the Lord: for in civil things there was not 
one law for both Israelites and strangers. 

Ver. 16. — One manner,] That is, one 
manner of practice and obedience, and one 
punishment for transgression: Heb. one judg- 
ment. So in ver. 24. 

Ver. 17. — And jehovah spake,] A se- 
cond ordinance by the Lord's authority, is 
here imposed upon them that should come 
into the land of Canaan ; that they should 
give him a cake of the first of their dough: 
which law is nowhere mentioned by Moses, 
save in this place. And as the former law 
for sacrificing taught them holiness by faith 
in Christ, who should be sacrificed for his 
church; to this commandment of first-fruits, 
taught them to show forth the fruits of faith, 
by good works, which God appointed his 
people to walk in. 

Ver, is. — When ye come into tub 



sons of Israel, and say unto them. When ye come into tlie 
land wliither I brmg you ; '^ Then it shall be, when ye eat of tlie 
bread of the land, ye shall heave an heare-offering unto Jchovali. 
*" 0/ the first of your dough, a cake shall ye heave Jbr an heave- 

LANDjl As a promise is here included, that 
God would bring them into that good land: 
so a duty of thankfulness is commanded, that 
they might remember and acknowledge his 
mercy, and have his blessing continued upon 
them. The Hebs. do observe, that "this com- 
ing dillereth from all the comings mentioned 
in the law: for, in them all it is said. When 
thou art (or shalt) come ; when ye are come, 
meaning, after the possession thereof, and 
dwelling therein: but here it is said, when ye 
come, meaning, after they were entered into 
it, and did eat of the bread thereof, they were 
hound to give the cake," saith Sol Jarchi on 
Num. XV. Now this they did, before the 
land was parted for inheritance, as appeareth 
in Josh. V. 11, 12, where ' they did eat of 
the old corn of the land;' and then 'the 
manna ceased.' And as an omer of manna 
was reserved before the Lord, for the genera- 
tions of Israel, that they might see and 
thankfully remember ' the bread ' which God 
gave them to eat ' in the wilderness,' Exod. 
xvi. 32, 33, so a cake of the bread which he 
should give them in Canaan, was to be given 
unto him, that they might acknowledge him 
to be the preserver and nourisher of them in 
the land ; for it is he ' that givetli bread unto 
all flesh, because his mercy endureth for ever,' 
Ps. cxxxvi. 25. Whither i bring yoo,"] 
Or, am bringing yoic thither. Hence the 
Hebs. say, " They were not bound by the law 
to give the cake save in the land of Israel 
only, and when all Israel were there, &c. 
Fruits without the land, that are brought into 
the land, owe the cake: but the fruits of the 
land, that are carried out of the land, are 
discharged ; as it is said, ' whither I bring 
you:' there are you bound, both concerning 
the fruits of the land, and the fruits without 
the land. But by the doctrine of the scribes, 
they were to separate a cake also out of the 
land, that the law of the cake might not be 
forgotten out of Israel," Maim, in Biccurim 
(or treatise of first-fruits,) chap. v. sect. 5 

Ver. 19. — Of the bread,] That is, of 
the brcad-com, as in Is. xxviii. 28. ' Bread 
'that is, corn) is bruised ; and out of the 
earth cometh bread,' Job xxviii. 5; Ps. civ. 
14. The Chald. of Jonathan here para- 
phraseth thus; " Of the bread of the revenue 
of the land: and not of rice, and millet, and 
lesser seeds." So by the Ileb. canons; 
" Nothing oweth the cake, but the five kinds 
of gi-ain only ; which are, wheat, and barley, 

Vol.. II. 

and rye, and fox- ear barley, and oats: for 
nothing is called bread, save that which is 
made of these. But he that maketh meat 
of rice, millet, or other like pulse (or seeds) 
they owe no cake at all," Maim, in Biccurim 
chap. V. sect. 2, and Talmud Bab. in Chal- 
lah. chap. i. Ye shall heave,] That is, 
shall offer up; or, as the Gr. and Chald. 
translate, shall separate; for it was separated 
by the owner, and oflered to the Lord ; and 
so was one of the ' heave-ofierings ' which 
God gave unto his priests, Num. xviii. 19. 
Wherefore it was holy, and " whosoever se- 
parated a cake, he first blessed God who 
sanctified them by his commandments, and 
commanded them to separate a cake," Maim, 
in JSjccwrm, chap. v. sect. 1). " An hea- 
then that separated a cake, though in the 
land of Israel, it was no cake," Ibid. chap, 
vi. sect. 10. Unto jbhovah,] In Chald. 
before the Lord. Not that it was brought 
into the sanctuary, or offered on the altar, but 
given to the Lord's minister: as it is written, 
' Ye shall also give unto the priest, the 
first of your dough,' Ezek. xliv. 30. By the 
Heb. canons, " The first-fruits, and the 
heave-offerings, and the cake, and the prin- 
cipal, and the fifth part, [spoken of in Num. 
V. 7, 8,] and the gifts of the beast [that is 
killed, Deut. xviii. 3,] these are the priests' 
goods: with them he may buy servants, and 
lands, and unclean beasts, and pay his debts, 
or wives' dowry, and buy books," Maim, in 
Biccurim, chap. iv. sect. 14. 

Ver. 20. — Of the first,] Or, the frst- 
fruits: with the first-fruits of all things, 
God was to be honoured, Prov. iii. 9, that 
thereby all the rest of their food might be 
sanctified unto them: 'For if the first-fruit 
be holy, the lump (or dough) is also holy,' 
Rom. xi. 16, and a promise of 'plenty' is 
added to them that thus do, Prov. iii. 10, as 
of this particular it is said, ' ye shall also 
give unto the priest the first of your dough, 
that he may cause the blessing to rest in 
thine house,' Ezek. xliv. 30. Of your 
DOUGH,] Of your paste, or lump. They 
gave of their corn, fiist-fruits and tithes, and 
other gifts, to the priests, Lcvites, and poor, 
when they first reaped and threshed if, Exod. 
xxiii. 19; Num. xviii. 12, 26; Lev. xxiii. 
22. After them, when they made bread of 
it, they separated also this cake. And as 
the Levites separated an heave-offering, out 
of their tithe, Num. xviii. 26, so the poor 
that gleaned, separated of their dough; as the 


offering, as the heave-o^nw^ of the tlireshing floor, so shall ye 
iieave it. ^' Of the first of your dough, ye shall give unto Jelio- 
vah an he&ve-q^ering in your generations. 

Hebs. write, " That which is gleaned, and 
which is forgotten (Deut. xxiv. 19,) and the 
corner, Lev. xix. 9, &c. though they be free 
from the trumah (or heave-ofFering) yet they 
owe the cake. Likewise the first tithes," 
&c. Maim, in Biccurini, chap. vi. sect. 3. 
And though other seeds or pulse, owe not the 
cake, as is before noted, yet they say, " He 
that mixeth the meal of wheat, and the meal 
of rice, and maketh dough of them, if it 
have the taste of the wheat, it oweth the 
cake; and if not, it is discharged. Though 
it be but the leaven of wheat among dough of 
rice, if it have any taste of the wheat, it 
oweth the cake. Dough that is kneaded 
with wine, or oil, or honey, &c. if they bake 
it ill an oven, or on the hearth, or pan, or in 
a frying pan, &c. oweth the cake. But he 
that maketh dough to dry it in the sun only, 
or to boil it in a cauldron, it is discharged of 
the cake, &c. Also parched corn, that is 
kneaded with water, or honey, and eaten 
without baking, is discharged ; for nothing 
oweth the cake, but dough, the end whereof 
is to be bread baken for man's meat," Ibid, 
sect. 11, 12. And for the quantity of dough, 
out of which a cake is to be given, they say, 
" An omer full of meal, whether it be of one 
of the five sorts of grain, or of all of them 
mixed together, the dough thereof oweth a 
cake. And it is unlawful for a man to make 
his dough of a lesser quantity, that it may be 
free from payiug the cake," Ibid. sect. 15, 
16. What the omer is, see Exod. xvi. 36. 
And from that measure of manna which God 
gave every one for a day, did they gather 
their quantity, that an omer of meal should 
pay a cake to the Lord, as Sol. Jarchi on this 
place showeth. A cake,] Or, loaf, made of 
the dough aforesaid. "He that separateth 
meal for his cake, it is no cake: but the resi- 
due of the dough oweth a cake. When they 
put water to it, and the meal is mixed with 
the water, they separate a cake of the first 
thing which is kneaded, as it is written. The 
first of your dough. That dough which 
oweth a cake by the law, he that eateth 
thereof is to be beaten," Maim, in Biccu- 
rim, chap. viii. sect. 1, 2, 5. Of the 
THRESHING-FLOOR,] That is, of the corn in 
the threshing-floor; as it is your duty reli- 
giously to separate first-fruits of yoin- corn in 
the floor; so of the dough in your houses. 
Thus the ' floor' is used for the ' corn' there- 
in, in Deut. xvi. 13. Sol. Jarchi under- 
standeth it thus; " as the heave-oflering of 
the floor, of which there is no stinted mea- 

sure (by the law ;) and not as the heave-offer- 
ing of the tithes, whereof there is a stinted 
measure:" so for the quantity, it should be 
voluntary, so much as men would give. 
Howbeit, their wise men (they say) set a 
measure; viz. "that they should separate 
the four and twentieth part of the dough, 
that it might be a gift meet to be given. 
But the baker, that maketh bread to sell in 
the street, separateth the eight and fortieth 
part: for because his dough is much, there is 
in this quantity sufficient for a gift," Maim. 
in Biccurim, chap. v. sect. 2. So the Chald. 
of Jonathan expoundeth this verse, "The 
first-fruits of your dough, a cake, one of 
twenty-four, (that is, the four and twentieth 
part) shall ye separate as a separated oflering 
for the priest," &c. 

Veb. 21. — Ye shall give,] The repeat- 
ing of the commandment, showeth it to be 
of importance ; and though the priest had it, 
yet was it given ' to the Lord,' whose bles- 
sing therefore was promised to the observers 
of this law, Ezek. xliv. 30. And as all 
things given unto God, were to be holy, pure, 
and clean ; so of this the Hebs. write, " A man 
may not make his dough in uncleanness at 
all; but is to be admonished, and must be 
careful that he be clean, both he and his ves- 
sels, that he may separate a pure cake," 
Maim, in Biccurim, chap. ix. sect. 11. In 
YOUR,] Or, throughout your generations, in 
all ages: wherefore this ordinance was kept 
by Israel, after they were returned out of 
Babylon, Neh. x. 37. And besides that all 
their bread was sanctified unto them by these 
first-fruits, and God was honoured, by whose 
word man liveth, and not by bread only, Deut. 
viii. 3, it seemeth to have a further significa- 
tion of the chosen people of God, as Paul ap- 
plieth this phrase of the first-fruits, and of 
the lump of dough, unto the state of Israel, 
Rom. xi. 16, as the prophet speaking of the 
first-fruits also saith, ' Israel was holiness 
to the Lord, the first-fruits of his increase; 
all that eat him shall be guilty,' &c. Jer. ii 
3. And thus the Jews of old understood 
this "commandment of the cake, that it sig- 
nified in mystery the congregation of Israel, 
called the first-fiuits of the world ; which 
when it is put into the oven that burneth 
with the fire of the holy blessed God, it is 
necessary to separate therefrom a cake, that 
it be not partaker of severe judgment; and 
therefrom is a blessing reserved in the 
world," (Ezek. xliv. 30,) R. Menachem on 
Num. XV. 



" xVnd when ye sluiil liave sinned ignorantly, and have not done 
all tliese comniandnients which Jehovah hath spoken unto Moses : 
^ Even all tliat Jehovah liath commanded you by the hand of 
Moses, from the day tliat Jeliovah commanded Moses, and hence- 
forward, througliout your generations: ^* Then it shall be, if 

by the governors, and practised by the pco- 
pie, concerning idolatry ; as is showed in tlie 
annot. on Lev. iv. 13, and so Sol. Jarchi ex- 
poundeth this place. Shall wake ready,] 
That is, shall offer for a sacrifice, Lev. iv. 
14. And this the Hebs. understand not of 
one sacrifice for the twelve tribes, but for 
every tribe so much. " If the error be in 
idolatry, that they (the governors) have 
erred, and taught it; they bring a bullock for 
a burnt-offering, and a goat-buck for a sin- 
offering, for every tribe, and this oblation is 
that which is spoken of in Num. xv.," saith 
Maim, in Shegngoth, chap. xii. sect. 1, and 
Talmud in Horajoth, chap. ii. See the 
notes on Lev. iv. 14. This exposition for 
the number, may seem probable, because the 
people returned from captivity, oflered 'for 
all Israel,' in burnt-oflerings ' twelve bullocks, 
and twelve goat-bucks for a sin-offering,' ac- 
cording to the number of the tribes, Ezra 
viii. 35. Youngling,] Ileb. son of the 
herd: a bullock was always of the second 
year or upward: so, the goat-buck following. 
BtJRNT-OFFERiNG,] Which signified atone- 
ment and sanctification by the death of 
Christ, as is showed on Lev. i. Of rest,] 
That is, of sweet smell, as the Gr. translat- 
elh: the Chald. saith, "to be accepted with 
favom- before the Lord." To the manner,] 
Or, right, ordinance: Heb. to the judgment: 
meaning, the measure prescribed of God, in 
ver. 9, 10. For a sin-offerino,] In Gr. 
for sin. This word in Heb. is written with 
want of a letter, which elsewhere usually is 
expressed: whereupon Sol. Jarchi notcth, 
"that it is not as other sin-oflerings; for all 
sin-offerings that are by the law brought with 
the burnt-olTering, the sin-ofi'ering is before 
the burnt-offering, as it is said, (in Lev. v. 
10.) And the second he shall make a burnt- 
cOering, but this burnt-oflering is before the 
sin-offering." The manner of offering this 
sin-offering was like the bullock, in Lev. ir, 
it was killed in the court-yard, the blood was 
carried into the sanctuary, and sprinkled 
seven times before the Lord ; the fat was 
burned on the altar in the court-yard ; and 
the body of the beast was carried forlii, and 
burnt without the camp; so figuring Christ, 
who should be slain for the sins of his peojile, 
and by his own blood enter into heaven; bis 
body being crucified without the gate of Je- 
rusalem, Heb. ix. II, 1'^, 21; xiii. 11, 12. 
"If the creat assii^e (of magistrales) igna- 

Ver. 22. — When ye shall have sinned 
IGNORANTLY,] Or, if ye have erred, that is, 
(lone unadvisedly of ignoiance, eiTor, or 
oversight; whereto is opposed sinning 'with 
an high hand,' ver. SO. See the annot. on 
Lev. iv. 2. As in the two former laws, the 
Lord repeated and enlarged the doctrines of 
faith, and of good works: so here he doth 
the like concerning the forgiveness of sins, 
which his people through infirmity do fall 
into; that all the chief points of Clnistian 
leligion are here renewed unto them. Have 
NOT done all,] The words of this law dif- 
fer from the former in Lev. iv. 2, 13, which 
spake of doing that ' which should not be 
done ;' whereas this speaketh of not doing all 
which should be done. There also, the sa- 
crifice, which the congregation should bring, 
was ' a bullock for a sin-oflering,' Lev. iv. 
14, here (in ver. 24,) they are willed to bring 
' a bullock for a burnt-offering ; and a goat- 
bnck, for a sin-offering.' Whether is this 
dilierence, in respect of the commandments, 
forbidding evil works, and requiring good, as 
the words seem to import? Or, as the Hebs. 
expound it, doth this here respect the sin of 
idolatry only ? Or, as others understand it, 
is that for all the tribes generally, and this 
for the several tribes, cities and towns as they 
were severed in the land of Canaan? Or, 
is this (in mystery) an increase of the sacri- 
fice in Canaan ; as in prophesy of the days 
of tlie gospel, the meat and drink-offerings 
(whicrh Cliristians should spiritually offer with 
tlieir sacrifices) are of greater quantity, than 
those which were offered under Moses, Ezek. 
xlvi. 5, 1 1, compared with Num. xv. 4 — 7; 
xxviii. 20, &c. 

Ver. 23. — Even all,] This showeth the 
large extent of this law, and the weight 
thereof, by repeating things so expressly. 
The Hebs. which understand this of idolatry 
only, say, "that that one commandment is 
as all the commandments, &c. and that this 
showeth, that whosoever professeth idolatry, 
is as if he denied all the law wholly, and all 
that the prophets have prophesied ; as it is 
written, And hence forward:" Sol. Jarchi on 
Num. XV., and Maim. tom. i. treat. (A Idola- 
try, chap. ii. sect. 4. 

Ver. 24. — Ry ignorance,] In Gr. un- 
willijigly: see Lev. iv. 2. Fro.m the eyes,] 
Understand, hidden from the eyes, as is ex- 
pressed in Lev. iv. 13. This the Heb. doc- 
tors understand of things erroneously taught 



ought be done by ignorance, from the eyes of the congregation, 
that all tlie congregation shall make ready one bullock, a young- 
ling of the herd, for a burnt-oifering, for a savour of rest unto 
Jehovah; and his meat-offering, and liis drink-offering, according 
to the manner: and one goat- buck of the goats, for a sin-offering. 
^ And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of 
the sons of Israel, and it shall be mercifully forgiven them : for it 
is an ignorance, and they have brought tlieir oblation, a ^re-offer- 
ing unto Jehovah, and their sm-offeritig before Jehovah, for their 
ignorance. ^^ And it shall be mercifully forgiven, all tlie congre- 
gation of the sons of Israel, and the stranger that sqjourneth 
among them, because all the people was in ignorance. 

^^ And if one soul sin through ignorance, then it shall bring near 
a she-goat of her first year for a sin-offering. ^^ And the priest 
shall make atonement for the soul that sinneth ignorantly, when it 
hath sinned by ignorance, before Jehovah, to make atonement for 
him, and it shall be mercifully forgiven him. ^^ For the home- 
born amongst the sons of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourn- 
eth among them, one law shall be to you for him that dotli througli 
ignorance. ^" But the soul that shall do with an high hand, wlie- 

rantly sin in teaching idolatry, the whole 
congregation bringeth twelve bullocks for 

burnt-offerings, and twelve goats for sin-offer- 
ings, and they are burned, because their 
blood is carried into the sanctuary, &c. 
Though but one tribe only commit (the sin) 
if it be the most part of the church; then 
all the congregation bring, for idolatry, twelve 
bullocks, and twelve goats," Maim, in SAe- 
gagothy chap. xii. sect. 1. 

Ver. 25. — For all the congregation,] 
Or, for every congregation ; whereby may be 
implied the several tribes, cities, towns, and 
synagogues. So in ver. 26. An ignorance,] 
Or, an error, in Gr. an icnwitling sin, so in 
ver. 26. Brought their oblation,] In 
Gr. have brought the gift thereof. A fire- 
offering,] In Chald. an oblation before the 
Lord: and this is meant of " the bullock the 
burnt-offering," as Sol. Jarchi noteth. Their 
SIN-OFFERING,] " This is the goat," saith 
Sol. Jarchi. Before jehovah,] R. Meua- 
chem fiom former authors speaketh of these 
phrases here used, "unto the Lord, and be- 
fore the Lord, that it is meant of him and 
his judgment-hall;" whereby it appeareth 
that the mystery of the Trinity in the God- 
head, was of old believed by the Jews, 
though now they oppugn it. For there was 
no court or judgment-hall in Israel, less than 
of three judges: and being by them here and 
in other places applied unto God, and in case 
of sacrifice and expiation of sin, which they 
did hold peculiar unto God alone; it showeth 
that they once acknowledged a Trinity of per- 

sons in the Godhead, to whom sacrifices for 
the sins of men were offered. 

Ver. 26. — And the stranger,] The be- 
lieving Gentile, as the Gr. translateth, and 
the proselyte that cometh unto you. Thus 
the Lord showed himself to be ' the G od of 
the Gentiles also,' Rom. iii. 29. 

Ver. 27. — Of one soul,] Or, any soul; 
that Is, any person: the Chald. expoundeth 
it, 07ie 7nan. So in Lev. iv. 27. Through 
IGNORANCE,] In Gr. utiwillingly. This also 
by the Hebs. (as Sol. Jarchi here) is ex- 
pounded of the sin of idolatry. Of her 
FIRST YEAR,] Heb. daughter of her year, in 
Gr. a yearling: see the notes on Exod. xii. 
6; Lev. iv. 32; he might also bring an ewe- 
lamb for his sin; which may likewise be 
understood here. But Sol. Jarchi saith, 
" For other transgressions, a particular man 
bringeth an ewe-lamb, or a she-goat: but for 
this (of idolatry) a she-goat is appointed, 

Ver. 29. — One law shall be to you,] 
That is, ye shall have one laiv: the Gr. trans- 
lateth, one latv shall be among them {or for 
them.) That doth,] Or, that committeth, 
to wit, the sin, through ignorance: in Gr. 
whosoever doth wiivillingly . Thus the law 
promiseth grace in Christ, in that it appointed 
sacrifices and priests that can have ' compas- 
sion on the ignorant, and on them that err,' 
Heb. v. 2. In this faith, David prayeth 
unto Ged, ' Ignorances (or, unadvised errors) 
who doth understand? cleanse thou me from 
secret sins,' Ps. xix. 13. 

Ver. 30.— The soul,] Iu Chald. the 



tlier he he liomc-borii; or a stranger, the same reproachetli Jehovah ; 
and tliat soul shall be cut off" Irom among his people. ^' Because 
he hath despised the word of Jehovah, and hath broken his com- 
mandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off", his iniquity shall be 
upon him. 

^^ And the sons of Israel were in the wilderness : and they found 

riian. With an high hand,] That is, So/rf/y, ye frustrate the commandment of God.' 

proudly and presumptuously, as the Gr. traiis- 
lateth, ivith the hand uf pride; and Thargnm 
Jonathan, luith pride, {or presumption ) This 
phrase, when it is spoken of good works, mean- 
eth boldness, courage and magnanimity, in 
heart and carriage ; as, Israel went out of 
Egypt ' with an high ha<id,' Num. xxxiii. 3; 
Exod. xiv. 8, but here of evil, it meaneth 
pride and presumption showing itself openly 
and boldly ; which Onkelos in Chald. ex- 
poundeth, " with an uncovered head," as 
being not ashamed of the deed (for when 
men were ashamed, they used to ' cover their 
heads,' Jer. xiv. 4.) Of like sort, is 'the 
high arm,' in Job xxxviii-. 15, where the Gr. 
also expoundeth it, the arm of the proud:) 
and ' the high (or lofty) eyes,' Ps. xviii. 28; 
cxxxi. 1. Reproacheth,] Or, i/ai'juAewie/A; 
which the Gr. and Chald. translate, iirovoketh 
to anger. It meaneth a reproaching with 
words, as 2 Kings xix. 6, 22, and is applied 
here unto deeds, as also in Ezek. xx. 27, 
'yet in this your fathers have reproached (or 
blasphemed) me, in that they have trespassed 
a trespass against me.' So a presumptuous 
sinner is counted as a blasphemer of God, 
and hath no sacrifice for his sin, but is to be 
cut oil". And this word Christ hath respect 
unto, in Luke xii. 10, ' unto him that bias- 
phemeth against the Holy Spirit, it shall not 
be forgiven.' That soul,] Iq Chald. that 
man. Cut off,] In Gr. and Chald. des- 
troyed: which phrase the apostle useth in 
Acts iii. 23, ' shall be destroyed from among 
the people.' That word meaneth destruction 
by the hand of God, as in 1 Cor. x. 10; 
Heb. xi. 28. So the Heb. doctors under- 
stand the cutting off, mentioned in the law 
of Moses : which sometimes is so explained, 
as in Lev. xvii. 10. God saith, ' I will cut 
him off from among his people.' But if 
there were witnesses of the fact, the magis- 
trates punished them, either by death, or 
beating: see the notes on Deut. xxv. 2. 

Ver. 31. — Despised the word,] Or, 
contemned, set it at nought, as vile ; dis- 
honoured it. Hereupon is that proverb, 'He 
that despiseth tlie word, shall be destroyed ; 
but he that feareth the commandment, shall 
be rewarded,' Prov. xiii. 13. Broken,] Or, 
disannulli'd, frustrated; made void: it is op- 
posed unto establishing or confirming. This 
word Christ useth in Mark vii. 9, ' Full well 

Usually it is applied to the breaking of the 
'covenant' of God, as in Gen. xvii. 14; 
Lev. XV. 44, and often in the prophets; some- 
times of the law and commandments, Ps. 
cxix. 126; Ezra ix. 14; Heb. x. 28. Shall 
utterly be cut off,] Or, shall be cut off 
with cutting off: the doubling of the word, 
is for more certainty, and speed ; and as the 
Heb. doctors gather from it, " in this world, 
and in the world to come:" see the annot. on 
Gen. xvii. 14. So R. Menachem here 
saith, "Although we find apostates (from 
God) to live more than fifty years, and that 
they are not cut oH" from the life of this 
world ; yet know that their deserts hang upon 
them in this world, and vengeance shall be 
taken on them abundantly in the world to 
come." His iniquitv,] Or, the iniquity of 
it, (of the soul, that is, of the person) shall 
be upon it; or, in it; or, with it. By ini- 
quity, understanding punishment for iniquity, 
as in Gen. xix. 15, and as sin, is for the 
punishment of sin, Lev. xxii. 9. Or, we 
may take iniquity properly ; as Sol. Jarchi 
expoundeth it, " when iniquity is iu him, 
that he repenteth not." R. Menachem here 
allegeth an exposition ef the ancients, " that 
soul shall be cut off, and the iniquity thereof 
with it: as if he should say, the iniquity 
shall cleave unto it after it is cut off, to be 
punished for ever; according to that (in Is. 
Ixvi. 24.) Their worm shall not die; which 
Jonathan (the Chald. paraphrast) expoundeth. 
Their soul shall not die. And our doctors 
have said. It shall be cut off in this world, it 
shall be cut off from the world to come." So 
the Chald. on Moses, which goeth under the 
name of Jonathan paraphraseth, "that man 
shall be destroyed in the world that is to 
come, and shall give account of his sin at the 
great day of- judgment." 

Ver. 32." — ^VERE in the wilderness,] 
" For so (saith Chazkuni) it was decreed con- 
cerning them, that they should not come into 
the land (of Canaan.) In the former com- 
mandments of the drink-offerings, and cake, 
it was written. When ye be come into the 
land, &c. to teach, that they were not to 
practise them save in the land: but the Sab- 
bath was to be kept both within the land and 
without, though it were in the wilderness ; 
and therefore it is wiitten concerning it. In 
the wilderness. 



a man gathering sticks on the Sabbath day. " And they that 
found him gathering sticks, brouglit him near nnto Moses, and 
unto Aaron, and unto all the congregation. "** And tliey put liim 
in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. 

^* And Jehovah said unto Moses, Tlie man shall be made to die 
the deatli: all tlie congregation shall stone him with stones without 
tlie camp. ^'* And all the congregation brought him forth without 
tlie camp, and stoned liim with stones, and he died, as Jehovah 
commanded Moses. 

^' And Jehovah said unto Moses, saying, ^^ Speak unto the sons 

Ver. 34. — In ward,] That is, in prison. 
So they dealt with the blasphemer, in Lev. 
xxiv. 12. It was not declared,] In Gr. 
they had tiot judged, oy determined. Wliere- 
fore was it thus? seeing the law had twice 
said, that the breaker of the Sabbath should 
die, Exod. xxxi. 4 ; xxxv. 2. Sol. Jarchi 
saith, " it ^vas not declared what manner of 
death he should die: but they knew that he 
that profaned the Sabbath was to die." And 
the Chald. called Jonathan's paraphraseth 
thus; "This judgment was one of the four 
judgments that came before Moses the pro- 
phet, which he judged according to the word of 
the holy (God.) Some of them were judgments 
of lesser moment, and some of them judgments 
of life and death. In the judgments of les- 
ser moment (of pecuniary matters) Moses 
was ready, but in judgments of life and 
death he made delays. And both in the one 
and in the other, Moses said, I have not 
heard, [viz. what God would have done.] 
For to teach the heads (or chief) of the Syne- 
drious (or assizes) that should rise up after 
him, that they should be ready to dispatch in- 
ferior causes (or money matters) but not hasty 
in matters of life and death. And that they 
should not be ashamed to inquire, in causes 
that are too hard for them; seeing Moses 
who was the master of Israel, had need to 
say, I have not heard. Therefore he impri- 
soned him ; because as yet it was not de- 
clared, what sentence should pass upon him." 
The four judgments which he speaketh of, 
were about the unclean that would keep the 
passover. Num. ix. 7, 8, and the daughters 
of Zelophehad that claimed possession in the 
land, Num. xxvii. 4, 5, (these were the causes 
of less importance:) about the blasphemer, 
Lev. xxiv., and the Sabbath-breaker here: 
both which he kept in ward, till he had an 
answer from the Lord. 

Ver. 35. — Stone him,] This was es- 
teemed the heaviest of all the four kinds of 
death that malefactors suffered in Israel: see 
the notes on Exod. xxi. 12. Without the 
cAMi',] Hereupon they used to carry such o\it 
of the cities, and execute them far o&' from 

the judgment-hall, as Sol. Jarchi noteth. So 
they dealt with Stephen, casting him out of 
the city, and stoning him, Acts vii. 58, like- 
wise with Naboth, I Kings xxi. 13, also with 
the blasphemer, Lev. xxiv. 15, which was a 
circumstance that aggravated the punishment, 
being a kind of ' reproach,' as the apostle 
noteth, Heb. xiii. 11 — 13. And this se- 
verity showeth of what weight the command- 
ment touching the Sabbath is, the profana- 
tion whereof God would have thus to be 
avenged. And it further signified the eter- 
nal death of such as do not keep the Sabbath 
of Clnist, entering into the rest of God by 
faith, and ceasing from their own works, as 
God did from his. Heb. iv. 1—4, 10, 11. 

Ver. 37. — And jehovah said,] After 
the violating of the Sabbath, and punishment 
for it, God giveth a law, and ordaineth a sign 
of remembrance, to further the sanclification 
of his people, that they might think upon his 
commandments, and do them. 

Ver. 38. — Sons of Israel,] This law for 
fringes concerned Israel only, not other na- 
tions; and as the Hebs. say, ''men only 
were bound to wear them, not women. 
Women and servants, and little children, are 
not bound by the law to wear the fringe. 
But by the words of the scribes, every child 
that knoweth to clothe himself, is bound to 
wear the fringe, to the end he may be trained 
up in the commandments. And women and 
servants that will wear them, may so do, but 
they bless not [God, as men do when they 
put them on:] and so all other command- 
ments which women are not bound unto, if 
they will do them, they do them without 
blessing first," Maim. tom. i. in Zizith, (or 
treat, of Fringes) chap. iii. sect. 9. That 
they make,] They themselves, and not hea- 
thens for them: " a fringe which is made by 
an heathen, is unlawful; as it is written, 
Speak to the sons of Israel, that they make 
unto them,'' Maim, in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 
12- A frisce,] That is, fringes, as in Deut. 
xxii. 12. Moses speaketh of many: and so 
the Gr. and Chald. translate it here. A 
fringe is in Heb. called Tsitsilh (or Zizith) 



of Israel, and say unto them ; that they make unto them a fiinge 
on the skirts of their clothes, throughout their generations ; and 
that they put upon the fringe of the skirt, a ribband of blue. 

which in Ezek. viii. 3, is used for a ' lock of 
hair' of the head; and is here applied to a 
fringe, the threads whereof hang down as 
locks of hair. And the Heb. doctors call it 
also Gtianaph, that is, a branch, because it 
hangeth as branches or twigs of a tree. "The 
branch which they make upon the skirt of a 
garment, is called Tsitsith, because it is like 
to (Tsitsith) a lock of the head, Ezek. viii. 
3. And this branch is called white, because 
we are not commanded to dye (or colour) it. 
And for the threads of this branch, there is 
no set number by the law. And they take a 
thread of wool, which is died like the colour 
of the firmament, and tie it upon the branch 
(or fringe;) and this thread is called blue," 
Maim, in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 1, 2. The 
fringe is called in Gr. craspeda, and this 
word is used by the Holy Spirit in Matt. 
xxiii. 5, and of it, the Chald. also calleth it 
cruspedhi. The word gedilim, used for 
fringes, iu Deut. xxii. 12, were the thrums 
of the cloth which was woven: and Tsitsith 
the fringe here spoken of, were threads tied 
unto those thrums with knots. On the 
SKIRTS,] Heb. on the iviyigs. This is ex- 
pounded in Deut. xxii. 12, 'on the four 
skirts' (or wings.) The skirt end, or border 
of a garment, is usually called a vving, as in 
Ruth iii. 9; I Sam. xv. 27; xxiv. 5, 11 ; 
Deut. xxii. 30; Zach. viii. 23; Ezek. v. 3; 
Hag. ii. 12, so the four ends or corners of 
the earth, are called the ' four wings ' thereof. 
Job xxxvii. 3; xxxviii. 13; Is. xi. 12; 
Eiek. vii. 2. " The garment which a man 
is bound to make the fringe on by the law, is 
a garment which hath four skirts, or more 
than four: and it is a garment of woollen or 
of linen only. But a garment of other 
stufl', as of silk, or cotton, or camels' hair, or 
the like, are not bound to have the fringe, 
save by the words of our wise men, that men 
may be admonished to keep the precept of 
the fringe. For all clothes spoken of in the 
law absolutely, are not, save of woollen and 
linen only. When he maketh a fringe on a 
garment that has five or six skirts, he maketh 
it but on four of the skirts, as it is said. Upon 
the four skirts, Deut. xxii. 12. A garment 
that is borrowed, is not bound to have the 
fringe for thirty days; after and thencefor- 
ward it is bound. A garment of wool, they 
make the white thereof of threads of wool : 
and a garment of flax (or linen) they make 
the white thereof of threads of flax; and so 
of every garment after the kind thereof, &c. 
Every man that is bound to do this command- 
ment, if he put ui)on him a garment which 

is meet to have the fringe, must put on the 
fringe, and then put the garment on ; and if 
he put it on without the fringe, he breaketh 
the commandment. But clothes meet to 
have the fringe so long as a man puts them 
not on, but foldeth and layeth them up, they 
are not bound to have the fringe: for it is not 
a duty in respect of the garment, but in res- 
pect of the man which hath the garment," 
Maim, in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 1 — 5, 10. 
Upon the fringe,] Or, with the fringe. 
A RIBBAND,] Or, a thread, as the word is 
Englished in Judg. xvi. 9, or, a lace, as in 
Exod. xxxix. 31, it hath the name of twist- 
ing or wreathing. The Gr. and Chald. 
translate it, a thread : and so it is explained 
by the Heb. doctors ; who also say, " whe- 
ther they were threads of white, or threads of 
blue, if he would make them of twisted 
threads, he might so do ; and though the 
thread were twisted of eight threads, and a 
ribband made of them, it was counted but 
one thread. The threads of the fringe, whe- 
ther white or blue, must be spun for the 
fringe by name," Maim, in Zizith, chap. i. 
sect. 11. Of blue,] Or, of sky-colour. 
The Hebs. say, "the blue spoken of in the 
law in everyplace, is wool dyed, and like the 
clear firmament. And the blue for the 
fringe must be dyed in a known dye that will 
continue in the fair colour and not change: 
and whatsoever is not so dyed, is unlawful 
for the fringe, though it be like the colour of 
the firmament. The dye for this bkie was 
made (they say) with the blood of the Chala- 
zon, which is a fish of blue colour, and the 
blood of it is black as ink, and it is found in 
the salt sea. And with that blood they mix 
Vermillion, &c. Also it must be dyed for the 
fringe by name," Maim, in Zizith, chap. ii. 
sect. 1 — 3, and Talmud in Menachoth, chap. 
iv. As for the fringe (which they usually 
call the white, because it was not commanded 
to be dyed, it might be of any colour, as the 
garment itself, except blue, whereof they 
write thus; " The garment which is all red, 
or green, or of other dyed colours, they make 
the white threads (or fringe) thereof, like the 
dyed colour thereof; green, if it be green ; 
or red, if it be red. If it be all blue, then 
they make the white (the fringe) thereof 
of other colours, any save black, for that will 
turn and appear bluish: and they tie upon all, 
one thread of blue, like as they do in other 
fringes whic'h are not dyed," Maim. ibid, 
chap. ii. sect. S. By reason of this diller- 
ent colour, they also say, " There are found 
in this commandment (nf the fringe) two 



^^ And it shall be unto you for a fringe ; that ye may see it, and 
remember all the commandments of Jehovah, and do them ; and 
that ye seek not after your own heart, and after your own eyes, after 

commandments ; that a man make on the 
skirt, a branch issuing out of it ; and that he 
tie upon the branch a thread of blue, (Num. 
XV. 38.) And the blue hindereth not the 
white ; neither doth the white hinder the 
bhie. As if a man have no blue, he maketh 
the white alone, &c. Though one hindereth 
not another, yet are they not two command- 
ments, but one. Our former wise men have 
said (from these words,) And it shall be unto 
you for a fringe. Num. xv. 39, this teacheth 
that both of them are one commandment. 
And the four fiinges (on the four skirts) do 
hinder one another [so that one may be with- 
out another] for tliey four are one command- 
ment (Deut. xxii. 12.) And he that weareth 
a garment wherein is the white (fringe) or 
the blue (ribband) or both of them together, 
he keepeth one commanding precept," Maim, 
in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 3 — 5. 

Ver. 39. — For a fringe,] By the insti- 
tution of God it was made unto them a fringe, 
and so a religious sign to help their memo- 
ries, and to further their sanctification: where- 
fore they used to sanctify this, as all other like 
divine ordinances, by prayer; and when they 
put on this garment, they "blessed the Lord 
their God, the King of the world, which 
sanctified them by his commandments, and 
commanded them to array themselves with 
fringes. And whensoever they clothed them- 
selves herewith in the day-time, they blessed 
for them before they put them on. But they 
blessed not for the fringes at the time of the 
making of them, because the end of the com- 
mandment is, that they should be arrayed 
herewith," Maim, in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 
8. That ye may see it,] Or, and ye shall 
see (or look upon) it; on yourselves, and on 
one another. Wherefore the Hebs. say, " A 
blind man was bound to wear the fringe: for 
though he saw it not, others did see it," 
Maim, in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 7. By 
many mearis of sundry sorts, God warned his 
people of old, to walk religiously and holily 
before him; and it is observed by some of 
themselves, " that the holy blessed God left 
nothing in the world, wherein he gave not 
some commandment to Israel: if they went 
out to plow, (he said) ' Thou shalt not plow 
with an ox and an ass together,' Deut. xii. 
10; if to sow, ' Thou shalt not sow with divers 
kinds,' Lev. xix. 19; if to reap, 'Thou shalt 
not wholly reap the corner of thy field,' &c. 
Lev. xix. 9; if to knead their dough, 'Of the 
first of your dough, ye shall offer a cake,' 
Num. XV. 20; if they killed (a beast,) 'They 
shall give unto the priest, the shoulder and 

the two cheeks,' &c. Deut. xviii. 3 ; if they 
found a bird's nest, ' Thou shalt send away the 
dam,' Deut. xxii. 6, 7; if they caught wild 
beast or fowl, ' He shall pour out the blood 
thereof, and cover it with dust,' Lev. xvii. 
13; if they planted, 'Ye shall count as uncir- 
cumcised the uncircumcision thereof,' &c. 
Lev. xix. 23 ; if they had a man-child born, 
' The fore-skin of his flesh shall be circum- 
cised,' Lev. xii. 2; if they buried the dead, 
' Ye shall not cut yourselves,' &c. Deut. xiv. 
1 ; if they shaved themselves, * Ye shall not 
round a corner of your head,' &c. Lev. xix. 
27; if they builded an house, 'Thou shalt 
make a battlement,' &c. D^ut. xxii. 8 ; ' And 
thou shalt write them upon the posts,' &c. 
Deut. vi. 9 ; if they clothed themselves, ' Ye 
shall make ye a fringe,' " &c. Chazkuni on 
Num. XV. And remember all,] This was 
the spiritual use of this ordinance, that it 
might lead them unto a continual remem- 
brance and practice of all the law; without 
which the outward rite was vain. The 
many threads of the fringes on the four 
skirts of their garment, signified the many 
commandments of God which they should 
put upon them, to be as it were clothed with 
them, and to walk in them: the heaven-col- 
oured riband, taught them an heavenly affec- 
tion to all the law, and an holy conversation; 
and led them spiritually to put on the ' wed- 
ding garment,' Matt. xxii. 11; 'the Lord 
Jesus Christ,' Rom. xiii. 14; ' the whole 
armour of God,' Eph. vi. 11; 'and the new 
man, which after God is created in righteous- 
ness and holiness of truth,' Eph. iv. 24 ; 
that their conversation might be ' in heaven,' 
Phil. iii. 20. From these words, the Heb. 
doctors say, " A man should always be care- 
ful to array himself with such a garment as 
was bound to have the fringe, that he might 
keep this commandment: and in the time of 
prayer, he is to be warned hereof more espe- 
cially. It is a great shame for wise men, 
that they should pray, and not be arrayed 
herewith. A man must for ever be warned 
of this commandment of the fringe, for the 
scripture maketh it of great weight, and all 
the commandments, every one depend upon 
it," Maim, in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 11, 12. 
But they abused this, as other divine ordi- 
nances, to superstition and hypocrisy; and 
were reproved by our Saviour for making 
their ' phylacteries ' broad, and enlarging 
' the borders (or fringes) of their garments,' 
Matt, xxiii. 5. And this their vanity (neg- 
lecting the spiritual end) appeareth in their 
wiitings ; for unto the thrums or threads of 



which you go a whoring. ^" Tliat yc may remember and do all my 
commandments, and be holy unto your God. " I am Jehovah your 
God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to be unto 
you a God j I am Jehovah your God. 

the garment, " which were three inches, 
they fastened threads doubled in the midst, 
wliose length (they say) might not be less 
than four inches, but more than so they 
might be, though a cubit, or two cubits," 
Maim, in Zizitk, chap. i. sect. 6. And for 
tlie virtue hereof, they say, "Whoso dili- 
gently keepeth this law of fringes, is made 
worthy, and shall see the face of the majesty 
of God:" (Baal hatturim on Num. xv.) "and 
when a man is clothed with the fringe, and 
goeth out therewith to the door of his habita- 
tion, he is safe, and God rejoiceth, and the 
destroying angel departeth from thence, and 
the man shall be delivered from all hurt, and 
from all destruction," &c. (R. Menachem on 
Num. XV.) Thus easy it is for men to abuse 
holy things, and to pervert the right use and 
end of tliem by their own inventions. See 
the annot. on Exod. xiii. 9- And although 
tliey put so great religion in these fringes, 
yet as they have lost the spirit and life of 
this commandment, so God hath deprived 
them of the outward rite, that they have not 
at this day, (by their own confession) the 
blue or heaven-colourtd riband ; '' The blue 
(tecektk) is not found in our hands at this 
day, because we know not to make the dye (or 
colour) of it: for every blue in wool is not 
called teceleth. But the teceleth (or blue 
spoken of in the law,) it is known that it is 
impossible to make it at this day; and there- 
fore we make tlie white only," saith Rambam 
(or IMaim.) in his exposition on Talmud Bab. 
in Menachoth, chap. iv. And that ye seek 
NOT,] Or, and ye shall not seek, (or search, 
as Num. xiv. 36,) which word Solomon ap- 
plieth to his heart, 'searching out' things by 
wisdom, Eccl. i. 13; vii. 25. The Gr. 
here translateth it, turn aside; the Chald. 
err, (or go astray.) YoDR heart,] In 
Chald. the imac/ination of your heart. Here 
God calleth men from their own wisdom and 
inventions to his law only ; for ' every ima- 
gination of the thoughts of man's heart, is 
only evil every day,' Gen. vi. 5. And 'he 
that trusteth in his own heart, is a fool,' 
Prov. xxviii. 20. Your eyes,] In Chald. 
the sight of your eyes. So the Holy Spirit 
saith, ' Walk in the ways of thine heart, and 
in the sight of thine eyes; but know thou, 
that for all these things God will bring thee 
into judgment,' Eccl. xi. 9. And the apos- 
tle mentioneth ' the lust of the eyes, as tiiat 
Vol.. II. 

which is not of the Father, but of the world,' 
1 John ii. 16. The Hebs. say, "The heart 
and the eyes are the spies of the body, and 
brokers to bring it into transgression ; the eye 
seeth, and the heart lusteth, and the body actetli 
the transgression," Sol. Jarchi on Num. xv. 
The Lord condemning the heart, which is 
the most noble of all the inward parts, and 
the eyes which are the most excellent of all 
the outward, teacheth that the whole man is 
corrupted throughout, and to be reformed by 
the law and Spirit of God. For, 'except a 
man be born of water aud of the Spirit, he 
catmot enter into the kingdom of God,' John 
iii. 5. You GO A whoring,] In Chald. you 
err (or go astray.) To go a whoiing after 
other gods, is a usual phrase for idolatry, 
Exod. xxxiv. 15; Deut. xxxi. 16; 1 Chron. 
v. 25; Judg. ii. 17, the same is implied 
here, as God saith, ' I am broken witli their 
whorish heart, which hath departed from me; 
and with their eyes, which go a whoring 
after their idols,' Ezek. vi. 9, but it meaneth 
also all other sins which men's unclean hearts 
and impure eyes carry them unto, with con- 
sent and delight: see Lev. xx. 5, 6 ; Ps. 
cvi. 39; Jam. iv. 4. The Hebs. say, "If 
any man be drawn after the thoughts of his 
heart, he will be found a waster of the world, 
because of the slenderness (or shortness) of 
his understanding. As, sometimes he will 
search after idolatry, and sometimes will 
think peculiarly of the Creator, whether there 
be any or none: what is above, and what beneath; 
what was before, and what shall be after. 
And sometimes of prophesy, whether it be 
truth or no; and sometimes of the law, 
whether it be from heaven or no. And he 
knoweth not what to judge of them, till he 
know the truth concerning his Creator, but 
will be found a revolter unto heresies. Con- 
cerning this thing is that warning in the law, 
where it is said. And ye shall not seek after 
your heart, and after your eyes, after which ye 
go a whoring. Num. xv. 39, as if he should 
say. There shall not any one of you be drawn 
alter his own slender understanding (or 
knowledge,) as to imagine that his cogitation 
can attain to the truth: so have our wise men 
said. After your heart ; this (meaneth) here- 
sies ; and after your eyes, this is whoredom. 
And this is an occasion for a man to deprive 
himself of the world (or life) that is to come," 
Maim, treat, of Idolatry chap. ii. sect. 3. 





1 Korah, Dathan, Ahiram,and On, with 250 priiices, rise zip against 
Moses and Aaron, about the priesthood and government of the church. 
5. Moses referreth the trial of the cause unto God, and reproveth Ko- 
ralis ambition. 12. He sendeth for Dathan and Abiram, who reproach 
hhn, and will not come tip. 15. He prayeth against them, 16, and ga- 
thereth Korah and his compaiiy with their censers, before the taber- 
nacle. 20. The Lord threateneth to consume the rebels, and commandeth 
the people to separate from them. 31. The earth swalloweth up Dathan, 
Abiram, and all KoraJi's men, anda fire from the Lord devoureth the 250 
that burned incense. 36. The censers are reserved to cover the altar, 
for a sig7i unto Israel. 41. All the congregation murmur against 
Moses and Aaron, as they that had killed the Loi'd's people. 44. The 
Lord Mlleth \4700 of them with a plague. 46. Aaron by incense stayed 
the plague. 


^ And Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of 
Levi, he took men ; and Dathan and Abiram the sons of Eliab, and 
On the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben. ^ And they rose up before 

B S B Here beginneth the thirty-eighth 
lecture of the law, which the Hebs. call 
Korah, because his rebellion is the principal 
thing here treated of: see Gen. vi. 9. 

Ver. 1. — Korah] Or Korach ; in Gr. A'ore, 
Jude ver. 11. Izhar] In Gr. Isaar. Ko- 
hath] In Gr. Kaath. He took] To wit, 
■men with : so Korah is noted as the princi- 
pal in the rebellion, which the apostle there- 
fore called ' the gain-saying of Kore,' Jude 
ver. 11, and in Num. xxvii. 3, only 
Korah's company is mentioned, where 
speech is of this mutiny. The Gr. translat- 
eth, he spake, to signify that he took others 
by persuading them to his faction. The 
Chald. understands it of taking, that is, with- 
drawing of himself, saying, " And Korah 
separated himself." Thus Sol. Jarchi also 
expoundeth it, "he took himself a side to be 
a part from the congregation." And Da- 
than AND Abiram,] this maybe understood, 
that they also took men and separated them- 
selves: or rather, that Kore took these men 
unto him, and so to read it, " he took Dathan 
and Abiram," or, " he took both Dathan and 
Abiram ;" for the word and in Heb. may 
sometime be omitted in our English speech, 
as is showed on Gen. viii, 6. or be inter- 
preted both, as explaining the former words: 
see the annot. on Gen. xxxvi. 24. And 
thus Chazkuni expoundeth it, " And Korah 
took: it meaneth the taking of men, and 
whom took he ? Dathan and Abiram, &c. 

And before Dathan, is redundant here, as 
often elsewhere." Abiram,] In Gr. Abeiron. 
Eliab,] In Gr. Eliam, he was son to Phallu 
the son of Reuben, Num. xxvi. 7, 8, 9 ; Gen. 
xlvi. 9. On,] In Gr. Aun, and Atinan. 
Peleth,] In Gr. Phaleth. Sons of Reu- 
ben,] Dathan, Abiram, and On, were all 
sons, that is, of the posterity of Reuben, who 
was the first-born of Israel, but lost his hon- 
our by his sin, 1 Chron. v. 1, which his sons 
by unlawful means seek to recover. And 
these Reubenites camped next unto Korah 
and the Kohathites, on the south side of the 
tabernacle, (as is showed in Num. ii.) and so 
being neighbours in situation, associated 
themselves in evil, which Sol. Jarchi observ- 
ing, saith thereupon, " Wo be to the wicked, 
and wo unto his neighbour." Korah being a 
Levite of the Kohathites, which was the 
chief family of the Levites, as is noted on 
Num. iii. 28, he took ofTence, as Jarchi on 
this place saith, " and envied at the prefer- 
ment of Elizaphan the son of Uzziel, whom 
Moses had made prince over the sons of Ko- 
hath," Num. iii. 30, when he was of the 
youngest brother Uzziel, and Korah himself 
was of Izhar, elder than he: see Num. iii. 
27, 30. But by the sequel here it appear- 
eth, that he lift up himself not only against 
Elizaphan, but against Moses and Aaron, 
and sought ' the priesthood also.' ver. 10. 

Ver. 2. And men], that is, Korah and 
men, as appeareth by ver. ,5, 16, 17, where 



Moses, and men of the sons of Israel, two hundred and fifty, 
princes of the congregation, tlie called of the assembly, men of 
name. And they gathered themselves together, against Moses 
and against Aaron, and said unto tliem. Ye fake too much upon 
you; for all the congregation, all of them are holy, and Jehovah 
is among tliem ; and wherefore lift ye up yourselves above tlie 
church of Jeliovah ? * And Moses heard it, and fell upon his face. 
* And he spake unto Korah, and unto all his congregation, saying. 

these are called Korali's congregation. The 
CALLED OF THE ASSEMBLY,] Senators called 
to the assembly, (and as the Gr. traiislateth 
it, council,) of the governors: in eh. i. IG, 
such are named, ' the called of the congrega- 
tion,' and in eh. xxvi. 9, Dathan and 
Abiram are named ' the called of the congre- 
gation, who strove against Moses,' &c. So 
tiiese were statesmen, famous and re- 
nowned, whereby the conspiracy was the 
stronger. Men of name,] That is, of 
renown ; this title is given to the giants 
before the flood, Gen. vi. 4. Wiiereupon 
Baal balturim here noteth, '• Men of name 
for wisdom and wealth ; and they condemned 
themselves: as did the generation of the 
flood, whicli were of old, men of name. 

Ver. 3. — Ve take too much upon Yoa,] 
Or,let it suffice you, as this phrase is translated 
in Deut. iii. 26. Heb. much to you, or, 
enough for you, which Sol. .larchi expound- 
eth thus, " ye have taken to yourselves great- 
ness, much more than enough." So after in 
ver. 7. Holy,] and therefore may approach 
unto God and offer their sacrifices. This 
they meant, as Moses' answer sfieweth in 
ver. 5, 10. So the presumption of their 
own holiness, brought them to ambition and 
affectation of the priesthood, an honour which 
no man should take to himself ' but he that 
is calliid of God, as was Aaron,' IJeb. v. 4. 
Jehovah is,] In Chald. the divine presence 
(or majesty) of the Lord dzvelkth among 

Ver. 4. — Fall on his face,] As aflected 
with their words, humblii\g himself, and, 
(in likelihood) praying unto God, as in 
ver. 22. Chazkuni saith, " He was abashed, 
and cast down liis face on the ground unto 
prayer : and there it was said unto him (of 
God) what he should say inito Korah." Like 
gesture lie used at their former murmuring. 
Num. xiv. 5, and after in Num. xx. 6. 

Vek. 5. — Even in the mokninu,] Or, the 
morning [shall came) and Jehovah ivill make 
known, &c. Judgment is deferred till the 
morrow morning, so they had that time to 
consider of their fact: and the morning is 
usually the time of judgment, both by men, 
as, ' In the mornings I will suppress all the 
wicked of the land,' Ps. ci. 8. ' Judge 

judgment in the morning,' Jar. xxi. 12, and 
by God himself; as, ' Morning by morning 
doth he bring his judgment to light,' Zeph. 
iii. 5, and, 'my rebuke is in the mornings,' 
Ps. Ixxiii. 14. So in the morning judgment 
came upon Sodom, Gen. xix. 23, 24 ; and 
the plagues of Egypt, Exod. vii. 15 ; viii. 20 ; 
ix. 13; X. 13; and the pestilence on Israel, 
2 Sam. xxi v. 15; and so shall evil come upon 
sinners, and they shall • not know the morn- 
ing thereof,' Ps. xlvii, 11. Boker, the morn- 
ing, is derived of Baker, he inquired, or 
looked out ; whereupon the Gr. interpreters 
reading without vowels, translated it, " The 
Lord hath looked out and known those that 
are his:" but the Chald. saith, "in the 
mornitig, them the Lord will make known, 
&c. Make known him,] Or, make known, 
those that are his, so the Gr. translateth, 
"knoweth, (or hath known) those that are 
his:" which very words Paul (from this his- 
tory) applieth to God's knowledge, care and 
love of his elect whom lie sanctifieth, and 
keepeth from falling away, as did certain 
heretics in those days, 2 Tim. ii. 17 — 
20. This, therefore, is a speech of faith, 
whereby Moses teslifieth his confidence in 
God, who had separated Aaron unto the 
priesthood, and himself unto the government 
in Israel ; and would maintain their cause 
and calling against all opposers. And be- 
cause these two offices figured the grace 
given by Christ unto his elect, whom he 
hath ' made kings and priests, even a kingly 
priesthood, and an holy nation,' Rev. i. 6 ; 
V. 10 ; 1 Pet. ii. 9 ; therefore the apostle 
(in 2 Tim. ii.) fitly citeth these words for 
the comfort of the saints, and faithful minis, 
ters of Christ, against revolters: even as an- 
other apostle applieth also against such, ' the 
way of Cain, the error of Balaam, and the 
contradiction (or rebellion) of Kore ;' wherein 
they perish, Jude, ver. II. The ('ha!d. 
translateth it, " and will make known him 
that is fit for him." And who is holy,] 
or, and the holy one, that is, him whom he 
hath sanctified and separated unto the priest's 
office. So David (speaking of this rebellion) 
calleth ' Aaron the holy one (or saint) of Je- 
hovah,' Ps. cvi. 10 ; and he wore on the 
golden plate this engraving, ' Holiness to 



Even in the morning Jehovah will make known him that is his, 
and who is holy, and whom he will cause to come near unto liim : 
even him whom lie hath cliosen, he will cause to come near unto 
him. ^ This do ye : take unto you censers, Korah and all his con- 
gregation. ' And put ye fire in them, and put incense on them 
before Jehovah to-morrow, and it shall be, that the man whom 
Jehovali doth choose, he shall be holy : ye take too much upon you, 
ye sons of Levi. ® And Moses said unto Korah, Hear, I pray you, 
ye sons of Levi. ^ Is it a small thing for you, that the God of 

Jehovah,' Exod. xxviii. 36 ; for he figured 
our high priest, Christ, who was 'holy, harm- 
less, uiidefiled, separate from sinners, and 
made higher than the heavens,' Heb. vii. 
26 ; and who ' glorified not himself to be 
made an high priest,' but had the honour 
given him of his father, Heb. v. 5, 6 ; and 
Korah's rebellion against Aaron was a type 
of men's rebellion against Christ, as the 
apostles have taught us. The Gr. translat- 
eth (as before) plurally, saying, " and the 
holy ones he hath brought near unto himself. 
Cause to come near,] Or, bring near, 
to wit, to minister unto him, as the Chald. 
interpreteth it. And this honour of priest- 
hood, given now unto all saints, who are ' to 
offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to 
God by Jesus Christ, 1 Pet. ii. 5, is 
commended by David, when he saith, 
' Blessed is he whom thou choosest, and 
causest to come near unto thee, that he 
may dwell in thy courts,' Ps. Ixv. 5 ; which 
bringing near, (or, access) we all have 
through Christ ' by one spirit unto the Fa- 
ther, with confidence by the faith of him,' 
Eph. ii. IS; iii. 12. This latter part of 
the verse, is by the Gr. interpreted thus; 
" And those whom he hath not chosen to 
himself, he hath not brought near unto him- 

Ver. 6. — Censers,] Or, fire vessels, as 
the Gr. translateth \X,, fire-pans , whereof see 
Exod. xxvii. 3 ; called sometimes incense- 
vessels, (because incense was burnt in them) 
2 Chron. xxvi. 19; Ezek. viii. 11; which 
name the apostle foUoweth in the Gr; Heb. 
ix. 4. 

Ver. 7..^Pot ye fire,] Heb. give ye 
Jire arid put incense. Doth choose,] Or, 
shall choose, that is, declare by manifest 
signs that he chooseth and liketh. He shall 
Bi.; HOLY,] That is, shall be declared to be 
holy, and so to be a priest unto God. Be- 
cause the burning of incense in the censer, 
was the means of atonement and expiation 
before God, as after is showed by Aaron's 
fact, in ver. 46 — 48 ; and was the pecu- 
liar work of the priest. Lev. xvi. 12, 13 ; 
■J Chron. xxvi. 18 ; wherein they that trans- 

gressed were in danger of death, as the ex- 
ample of Nadab and Abihu showeth. Lev. x. 
and it figured in special manner the prayers 
and mediation of Christ for his church, Ps. 
cxli. 2; Rev. viii. 3; 1 John ii. 1; there- 
fore the trial of the priesthood is put upon 
this work, rather than on any other sacrifice; 
and the holiness whereof Koiah boasted, ver. 
3, should either be approved or reproved of 
God. For no man hath right to the honour 
of priesthood, unless it be given him of God, 
Heb. V. 4, 5 ; nor can without divine au- 
thority, that is, without the commandment 
and promise of God, please him, or appease 
his wrath towards himself or others. There' 
fore, it is a great prerogative and comfort 
unto all saints, that they are by Christ made 
priests unto God, and through him may 
boldly ofler up their prayers and praises unto 
the Fathei-, Rev. i. 6 ; 1 Pet. ii. 6; Hob. 
xiii. 15 , 1 John, v 14 — 16. Ye take too 
MUCH UPON YOU,] Or, let it suffice you, that 
you have thus far provoked the Lord, and 
now leave ofl". Tims Moses returned the 
blame upon themselves, which they had un- 
justly laid upon him, in ver. 3. So Elias 
doth upon Ahab, 1 Kings xviii. 17, 18. 

Ver. 9. — Is it a small thing,] Or 
seemeth it too little for you : meaning, on the 
contrary, that it was a great thing, and that 
they should therewith have been contented ; 
for the tribe of Levi were in the place of all the 
first-born of Israel, Num. iii. 41. So here 
he reproveth their unthankfulness to God. 
Separated you from the congregation,] 
As Israel was separated from all other peo- 
ple, to be the Lord's peculiar people. Lev. 
XX. 26 ; 1 Kings viii. 53 ; so were the Le- 
vites separated fiom the sons of Israel, to be 
the Lord's, Num. viii. 14, And hereupon 
the scripture speaketh of the Levites, as dis- 
tinct from the Israelites, 1 Chron. ix. 2 ; Ps. 
cxxxv. 19, 20. So the ministers of Christ 
are said to be ' separated unto the gospel of 
God,' Rom. i. 1; Gal. i. 15; Acts xiii. 2. The 
service of the tabernacle,] The works 
belonging to the service of God therein being 
assistants to the priests; see Num. viii. 11, 1.5, 
10; xviii. 21, 23. To stand before tub 



Israel liatli separated you, from the congregation of Israel, to 
bring you near unto him, to serve the service of the tabernacle of 
Jehovah, and to stand before the congregation to minister unto 
them ? '" iVnd he hatJi brought thee near, and all thy brethren tlie 
sons of Levi with thee ; and seek ye the priesthood also ? " For 
wliich cause, thou and all thy congregation are gatliered together 
against Jehovah : and Aaron what is lie, that ye murmur against 
him ? '" And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram, tlie sons of 
Eliab; and they said. We will not come up. '^ Is it a small thing 
tliat thou hast brought us up out of tlie land that floweth with 
milk and honey, to kill us in the wilderness : that thou makest 

CONGREGATION,] Standing is a sign of service, 
and used for it ; as the scripture in one place 
saith, whicli ' stood before tlie king,' Jer. Hi. 
12 ; and in another, ' a servant of the king,' 
2 Kings. XXV. 8. Whereupon the standing 
of the Levitcs is used for their service, in 
Neh. xii. 44; and as they were to stand 
before the Lord, to minister unto him, Dent. 
X. 8 ; so here it is said, ' to stand before the 
congregation, to minister unto them ;' thus 
they were servants of God, and of liis church ; 
as Josiah said unto them, ' Serve now tlie 
Lord your God, and his people Israel, 2 
Chroii. XXXV. 3; Ezek. xliv. 11. 

Ver. 10. — The priesthood,] In Chald. 
The h.i(jh-priesthood ; in Gr. to do the pricnts' 
office. That was in degree above the Levites, 
who were to minister unto the priests, but not 
to come nigh the altar, as did the priests. Num. 
xviii. 2, 3. ' For the Levites were appointed 
unto all manner of service of the tabernacle 
of the house of God: but Aaron and his sons 
offered on the altar of burnt-offering, and on 
the altar of incense, (and were) for all tlie 
work of the most holy place, and to make 
atonement for Israel,' 1 Chron. vi. 4S, 49. 
' And Aaron was separated [to wit, from the 
other Levites] that he should sanctify the 
most holy things, he and his sons for ever, 
to burn (incense) before the Lord, to minis- 
tei' unto him, and to bless in his name for 
ever,' 1 Chron. xxiii. 13. To usurp, allect, 
or seek this office of priesthood, without the 
calling of God, was a great sin against divine 
order and authority, severely punished here 
in Korah and his company, in king U/ziah, 
2 Chron. xxvi. 10 — 21; and others. 

Ver. 11. — Ac.MNsr .Jehovah,] because 
it was against his ordinance and minister, it 
is said to be against the Lord himself. So 
when the people refused Samuel's govern- 
ment, God said, ' They have not rejected 
thee, but they have rejected me, that I 
should not reign over them,' 1 Sam. viii. 7. 
and Christ said to his ministers, ' He that 
heareth yon, heareth me ; and he that des- 
piseth you, despisclh me ; and he that des- 

piseth me, despiseth him that sent me. He 
that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth 
me ; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him 
that sent me,' Luke x. 16; John xiii. 20. 
' Aaron, what is he ?' to wit, other than the 
minister of God. So the a])ostle saith, 
' Who is Paul? and who is Apollo? but min- 
isters by whom ye believed, I Cor. iii. 5. 
And thus had Moses said in their former 
murmurings, ' What are we that ye mm'mur 
against us ? your murmurings are not against 
us, but against Jehovah, Exod. xvi. 7, 8. 

Ver. 12. — We will not come up,] An 
obstinate answer, and refusal of the means of 
their conviction by Moses debating the mat- 
ter with them; so might they have been per- 
suaded to desist from their evil course, and 
have found mercy. By coming up, is meant 
unto the public place of judgment, whither 
(in the Scripture phrase) men ai-e said to go 
up, as in Deut. xxv. 7; Ruth, iv. 1. And 
in Ezra x. 7, 8 ; whosoever would not go to 
Jerusalem at the time appointed by the 
princes and the elders, 'all his substance 
should be forfeited, and himself separated 
from the church of those that had been in 
captivity.' Of Dathan and Abiram, Sol. 
Jarclii here observeth, that "Their own 
month ca\ised them to offend (or signified 
their fall :) they were not but to go down," 
to wit, alive into hell, ver. 33. 

Ver. 13.' — Out of the land,] Of Egypt, 
as is added in Thargum Jonathan : which 
having been the place of their bondage and 
misery, an iron furnace unto them, Deut. 
iv. 20, they here call it a land ' flowing with 
milk and honey:' so despising their redemp- 
tion and God their Redeemer, uho laid their 
bringing from thence, for a ground of their 
obedience unto him, Exod. xix. 4, 5 ; xx. 2. 
E\EN M.iKiNc;,] Or also making thyself a 
prince, that is, without God, of thine own 
presumption advancing thyself only, wholly, 
and contiimally. The doubling of the word, 
is to aggravate their crimination. This 
latter branch the Gr. translateth, "Thou art 
a priiicC.'" as if it were spoken iu derision. 



thyself a prince over us, even making tliyself a prince ? " More- 
over, thou hast not brought us into a land that floweth with milk 
and honey, and given unto us an inheritance of field and vineyard : 
wilt thou dig out the eyes of these men? we will not come up. 
'^ And Moses was very wroth : and he said unto Jehovah, Respect 
not thou their offering ; I liave not taken one ass from tliem nei- 
ther have I hurt one of them. '^ And Moses said unto Korah, 
thou and all thy congregation, be ye before Jehovah ; thou and 
they, and Aaron, to morrow. " And take ye every man his cen- 
ser, and put incense on them ; and bring ye near before Jehovah, 
every man liis censer, two hundred and fifty censers : and thou and 
Aaron, each man his censer. " And they took every man his cen- 
ser, and put fire on them, and put incense on them : and they stood 
at tlie door of the tent of the congregation, and Moses and Aaron. 
" And Korah gathered against them, all the congregation^ unto 

Ver. 14. — Not brought us,] According 
to promise, Exod. iii. 8; xxxiii. 3; Lev. 
XX. 2\. Of field,] that is, as tlie Chald. 
explaineth it, " of fields and vineyards:" one 
iiaJTied generally for many, as is noted on 
Gen. iii. 2. Dig out the eyes,] that is, 
make them blind, as the Chald. expoundeth 
it : so in Judg. xvi. 21 ; 1 Sam. xi. 2. Of 
these men,] Or, as the Gr. translateth it, 
of those men y which may be meant, oa' the 
whole congregation, as if they were so blind 
that they could not espy his fraud ; or it may 
have special reference to Korah and his com- 
]>aiiy. And tlms Clvazkuni here explaineth 
it, " thou hopest to dig out Uie eyes of Korah, 
and of all his congregation ; as though they 
had no eyes to see and understand this of- 
fence, that thou hast brought us up from tlie 
good land of Egypt, and hast not performed 
unto us that which thou promisedst, to bring 
us into a land that floweth vvith milk and 
honey ; but hast said, in this wilderness they 
shall be consumed, and there they shall die," 
(Num. xiv. 35.) Moreover, thou hast per- 
verted judgment against us, and therefore 
we will not come up unto thee, for we be- 
lieve thee not, concerning the tiial of this 

Ver. 15 — Vert wroth,] Or, very much 
grieved ; see the notes on Gen, iv. 5. Re- 
spect not, J Or, look not, i-urn not the face 
unto; which the Cliald. expoundeth, "Ac- 
cept not with favour their oblation." Their 
offering,] Or, their meat-offering, their 
Minchah ; whereof see the annot. on Lev. 
ii. and on Gen. iv. 3. This Sol. Jarchi ex- 
pounded, " their incense which they shall 
olier before thee to-monow:" so it hath refer- 
e[ice to Korah and his company, ver. 7, !?• 
But others (as he saitli) explain it thus ; "I 
know tliat they have a part in tlie daily sacri- 
fices of the congregation, let not their part be 

accepted before thee." And thus some under- 
stand this imprecation to be against Dathan 
and Abiram only, as Chazkuni saith, " The 
reason why Moses cursed Datlian and Abi- 
ram, was because when Moses sent to call 
them, they said. We will not come up. It 
was not their intent to convert ; for though 
the Lord should have said, I have chosen 
Aaron, yet they would have mutinied against 
the priesthood. But Korah and the 250 
men which took upon them to take every 
man his censer, because they were in hope 
that the Lord had not sent him concerning 
his brother Aaron, but that he had done 
it of his own mind, he would not curse. 
One ass,] That is, not the vilest beast, the 
Gr. translateth it, the desire of any of them, 
that is, any desirable thing. They mistook 
and read Chanrnd for Chamur, because the 
Heb. letters t D and 3 B be one like ano- 
ther, as is also noted on Gen. iv. IS. But Jo- 
sippus noteth it to be one of the thirteen places 
which the seventy-two interpreters changed 
purposely, lest Ptolemy the king ('at whose 
request they turned the law into Gr.) should 
say, " He took no ass, but some other gift 
he did take." 

Ver. 16. — Thou and all thy congre- 
gation,] The Gr. expoundeth it. Sanctify 
thy congregation, and be ye ready before the 
Lord, &c. Because their rebellion was 
against God, ver. 11 ; therefore Moses com- 
mitteth the deciding of the controversy unto 

Ver. 18. — At the door,] In the court- 
yard of the sanctuary. And moses and 
AARON,] Thargum Jonathan explaineth it, 
" they on the one side, and Moses and 
Aaron on the other side.'' 

Ver. 19. — Assembled against them 
ALL,] not only the 250 fore mentioned, but the 
general multitude, too ready to incline to his 



the door of tlie tent of tlie congreg'ation, and the glory of Jehovah 
appeared unto all the congregation. 

^^ And Jehovali spake imto Moses, and unto Aaron, saying, 
'■' Separate yourselves from among this congregation, and I will 
consume them, as in a moment. ^^ And they fell upon their faces, 
and said, O God, the God of tlie spirits of all flesh, shall one man 
sin, and wilt thou be fervently wroth with all the congregation ? 

-^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying. Speak unto the con- 
gregation, saying, '^* Get you up from about the tabernacle of 
Korah, Dathan, and x\biram. ^^ And Moses rose up and went unto 
Dathan and Abiram -. and the elders of Israel went after him. 
^^ And he spake unto the congregation, saying. Depart, I pray you, 
from the tents of these wicked men, and touch not any thing that 
is theirs, lest ye be consumed in all tlieir sins. "'^ And they went 
up from the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, on every 
side ; and Dathan and Abiram came out and stood in the door of 
tlieir tents, and their wives, and their sons, and their little ones. 

faction. See ver. 41. Glory of jehovah,] hath sinned: as if they should say, All have 

In the cloud over the sanctuary, as it did at 
other times in the like cases, ver. 42 ; Num. 
xii. 5; xiv. 10. 

Ver. 21. — As in a moment,] Or, even 
in a moment ; suddenly, and as the Gr. trans- 
lateth, at once. So in ver. 46; and thus 
God had before threatened, after they had 
made the calf, Exod. xxxiii. 5. 

Ver. 22. — God of the spirits of all 
FLESH,] By all flesh, is meant, all mankind; 
as in Gen, vi. 13; Is. xl. 5, 6; Ezek. xx. 
4S ; xxi. 4, 6 ; Joel ii. 28 ; and so it is ex- 
plained in Job xii. 10., ' the spirit of all 
flesh of man.' And the Lord is called God 
of the spirit of men, both as he is creator of 
them, who 'formcth the spirit of man within 
liim,' Zach. xii. ] ; called therefore, 'the 
Father of spirits,' Heb. xii. 9 ; and as the 
preservation, ordering, and government of 
them is in his hand, both in life and death ; 
' In whose hand is the soul of all living, and 
the spirit of all flesh of man,' Job xii. 10. 
Therefore Moses useth the like phrase, when 
he prayetli that a governor might be substi- 
tuted in his stead, Num. xxvii. 16. Thar- 
gum Jonathan explaineth it, "God that put- 
test the spirit of the soul in the bodies of all 
the sons of men: " and Thargum Jerusalemy 
tlius: " God which lulest over the souls of 
all flesh ;" Chazkuni saith, " which knowest 
tiie spirit of every one of them." The Gr. 
translateth, God of the futhcrx, and of all 
flesh; understanding (as it seemeth) by 
spirits, sucli as tlie apostle calleth 'the spirits 
of just men made perfect,' Heb. xii. 23; the 
spirits of the fathers which were returned 
t) God who gave them; as Eccl. xii. 7. 
Shall one man sin] In Gr. if one man, 

not sinned, why wilt thou be wroth with all? 
Upon this intercession, the Lord spareth the 
people, that would depart from the rebels, 
ver. 24. 

Ver. — 24. The tabernacle,] This 
seemeth to be put for tabernacles, or dwell- 
ings; the Gr. translateth it, /Ae congregation; 
so in ver. 27, where the Gr. also keepeth the 
word tabernacle, which in ver. 26, is called 

Ver. — 25. The elders,] The Gr. addeth, 
all the elders. Went after him,] In Gr. 
went with him, that is, accompanied him. 

Ver. — 26. These wicked men,] In Gr. 
these hard men : the original word properly 
signifieth restless, turbulent, and such as for 
their sins are worthy to be ' condemned :' see 
the notes on Ps. i. 1. Touch not any- 
thing,] Because as they themselves, so all 
things of theirs, were unclean and execra- 
ble, and therefore to perish with them, ver. 

Ver. 27.— Came out and stood,] Heb. 
came otit standing; which the Gr. explaineth, 
caine out and stood: and these two phrases 
are one; as where it is said that Jesus 
'blessed, and breaking gave' to the disciples. 
Matt. xiv. 19; the other evangelists explain 
it, he ' blessed, and brake, and gave,' Luke 
ix. 16; Mark vi. 41, so, ' Saying unto them.' 
Matt. xxi. 2, is, 'And saith unto them,' Mark 
xi. 2. This their 'standing up,' argueth 
their boldness, in so bad a cause: for 'stand- 
ing up' is a gesture denoting courage, Job 
xxxiii. 5; xii. 10; I Sam. xvii. 8, 16. 
Thus ' Pride went before destruction, and .in 
haughty spirit before a fall;' as Prov. xvi. 



^^ And Moses said, Hereby ye shall know that Jehovah hath sent 
me to do all these works : for (/ do than) not of mine oivn heart. 
^^ If these men die, as all men die, and they be visited after the vi- 
sitation of all men, Jehovah hath not sent me. ^^ But if Jeliovah 
create a new tiling, and the earth open her mouth, and swallow up 
them, and all that appertain unto them, and tliey go down alive 
unto hell ; then ye shall know, that these men have provoked Je- 
hovah. ^' And it was as he had made an end of speaking all these 
words, that the ground clave asunder whicli was under them. 
^^And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up tliem and their 
houses, and all the men that appertained unto Korah, and all their 
substance. ^^ And tliey, and all that appertained unto them, went 
down alive into hell : and the earth closed upon them, and tliey 
perished from among the church. ^*And all Israel that luere round 
about them, fled at the voice of them : for they said. Lest the earth 

Ver. 2S. — All these works,] Both the 
former, in appointing Aaron to the priest- 
hood, and the Levites instead of the first- 
born; and tiiese latter, in appointing Korah 
and his company to bring their censers with 
incense, &c. Of mine own heart,] which 
the Chald explaineth, of mine ow)i will; the 
Gr., of myself. For tilings devised of one's 
own heart, are noted for evil, 1 Kings xii. 33; 
Ezek. xiii. 17. 

Ver. 29. — As all men die,] their ordi- 
nary natural death; which the Gr. translatelh, 
after the death of all men. 

Ver. 30. — Create a new thing,] Heb. 
create a creature, that is, do a new and won- 
derful work, to kill them with such a death 
as never man died before them. Of this 
word create, see the notes on Gen. i. 1. It is 
applied here to a strange and extraordinary 
work of judgment, as in Isa. xlv. 7. God is 
said to 'create evil;' and in Exod. xxxiv. 
10, to create marvels; and in Isa. xlviii, 6, 
7, ' new and hidden things' God would create. 
And as evil, so good things which are new 
and strange, are said to be created of God. 
Isa. Ixv. 18, Alive,] Living, hale and 
sound; not consumed with sickness, as ordi- 
narily men are before death and burial. Un- 
to hell,] Into the grave, or state of death: 
see the notes on Gen. xxxvii. 35. To this 
judgment the prophet hath reference, praying 
against his enemies, ' Let them go down alive 
to hell, Ps. Iv. 16. • 

Ver. 32. — Swallowed up them,] To wit, 
Dathan and Abiram, as in Ps. cvi. I'A 
' The earth opened and swallowed up Dathan, 
and covered over the congregation of Abiram.' 
So David prayed against his enemies, ' swal- 
low them up O Lord,' Ps. Iv. 10. Their 
houses,] That is, households ; as the Chald. 
expoundeth it, the meri of their houses. Ap- 

pertained UNTO Korah,] The Gr. trans- 
latelh, a7id all the men thattvere tvith Korah, 
and the Chald. the men that pertained to 
Korah, but the sons of Korah are to be ex- 
cepted, for they, either not partaking with, or 
forsaking their father's sins, died not: see 
Num. xxvi. 11, And whereas mention was 
made of On, the son of Reuben, in ver, 1, 
but not here nor anywhere of his death, 
neither in ver, 12, of liis calling, or refusal, 
to come up; it is to be thought, that either 
he repented upon Moses' reproof, and so was 
spared from destruction; or if not so, he is 
implied among the rest, though not named in 
particular. Their substance,] Or, their 
goods; which the Gr. transIatethj^AeiV cattle i 
and so the original word implieth, as in I 
Chron. xxvii, 31; 2 Chron. xxxi. 3; xxxv. 
7; see tlie notes on Gen. xii. 5. And not 
their cattle only, but all their other goods, 
even ' their tents,' were swallowed unto the 
earth. Dent. xi. 6, Here we may behold 
the truth of that proverb; ' Riches profit not 
in the day of wrath: but justice delivereth 
from death, Prov. xi, 4, 

Ver, 33. — Closed upon them,] Or, 
covered over them : so there was no hope left 
for their recovery. Against such judgment 
David prayeth, ' Let not the gulf swallow 
me, neither let the pit shut her mouth upon 
me,' Psa. Ixix. 16. 

Ver. 34. — At the voice oe them,] At 
their cry or noise, which they made when 
they perished. So in Jer. xlix. 21. 'At 
the voice (or noise) of their fall, the earth is 
moved,' &c. and, ' I made the nations to 
shake, at the noise of his fall,' Ezek. xxxi. 
16. Lest the earth swallow us,] An 
imperfect speech, through fear: such as is 
often used in dangers ; as in Ps. xxxviii. 17; 
Rom. xi. 21. Thus the present judgment 

CHAP. X\ I. 


swallow up thus. ^' And a fire came fortli from Jehovah, and de- 
voured the two hundred and fifty men that offered incense. 

^^ x\nd Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ^l Speak unto Ele- 
azar the sons of Aaron the priest, that he take up the censers out 
of the burning ; and scatter thou the fire yonder, for they are hal- 
lowed. ^^ The censers of these sinners against tlieir own souls, and 
let them make them broad plates, for a covering of the altar ; for 
they offered them before Jehovah, and they are hallowed, and they 
shall be for a sign unto the sons of Israel. ^' And Eleazar tlie 
priest took the brazen censers, whicli they that were burnt had of- 
fered, and they were made broad plates, for a covering of the altar. 
*" A memorial unto the sons of Israel, that not any stranger, which 
is not of the seed of Aaron, come near to offer incense before Je- 
hovah ; that lie be not as Korah, and as his congregation, as Jehovah 
spake by the hand of Moses unto him. 

terrified them ; and, ' When the scorner is pu- 
nished, the simple is made wise,' Prov.xxi. 11. 

Ver.35. — Devoured,] Or, did eat the 250 
men, they sinned in burning incense, which 
belonged to the priests only; and with burn- 
ing they were punished, like tlie judgment on 
Aaron's sons, that transgressed also therein. 
Lev. X. 1, 2. Of this David singeth, 'A 
fire burned in their congregation, a flame 
burnt up the wicked,' Ps. cvi. 18. 

Ver. 37. — Unto eleazar, JChazkuni here 
observeth, that God " would not have Aaron 
to be defiled (by going among the dead,) be- 
cause he was one of them that offered," ver. 
17. OoT OF THE BURNING,] That is, as the 
Gr. well explaineth it, from among those that 
are burnt. So in Num. xxi. 1, 'captivity,' 
is for a company of captives ; and in 2 Kings 
xxiv. 14, 'poverty' for a company of poor peo- 
ple; and many the like. The fire,] which 
is in the censers, ver. 7. The Gr. saith, the 
strange fire; as Lev. x. 1. Yonder, In Gr. 
there; which Sol. Jarchi expoundeth, "on the 
earth out of the censers:" others, out of the 
court of the sanctuary. By casting away the 
fire, the Lord signifieth the rejecting of their 
service as profane. So in Rev. viii. 5, ' the 
angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of 
the altar, and cast it into the earth ; and 
there were voices, and thunderings,' &c. 
Which being compared with ver. 3, 4, seem- 
eth to teach likewise a rejecting of the ser- 
vice of antichristians, which abuse and de- 
spise Christ's mediation; and therefore it is 
turned nnto them to judgment. 

Ver. 38. — Sinners against their souls,] 
Sinners are here and often used for notorious 
wicked persons; as, ' destroy tlie sinners, the 
Amalekites, 1 Sam. xv. 18, and, ' the men of 
Sodom were evil and sinners,' Gen. xiii. 13. 
And they sinned 'against their souls,' in caus- 
Voi.. II. <■ 

ing their own death and destruction : for the 
' soul' is often used for the life, as in Gen.xix. 
17; xxxvii. 21. So he that ' provoketh a king 
to anger, sinneth against his own soul,' Prov. 
XX. 2. Broad plates,] Heb. out spread- 
ings of plates, that is, plates beaten out and 
spread broad, to cover the brazen altar with 
them. And they are hallowed,] Or, 
sanctified : and so (as Sol. Jarchi explaineth 
it) "unlawful for common use, because they 
had made them for vessels of ministry." Or, 
they were now sanctified of God (before whom 
they sinfully offered them,) to be an holy sign 
unto the people. For a sign,] and ' a me- 
morial to the sons of Israel,' ver. 40, to 
make them remember the transgression of 
these sinners, and to warn them that none 
hereafter do the like. So Aaron's rod was 
kept for a sign, Num. xvii. 10; and God 
threateneth by destroying the wicked, to make 
him ' a sign, and a proverb,' Ezek. xiv. 8. 
' Now all these things happened unto them 
for ensamples: and they are written for our 
admonition, upon whom the ends of the world 
are come,' 1 Cor. x. 11. 

Ver. 40. — Not any stranger,] Or, no 
man which is a stranger. Seed of aaron,] 
that is, sons, or posterity of Aaron: so all 
Israelites or Levites (save Aaron's sons only,) 
are counted strangers in this case of priest- 
hood. That he be not,] Heb. and he be 
not as Korah, like him in rebellion, and in 
punishment. Therefore Moses afterward 
rehearseth this history ; to keej) the people 
in obedience, Deut. xi, 6.^8. &c. Unto 
HIM,] Or, or of him, having reference to 
Moses' speech in ver. 29, 30, tliat tlie truth 
of the judgment denounced might be mani- 
fest. So the apostle pronounceth wo unto 
such, and saith they ' perish in the gain-say- 
ing of Korah, Jude, ver. 11. 



*' And on the morrow, all the congregation of the sons of Israel 
murmured against Moses, and against Aaron, saying. You have 
killed the people of Jehovah. ^^ And it was when the congrega- 
tion was gathered against Moses, and against Aaron, that they 
looked towards the tent of the congregation ; and behold the cloud 
covered it, and the glory of Jehovah appeared. ^^ And Moses and 
Aaron came before the tent of the congregation, 

" And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, *^ Get you up from 
among this congregation ; and I will consume them as in a moment : 
and tliey fell upon their faces. *® And Moses said unto Aaron, 
Take the censer, and put fire thereon from off the altar, and put on 
incense, and go quickly unto the congregation, and make atone- 
ment for them -. for fervent wrath is gone out from before Jehovah, 
the plague is begun. " And Aaron took as Moses had spoken, and 
ran into the midst of the church, and behold the plague was begun 
among the people : and lie put on incense, and made atonement for 
the people. ^^ And he stood between the dead and the living, and 

Ver. 47. — He put on incenseJ To make 
atonement, and to appease God's wrath ; as it 
is said of tlie priests, ' they shall put incense 
ia thy nostril (or, in thine anger) &c. and 
favourably accept thou (O Lord) the work of 
his hands;' Deut. xxxiii. 10, 11. Herein 

Ver. 41.' — Yon have killed,] Or, as the 
Chald. explaineth it, " you have caused the 
death." Though they had prayed for the peo- 
ple, ver. 22, and the strangeness of the pun- 
ishments showed unto all that they were of 
God, and the judgments were still even be- 
fore the eyes of the congregation; yet do 
they thus break out into a new rebellion. 

Ver. 42. — The glory of jehovah,] It 
appeared to help liis servants, and to repress 
and punish the rebellious ; now as in former 
times. Num. xii. 5; xiv. 10; xvi. 19. 

Ver. 45 — Get yod up, J That is, depart, 
or, separate yourselves; as he said before, iu 
ver. 21. As in a moment,] In Gr. at unce : 
see the notes on ver. 21. Fell on their 
faces,]To pray, as Thargum Jonathan addeth, 
and as they did before, in ver. 22. So did 
David and the elders of Israel, in I Chron. 
xxii, 16. 

Ver. 46.. — From off the altar,] Of 
this, Chazkuni saith, "he warned him here- 
of, that he might not err through haste, and 
offer strange fire, as Nadab and Abihu, (Lev. 
x.) and these other had done." Incense,] 
" Incense that caused death, wlien it was not 
in the hand of the priest, giveth life when it 
is in the priest's hand," saith Chazkuni on this 
place. Hereby the mediation of Christ for 
sinners was figured ; who is represented by 
the angel standing at the altar, having a golden 
censer, and much incense given unto him, to 
offer it with the prayers of all saints, Rev. 
viii. 3. Go QUICKLY,] Or, make to go with 
speed; that is, as the Chald. and Gr. trans- 
lated, "carry quickly, or in haste." The 
PLAGUE,] In Chald. "death ;" the Gr. trans- 
lateth, " he hath begun to break (that is, de- 
stroy) the people. 

he figured Christ our mediator, ' who made 
intercession for the transgressors. Is. liii. 12, 
Luke xxiii. 34. So the Hebs. (as R. Men. 
achem on Num. xvi.) apply that prophesy of 
Isaiah touching Christ, unto this work of 
Aaron, saying, ' the meaning of this, and he 
stood between the living and the dead, is like 
that (in Is. liii. 12,) ' he hath poured out his 
soul unto death,' &c. 

Ver. 48. — Between the dead and the 
LIVING,] So interposing, and as it were ex- 
posing himself to the wrath of God for the 
people ; that by the atonement whicli he now 
made, the plague might be stayed from the 
living which yet remained. ' For to him 
that is joined to all the living, there is hope, 
&c. but the dead know not any thing, &c. 
neither have they any more a portion for ever, 
in any thing that is done under the sun, &c. 
There is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, 
nor wisdom, in the grave whither, thou goest,' 
Eccl. ix. 4 — 6, 10. 'The dead praise not 
the Lord, neither any that go down into si- 
lence,' Ps. cxv. 17. 'They that go down 
into the pit, cannot hope for the truth (of 
God)' Is. xxxviii. 18, ' for after death, Com- 
eth the judgment,' Heb. ix, 27. And so by 
the Heb. doctors it is said, " There is no 
atonement for the dead." Maimony in 
Mis7i, tom. 3 in Pesulei hamukdashin, chap. 
XV. sect. 9. And the Chald. paraphrast on 
Eccl. i. 15, hath this saying; " A man whose 
ways are rebellious in this world, andhedietii 



tlic plague was stayed. *'' And they that died in tlie plagne, were 
fourteen tliousand and seven hundred, beside tlieui that died about 
the matter of Korah. '" And Aaron returned xuito Moses, unto the 
door of the tent of the congregation, and the plague was stayed. 

ites, Exod. xii. 23; Heb. xi. 28, so the smoke 
of Aaron's incense (figuring the mediation of 
Christ, Ps. cxli. 2 ; Rev. viii. 4,) stayed the 
plague here from the Israelites wliich sur- 
vived; that as it is written of the pestilence 
in David's time, ' the Lord repented him of 
the evil, and said to the angel tliat destroyed 
the people. It is enough, stay now thine hand,' 
2 Sam. xxiv. 16, so in this case. Some 
footsteps of the understanding of this mystery 
may be seen in the Heb., though super- 
stitiously depraved: as when they say, that 
' all hurtful and destroying (spirits) flee away 
at the odour of the incense of sweet spices. 
Thargum on Song iv. 6. 

Ver. 49. — About the matter,] Or, as 
the Gr. explaineth it, " for the cause of 
Korah," which the Chald.calleth" the division 
of Korah." 

Ver. 50. — Unto the door of the tent,] 
Into the court-yard of the sanctuary, where 
Moses remained ; both to signify unto Moses 
the effect and fruit of his action, through the 
mercifulness of God; and to give thanks unto 
the Lord, who had so graciously accepted the 
work of his hands. As David ' oflered 
burnt-offerings and peace-offerings ; after that 
the Lord was intreated for the land, and the 
plague was stayed from Israel, 2 Sam. xxiv. 
25 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 26, 27. 

in them, and turneth not by repentance, he 
hath no power to reform himself- after his 
death: and a man that faileth of the law and 
precepts while he liveth, he hath no means, 
after liis death, to be reckoned with the just 
men in the garden of Eden, (or paradise of 
God.'") And on Eccl. vi. 6, the Cliald. para- 
phraseth thus; "yea, though the days of the 
life of a man be two thousand years, if he 
have not exercised himself in the law, and 
liath nut done judgment and justice; by the 
oath of the word of the Lord wliich (shall be) 
in the day of his death, his soul goeth down 
to Gehenna (or hell torments,) unto one place, 
whither all sinners do go." So there was no 
estimation, nor price of the dead, for any 
vow, in Israel, as is noted on Lev. xxvii. 8. 
The pl.^gue was staved,] This showeth 
liow greatly the prayers and actions of his 
servants do prevail with God, when they are 
faithful, fervent, and according to his will, 
Jam. v. IG; 1 John v. 14, and fore-showeth 
the power and efficacy of Christ's mediation; 
for God heareth him always,' John xi. 42, 'and 
he is the atonement for our sins, 1 John ii. 
' and for his sake, God before whom the pes- 
tilence goeth, in wrath reniembereth mercy,' 
Hab. iii. 5, 2. ' And as the blood of the 
paschal lamb (figuring the blood of Christ,' 
1 Cor. V. 7,) stayed the angel which destroy- 
ed the Egyptians, from touching the Israel- 


1 . Twelve rods of the tribes of Israel being laid in the tabernacle, on 
the morrow Aaron's rod only among them all, flourislieth and bcarcth 
almonds. 10. It is left in the tabernacle for a monument against the 
rebels. 12. The people show Moses their fear of death. 

' And Jeliovah spake unto Moses, saying, '^ Speak unto the 
sons of Israel, and take of them a rod for every father's house. 

Ver. 2.' — Speak unto,] When God saw 
the continual murmurings of the people, how 
they ceased not, he commandeth this that 
followeth to be done, that so by miracle the 
priesthood of Aaron might be confirmed, and 
a full end piit to all strife thereabout ; as ver. 


Heb. " a rod a lod, for (or according to) the 
luiuse of a father;" which tlie Gr. cxplainetii 
thus ; " take of them P rod, a rod of all tlieir 

princes, according to their fathers' houses." 
A rod (or staff) was such as men use to carry 
in their hands. Gen. xxxvili. 18; Exod. iv. 
2 ; the same word (called in Heb. Matleh) 
is often used for a tribe, as in Num. i. 4, 
16, 21, &c. ; either because of this writing 
of their names upon rods, or because the 
twelve tribes grew out of the stock of Israel, 
as rods or branches out of a tree. The 
luinces also carried staves in their hand^, as 



of all their princes, according to tlie house of their fathers, twelve 
rods : every man's name thou shalt write upon his rod. ^ And 
Aaron's name thou shalt write upon the rod of Levi ; for one rod 
shall be for the head of the house of their fathers. * And thou slialt 
lay them up in tlie tent of the congregation, before the testimony, 
where I will meet with you. ^ And it shall be, that the man wliom 
I shall choose, his rod shall bud ; and I will make to cease from 
me the murmurings of the sons of Israel, wherewith they murmur 
against you. ^ And Moses spake unto the sons of Israel ; and all 
their princes gave unto him, a rod for one prince, a rod for one 
prince, according to the liouse of tlieir fathers, twelve rods ; and the 
rod of Aaron was among their rods. ' And Moses laid up tlie rods 
before Jehovali, in the tent of the testimony. ® And it was on the 
morrow that Moses went in to the tent of the testimony ; and be- 

ajjpeareth by Num. xxi. 18. And with this Ver. 8. — Blossoms,] Or flowers. Yield- 

may be compared that in Ezek. xxxvii. 16, ED,] Or, njsenerf, (as the word is Englished, in 

17, &c. where the prophet wrote the names 
of tribes upon sticks, which were joined to- 
gether as one in his hand, to signify the unit- 
ing of the divided tribes. The hoxtse,] 
Tb^t is, as the Gr. expoundeth it, " the 
ho'ises:" see the notes on Num. i. 2. 

Ver. 3. — For one rod shall be,] The 
Gr. explaineth it thu?, "for it is one rod: 
according to the tribe of their fathers' house 
shall they give." The tribe of Levi, though 
they were distinguished into priests and Le- 
vites, yet as all came by one father Levi, so 
one rod was for them all. Sol. Jarchi here 
expoundeth it, " although I have divided 
them into two families, the family of the 
priests and the family of the Levites ; not- 
withstanding it is one tribe." Of this their 
division, see Num. iii. ; xviii. 1 — 7. 

Ver. 4. — Lay them up,] Or, leave them, 
or as the Gr. translateth, " put them." 
Tent of the congregation,] Or, tent of 
meeting. The testimony,] That is, the 
ark wherein the tables of the law (called the 
testimony) were kept. See the notes on 
Exod. XXV. 16. Where I will meet,] That 
is, where I use to meet with you, according to 
the promise in Exod. xxv. 22; xxx. 36. And 
this is the reason why the tabernacle was call- 
ed " the tent of meeting or of congregation." 

Ver. 5. — I shall choose,] That is, shall 
like of, and approve to administer the priest- 
hood ; as in Thargum Jonathan this is added, 
" to minister before me." Rod shall bud,] 
Or shall flourish : see ver. 8. Will make 
to cease from me,] In Gr. tmll tahe away 
from thee. This word is spoken of the ceas- 
ing or assuaging of waters, Gen. viii. 1 ; and 
of wrath, Est. ii. 1 ; and is here applied to 
the murmurings of the people, which were 
like raging waters, foaming out their own 

Is. xviii. 5,) that is, brought forth ripe almonds. 
Almonds,] In Gr. and in Thargum Jonathan, 
7iuts. An almond, in Heb. Shaked, is named 
Shakad, which signifieth with care, haste, 
and watchfulness, to look unto and perform a 
thing. And because the almond tree blos- 
someth and beareth fruit sooner than other 
trees, therefore hath it this name. And So- 
lomon for the same cause, likeneth the white 
hairs which soon grow upon us in age, to the 
' flourishing of the almond tree," Eccl. xii. 
5. By this miracle, God did confirm the 
priesthood unto Aaron, as by the vision of 
the vine-branches budding, blossoming, and 
bringing forth ripe grapes, &c , he signified 
the confirmation of ofiice unto Pharaoh's but- 
ler. Gen. xl. 10 — 13. He signified further 
by the buds, the continuance and propagation 
of the priesthood to his posterity ; who should 
sprout and grow out of him, by the blessing 
of God, who maketh ' the dry tree to bud 
(or flourish,) Ezek. xvii. 24; as also it is 
prophesied of the church, *■ he shall cause 
them that come of Jacob to take root; Israel 
shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the 
world with fruit,' Is. xxvii. 6. And the ori- 
ginal word for buds, is also used for young- 
lings or youth, as in Job xxx. 12. The 
blossoming (or flourishing) of this rod, figured 
also the comfortable and glorious effect of the 
administration of the priest's office: as Christ 
is said to ' look forth at the window, flourish- 
ing through the lattice,' Song ii. 9; that we 
all with open face may behold as in a glass 
' the glory of the Lord,' 2 Cor. iii. 18 ; and 
this, to the shame of his enemies, Ps. cxxxii. 
18. The almonds figured the fruits of his 
administration, which hastily should show 
forth themselves, to the comfort of the saints, 
and punishment of all that should resist him ; 
as unto Jeremiah, (one of Aaron's sons,) God 



hold, the rod of Aaron for the house of Levi had budded, and 
brouglit forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and yielded almonds. 
* And Moses brought out all the rods from before Jehovali, unto 
all tlie sons of Israel : and tliey saw, and took every man his rod. 

'" And Jehovah said unto Moses, Bring Aaron's .rod again before 
the testimony, to be kept for a sign against the sons of rebellion ; 
and thou shalt quite take away their murmurings from me, that 
they die not. '' And Moses did as Jehovah commanded him : so 
did he. '^ iVnd the sons of Israel said unto Moses, saying, Behold, 
we give up the ghost, we perish, we all of us perish. " Every one 

sliowed in a vision the rod of an almond tree, 
(which hath the name of hastening,) and 
opened tlie same unto him thus, ' thou hast 
well seen; for I will hasten my word to perform 
it,' Jer. i. 11, 12. Therefore as soon as 
Uzziah the king rose up to usurp the priest's 
office, ' the leprosy even rose up in his fore- 
head,' 2 Chrou. xxvi. 18, 19. 

Ver. 10. — Bring again,] Or, return 
Aaron's rod. Before the testimony,] In 
Gr. the testimonies ; meaning the tables of the 
covenant in tlie ark ; as is noted on ver. 4 ; 
before which it was laid up, and not in it: 
' for nothing was in the ark save the two 
tables of stone,' 1 Kings viii. 9. The Hebs. 
record how in Solomon's temple, " there 
was a stone in the most holy place, in the west 
part thereof, on which they set the ark : and 
before it was the golden pot of manna and the 
rod of Aaron." Maim. torn. iii. in Beth 
hahchirah, chap. iv. sect. 1. To be kept, 
Heb. ybr a keeping (or reservation.) As the 
manna was kept in the golden pot within the 
most holy place of the sanctuary, for a reser- 
vation and monument to the Israelites, that 
the generations after might see the bread 
which God had given their fathers to eat in 
the wilderness, Exod. xvi. 32 — 34 ; so this 
rod was kept in the same place for a reserva- 
tion and for a sign, that all generations might 
know the confirmation of their priesthood in 
Aaron's line. Both did lead them unto 
Christ ; the manna figuring the flesh of Chrit.t, 
the true bread from heaven, wherewith the 
faithful should be nourished unto life eternal, 
John vi. 31 — 33, 51 ; and the rod, the priest- 
hood of Christ, whereby they should be recon- 
ciled unto God, Heb. ix. 11, 12. Therefore 
the apostle mentioneth this budding rod, with 
the pot of manna among the most memorable 
things that were kept in the holy of holies, 
Ileb. ix. 3, 4. The SONS of rebellion,] 
Which the Gr. translateth, " the disobedient 
sons ;" meaning the Israelites, called sons (or 
children of rebellion,) because they were so 
much addicted thereunto, as if rebellion itself 
had been their mother: so that Moses testi- 

fied, ' Ye have been rebellious against the 
Lord, from the day that I knew you,' Deut. 
ix. 24. This phrase is common in the Scrip- 
tures, as, ' a son of injurious evil (or of wick- 
edness,') Ps. viii. 23 ; for an injurious or 
wicked person: ' and sons of affliction,' Prov. 
xxxi. 5; for afHicted persons: so, ' sons of 
Belial,' Deut. xiii. 13 ; 1 Sam. ii. 12 ; 
' sons of disobedience,' Eph. ii. 2 ; v. 6 ; 
' sons of the light and of the day,' 1 Thes. 
V. 5 ; ' children of wisdom,' Matt. xi. 19; 
' children of obedience,' 1 Pet. i. 14 ; and 
sundry the like. Thou shalt quite take 
AWAY,] Or, shalt consume, shalt wholly end 
their murmurings: the Gr. translateth it, 
" and let their murmurings cease from me, 
and they shall not die." 

Ver. 12. — We give up the ghost,] Or, 
have given up the ghost, that is, died : or, as 
the Gr. translateth, " are consumed." This 
may be taken as an unjust complaint of theirs, 
for the punishments that they had felt and 
should still feel for their sins. Or rather, as 
a serious complaint of their own misery, be- 
ing under sin, and so by the law under punish- 
ment and wrath: like that which the apostle 
saith, ' I was alive without the law once ; 
but when the commandment came, sin re- 
vived, and I died ; and the commandment 
which (was ordained) unto life, I found (to be) 
unto death,' Rom. vii. 9, 10. The Chald. 
paraphraseth upon these words, thus, " Be- 
liold the sword hath killed some of us, and 
behold the earth hath swallowed some of us, 
and behold some of us are dead with the pes- 
tilence." And Thargum Jonathan thus, 
*' Behold some of us are consumed with 
flaming fire, and some of us are swallowed 
up into the earth and perished ; behold we 
think that as they, so we all shall perish." 

Ver. 13. — That cometh near,] In Gr. 
that toiis-heth the tabernacle. Shall we be 
consumed in giving up the ghost ?] That 
is, shall we die every one ? This seemeth to 
be a deprecation, whereby acknowledging 
their sins to be worthy of death, tliey pray for 
mercy: for so questions are often used iu ear- 



that cometh near, that comctli near unto the tabernacle of Jehovah, 
shall die : shall we be consumed in giving np the ghost ?• 

nest deprecations, as, * wilt thou be angry 
with us for ever?' &c. Ps. Isxxv. 6 ; ' wilt 
thou utterly reject us ?' Lam. v. 22 ; ' wilt 

thou hold thy peace, and afflict ns very sore ? 
Is. Ixiv. 12 ; and many the like. 


1. The different charges of the priests, and of the Levites adjoined 
unto them. 9. The priests' portion of the people's offerings, and hah 
lowed things, and the use of them. 21. The Levites' portion is the tithes 
of the Israelites, but no inhei'itance in the land. 26. The Levites must 
give unto the priests the tenth of their tithes, as the Lord's heave-offer- 
ing : and the rest themselves shoidd enjoy for a reward of their service. 

' And Jehovali said unto i\aron, Thou, and thy sons, and thy 
father's house with thee, shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary : 
and tliou, and thy sons witli thee, shall bear the iniquity of your 
priesthood. ^ And thy brethren also, the tribe of Levi, the tribe of 
thy father, bring thou near with thee, that they may be joined 

Ver. 1. — Said unto Aaron,] Because of 
the people's fear and complaint, in the end 
of tiie former chapter, God here taketh order 
for the watch of the sanctuary, that the care 
thereof should lie upon the priests, that the 
people might not transgress and perish. So 
the remedy for terrors of conscience wrought 
by the law, is faith in Christ, whose priest- 
hood was fore-shadowed in Aaron's, and which 
should ' deliver them who through fear of 
death, were all their life-time subject to bond- 
age,' Heb. ii. 15. Thy father's house,] 
The house or posterity of Levi, who was father 
to all the priests and Levites. The iniodity 
OF THE SANCTUARY,] That is, shall bear the 
punishment for all the iniquity that is done 
in the sanctuary ; at your hands will I re- 
quire it. Thus Jarchi expoundeth it, " upon 
you I will bring the punishment of the stran- 
gers that slmll sin concerning the sanctified 
things that are delivered unto you." And as 
the sanctuary comprehended both the taber- 
nacle and the court-yard, with all things in 
them: so this is generally spoken concerning 
the priests and Levites (which were of 
Aaron's father's house,) who were all toward 
the sanctuaiy, though in distinct places, as 
shall after be showed. Iniquity of your 
i'riesthood,] That is, the punishment for 
all iniquity done about your priest's office. 
And this is special concerning the priests, 
whose cai'e and charge was over the Levites 
also, which might not come near some things 
belonging to the priesthood. R. Menaciiem 
here saith, tliat " by this admonition was 

signified how the priests should not intermed- 
dle with the service of the Levites, nor the 
Levites with the service of the priests. 
Whereof, see more on ver. 3. 

Ver. 2.-_The tribe,] The Heb. here 
hath two words, Mutteh (the tribe) of Levi, 
and Shebet (the tribe) of thy father: of which 
the former siguifieth a staff; the latter, a 
rod: both of them applied to a tribe or kin- 
dred, which did spring and grow out of Levi, 
as rods, staves, or bi'anches from the stock of 
a tree. Of this name tribe, see what is not- 
ed on Gen. xlix. 16. That they may be 
joined,] Or, and let them, be joined ; as the 
Gr. translateth, " and let them be added 
unto thee." Here is an allusion to Levi's 
name, which signifieth joined. The Father 
Levi had the name, because at his birth his 
mother said, ' now my husband will be join- 
ed unto me,' Gen. xxix. 34 ; his children 
(called of him, Levites,) are according to the 
notation of their name, made adjoints to the 
priests. And this word is after used and 
applied to such as adjoined themselves to the 
Lord, and to his people, Is. Ivi. 3, 6 ; Jer. 
1.5; Esth. ix. 27 ; so in the New Testa- 
ment, Acts V. 14; xi. 24; ii. 41, 47. 
Minister unto thee,] So in Num. iii. 6 ; 
the Levites are appointed to minister unto 
Aaron: elsewhere they are said to minister 
unto the congregation. Num. xvi. 9 ; and 
unto the Lord, Deut. x. 8 ; 1 Sam. iii. 1 ; 
2 Chron. xxix. 11; and ' in the name of 
the Lord,' Deut. xviii. 6, 7 ; and are called 
the ministers of his house, Ezek. xlv. 5. Be- 



unto thee, and minister unto thee -. but thou, and thy sons witli thee, 
( shall minister ) haiove the tent of the testimony. ^ And tiiey shall 
keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tent : but they shall not 
come nigh unto tlie vessels of holiness,, and unto the altar, tliat they 
die not, both they and you. * And they shall be joined mito thee, and 
sliall keep the charge of the tent of the congregation, for all the service 
of tlie tent ; and a stranger shall not come nigh unto you. * And ye 

FORE THE TENT,] Herein is the difference 
bftween the priests and Levites' office, that 
tlie priests served at the altar, and in the holy 
place ; the Levites served the outer services, 
iielped to kill, slay, take the blood, &c., and 
gave it to the priests, who sprinkled the blood 
received from their hands, 2 Chron. xxx. 16; 
xxix. 34; 1 Chrou. xxiii. 2S — 32. Of the 
TESTIMONY,] That is, of the law, written on 
the two tables kept in an ark within Ihe tent 
or tabernacle ; and thereof it had this name, 
as is noted on Exod. xxv. 16. 

Ver. 3. — Shall keep thy charge,] Or, 
ibserve thy observation, thy custody, or thy 
ward; at thy appointment doing their ser- 
vice: see Num. iii. 7. The vessels of 
HOLINESS,] In Gr. the holy vessels : to come 
nigh unto them, to serve with them at the 
altar, or in the holy place the Levites might 
not: which the Heb. canons explain thus, 
" all the Levites are forbidden the service at 
the altar, as it is said (in Num. xviii. 3.) 
But they shall not come nigh unto the ves- 
sels, &c. They shall not come nigh to the 
service ; but to touch them it was lawful." 
Maim. torn. iii. in Cle hamikdash, chap. iii. 
sect. 9. So in Num. iii. 8, the Levites 
were appointed to keep all the vessels of the 
tabernacle. Both they and you,] They 
for doing so, you for sufTering it. But from 
these words the Hebs. say, " as the Levites 
are forbidden to do the service of the priests, 
so the priests are forbidden to do the ser- 
vice of the Levites, as it is written, both they 
and you." Maim, in Cle hamikdash, chap, 
iii. sect. x. 

Ver. 4. — The charge,] Or, the custody ; 
in Gr. the custodies, or the wards, watches : 
for so the word is used for keeping watch by 
night also, as in Ps. xc. 4. See the notes 
on Exod. xiv. 24. A stranger,] Any of 
Israel that is not a Levite, is counted a stran- 
ger in this business: and in the priests' af- 
fairs, the Levites themselves were counted 
strangers, ver. 7. See the notes on Num. 
iii. 10. 

Ver. 5. — Keei' the charge of the holy 
PLACE,] Heb. observe the obscrvatiori of the 
holiness; which the Gr. translateth, " of the 
holies:" by this name the apostle calleth the 
first tabernacle, wlierein was the candlestick, 
tabU', and show-bread ; as the inmost part 

of the tabernacle is called holy of holies, that 
is, the holiest of all, Heb. ix, 2, 3. To keep 
the charge, or observe the observation, is to 
have continual care day and night, that all 
things be kept pure and uncorrupted, and 
administered according to the will of God: 
as they that kept the charge (or ward) of the 
house of Saul, were such as endeavoured to 
keep and maintain the kingdom in Saul's 
family, i Chron. xii. 29. This duty of the 
priests and Levites in the tabernacle, con- 
tinued also in the temple, where some were 
porters, * keepers of the gates, and lodged 
round about the house of God ; some had 
charge of the ministering vessels, that they 
should bring them in and out by tale ; some 
of the fine flour, and the wine, and the oil, 
and the frankincense, and of the spices, and 
of the show-bread ; some were singers em- 
ployed in that work night and day,' &c. 1 
Chron. ix. 19, 23 — 33. Of their manner of 
keeping the temple, the Hebs. have thus re- 
corded: " the keeping of the sanctuary is a 
thing commanded, yea though they be no fear 
of enemies or of thieves ; for the keejiing 
thereof is but for the honour thereof. And 
this keeping is commanded to be all the 
night: and the keepers are the priests and 
the Levites, as it is said, ' and thou and thy 
sons with thee (shall be) before the tent of 
the testimony,' (Num. xviii. 2 ;) as if he 
should say, you shall be the keepers (or watch- 
men) thereof. Moreover, it is said of the 
Levites, ' and they shall keep the charge of 
the tent,' (Num. xviii. 4.) It is also said, 
' and they that encamp before the tabernacle, 
foremost before the tent of the congregation 
eastward, (shall be) Moses and Aaron, and 
his sons, keeping the charge of the holy place,' 
(Num. iii. 38.) And if they leave off" the 
keeping of it, they transgress against a prohi- 
bition. The rommandment of keeping it, is, 
that the priests be the keepers in the inner 
(places), and the Levites in the outer. And 
twenty-four companies kejit it every night 
continually in twenty-four places ; the priests 
in three places, and the Levites in one and 
twenty places, &c. The priests that ward- 
ed, slejit not in their priestly garments, but 
folded them up and laid them at their heads, 
and put on their own garments, and slept on 
the ground, as is the manner of all that ward 



shall keep the cliarge of the holy place, and the charge of tlie altar, 
that there be no fervent wrath any more upon the sons of Israel. 
* And I, behold I have taken your bretluren the Levites from 
among the sons of Israel : to you they are given as a gift for Jeho- 
vah, to serve the service of tlie tent of the congregation. ' And 
thou, and thy sons with thee, shall keep your priest's office for 
every thing of the altar, and within tlie vail, and ye shall serve : 
I have given your priest's office as a service of gift ; and the stran- 
ger that cometh nigh shall be put to death. 

^ And Jehovah spake unto Aaron, And I, benold I have given 
unto thee tlie charge of mine heave -offeruigs of all the holy things 

kings' courts, that they sleep not on beds. 
And they set one provost over all the wards 
(or custodies) of the keepers, and he was 
called the man of the mountain of the house 
(of God.) And he went round about unto 
every ward, all the night with torches burn- 
ing before him ; and every warder that did 
not stand and say, Thou man of the mountain 
of the house, peace be unto thee, it was known 
that he was asleep, and he did beat him with 
his staff. And he had authority to burn his 
garment, so that (sometimes) they said in 
Jerusalem, What noise is in the court ? It 
is the cry of a Levite that is beaten, and liis 
garments burnt, because he slept at his watch. 
Iq the morning, the provost of the sanctuary 
came and knocked at the gate for tlie priests 
that were in the place of burning, (the holy 
things,) and they opened unto him. He took 
a key and opened the little gate, that was be- 
tween the place of burning and the courtyard, 
and went from the burning place into the 
courtyard, and the priests went in after him. 
And two torches of fire were in their hand, 
and they divided themselves into two com- 
panies; one company went eastward, and ano- 
ther westward ; and they searched and went 
through all the court-yard, till both compa- 
nies came to the place where they made the 
priests' meat-offering, (spoken of in Lev. vi. 
20, 21.) When both sides came thither, 
they said. Peace, all is peace, and they set 
those that made the meat-offering to make 
the same. After this order did they every 
night, save the nights of tlie Sabbath: for 
then they had not fire (torches) in their 
hand, but searched with the lamps that were 
lighted there on the evening of the Sabbath." 
Maim, in torn. iii. in Beth habchirah, chap. 


transgressing, as in former time, when fer- 
vent wrath went out from the Lord, Num. 
xvi. 46. See also Num. viii. 19. 

Ver. 6. — I HAVE TAKEN,] Instead of all 
the first-born of Israel, who otherwise should 
have ministered unto mc; see Num. iii. 12; 

and the annot. there. A gift for Jeho- 
vah,] Or, unto Jehovah, as the Gr. saith, "to 
the Lord;" the Chald. " before the Lord." 
See Num. iii. 9, 12 ; viii. 13, 16, 19 ; where 
they were offered unto the Lord, and given 
unto him, and by him given unto Aaron. 

Ver. 7. — Within the vail,] Not only 
the second vail, (as it is called in Heb. ix. 
3,) but the first vail, within which ' th& 
priests went always, accomplishing the ser- 
vices,' Heb. ix. 6 ; ' as to burn incense,' 
Luke i. 9 ; 'to trim the lamps,' Exod. xxvii. 
20, 21 ; 'to set on the show-bread every 
Sabbath,' Lev. xxiv. 8, 9, and the like. I 
HAVE GIVEN,] Heb. I will give ; which form 
of speech, noteth a continuance of the gift. 
A SERVICE OF gift,] A Service freely given 
you ; which Sol. Jarchi and Cha^kuni explain 
thus, " 1 have given it unto you by gift, that 
none should say, ye are come into it of your- 
selves. The STRANGER,] Any Israelite, Le- 
vite, or whosoever is not of Aaron's seed : 
see the notes on Num. iii. 10. 

Ver. 8. — I have given,] After the office 
of the priests and Levites prescribed, God 
here provideth for their maintenance and 
livelihood, which they should have from the 
people for theii" service. The equity whereof 
remaineth perpetual, as the apostle observeth, 
saying, ' Do ye not know that they which 
minister about holy things, eat of the things 
of the temple ? and they which wait at the 
altar, are partakers of the altar ? Even so 
hath the Lord ordained, that they which 
preach the gospel, should live of the gospel,' 
1 Cor. ix. 13, 14. The charge,] Heb. 
" the keeping (or observation) of mine heave - 
offerings;" which the Gr. translateth, " tlie 
keeping of my first-fruits;" in Chald. " the 
keeping of my separated things." They are 
said to be a charge or keeping, because they 
were carefully to be taken, and used holily, as 
g\hs from the Lord. Sol. Jarchi explaineth it, 
" which thou must keep in cleanness (or pu- 
rity.) Therefore they are called holy things, 
and were to be eaten (some of them) in thj 



of tlie sons of Israel; unto thee have I given them, for the anoint- 
mg, and to thy sons, by a statute for ever. * Tliis shall be thine 
of the holy of Jiolies, (reserved) from the fire : every oblation of 
theirs, of every meat-offering of theirs, and of every sin-offering of 
tlieirs, and of every trespass- o^e^rm^ of theirs, which they shall 
render unto me, it shall be holy of holies for thee, and for thy sons. 
" In tlie holy of liolies shalt thou eat it : every male shall eat it ; 

holy place, and by clean persons only ; as in 
ver. 9 — 11, &c. And in the Heb. canons it 
is said, " It is unlawful to defile the heave- 
offering (or first-fruits) of the land of Israel, 
like as other holy things, or to bring it into 
the estate of uncleanness ; but it is to be 
eaten being clean, and to be burnt if it be 
unclean." Maim. torn. iii. in Trumoth, 
chap. xii. sect. 1. Of all the holy 
THINGS,] Or, " with all the holy things," as 
Chazlvuni here explaineth it: see the notes 
on Num. V. 9. The Gr. translateth, "of all 
things sanctified unto me by the sons of Israel." 
FoK THE ANOINTING,] That is, for the office 
sake whereunto thou art anointed: that as 
thou art consecrated with the holy oil, to at- 
tend upon mine holy things. Lev, xxi. 10 

12 i so thou shalt have mine holy things to 
keep and live upon. Tlius anointing is also 
used in Lev. vii. .35, ' This is the anointing 
of Aaron, and the anointing of his sons.' For 
this cause the nation of the Jews was cursed 
with a curse, as having robbed God, because 
they kept back their tithes and oflerings, 
which they should have brought into the 
store-house, that there might have been meat 
in the house of God for his ministers, Mai. 
iii. 8—10. 

Ver. 9. — Of the holy of holies,] Heb. 
of the holiness of holinesses, that is, of the 
most holy things, which the Gr. translateth, 
" of the hallowed (or sanctified) holy things. 
Some oblations in the sanctuary are called 
holy, (and by the Heb. doctors, light holy 
things,) some holy of holies, that is, most holy 
things ; of which difference, see the annot. on 
Lev. vi. 17. With these lie liere beginneth, 
which the jniests only were to eat, and that 
within the sanctuary, ver. 10; then he pro- 
ceedeth to the light holy things which the 
priests and their families were to eat within 
the camp, (and in ages following, within the 
walls of Jerusalem :) last of all, he speaketh 
of other gifts which were common, and might 
be eaten by any, and in any place, ver. 14, 
&c. From the fire,] In Chald. left (or 
remaining) from the fire, meaning the fire of 
the altar, where some part of the most holy 
things were burned to the Lord. Every 
oblation,] This may be understood as the 
general ; and the meat-ollering, sin-oflering, 
&c., as the particulars thereof: or, if it be 

Vol h. (1 

meant of things diflerent, it may be referred 
to those oblations appointed for the cougrega- 
tion, in Lev. xxiii. 17 — 20. Thus Jarchi 
here explaineth it, " the peace-ufferings of 
the congregation." And there were no 
peace-offerings of the congregation, but only 
those mentioned in Lev. xxiii.; as is noted on 
Lev. iv. 14 ; xxiii. 19. But Chazkimi un- 
derstandeth it of the two loaves, in Lev. xxiii. 
17 ; and of the shew-bread, saying, " what 
oblation is this ? We find afterward the sin- 
oflering, (to be expressed) and after that the 
trespass-oilering, which were holy of holies. 
If, (we understand it) of the bunit-offering, 
that was not eaten : if of the peace-offerings, 
they were not holy of holies. Behold he 
speaketh not but of the two loaves, (Lev. 
xxiii.) and of the shew-bread." Now both 
these were most holy, and for the priests only 
to eat, as is showed on Lev. xxiii. 20 ; xxiv. 
9. Meat. offering,] The remainder where- 
of was most holy for the priests only to eat 
in the holy place, by the law in Lev. vi. 16, 
17. SiN-oFFERi.\G,] Which the priests were 
to eat also in the holy place, as in Lev. vi. 
26. Trespass-offering,] Which likewise 
was most holy, and for the priests only to 
eat, as the law showeth in Lev. vii. I — 6. 
Which they shall render,] Or shall re- 
turn (shall restore) unto me. This may be 
referred to the sacrifice forementioned; and 
by reason of this word render (or restore) and 
for that the Gr. translateth it, " whatsoever 
things they shall render to me ;" it may in 
special be understood of that ram of atone- 
ments which was given for a trespass-ofl'ering 
when a man restored unto the Lord the thing 
which he had robbed ; according to the law 
in Num. V. 8 ; compared with Lev. vi. 2 — 
G. And unto that particular does Jarchi 
and Chazkuni heie refer it. Now that ram 
was most holy, because it was a trespass- 
offering : but the thing itself which was stolen 
and restored to the priest, was of the com- 
mon things, as after shall be showed. 

Ver. 10. — In the holy of holies,] Ob- 
serve how the court of the sanctuary is here 
called the holy of holies, or most holy place, 
in respect of the camp of Israel and city of 
Jerusalem, which were holy places for the 
light holy things, as the passover, peace-offer- 
ings, and tlie like, to be eaten in ; as also in 



holy shall it be unto thee. '' And this shall be thine, the heave- 
offering of their gift, witii all the wave- offerings of tlie sons of Is- 
rael, unto thee have I given them, and to thy sons and to thy 
daughters with thee, by a statute for ever : every clean person in 
thine house shall eat it. ^^ All the fat of the new oil, and all the 

comparison with the great court for the peo- 
ple whicJi was without the priest's court, 2 
Chron. iv. 9; E2ek. xlii. 14. For that 
which is commonly called the holy of holies, 
or most holy place, (which was in the taber- 
nacle after the second vail,) was not a place 
to eat in, or for any to come into, save for 
the high priest once in the year to make 
atonement. Lev. xvi. ; Heb. ix. 3, 7. Nei- 
ther might they eat in the tabernacle, but in 
the court; and that is here meant, as the 
law showeth, ' in the holy place, in the court 
of the tent of the congregation they shall eat 
it,' Lev. vi. 16. And in the court of the 
temple there were chambers for such uses, 
Neh. xiii. 6, 9; whereupon in Ezek. xlii. 
13, he speaketh of ' holy chambers, where 
the priests that approach unto the Lord shall 
eat the most holy things ; there shall they lay 
the most holy things, and the meat-oflering, 
and the sin-oflering, and the trespass-offering, 
for the place is holy.' And whereas Ezekiel 
there prophesieth of the third temple, the 
temple of the gospel -which Christ should 
build, at which time the legal priesthood of 
Aaron should have an end, Heb. vii.; these 
ordinances did signify (besides the ministers' 
maintenance forespoken of, 1 Cor. ix. 13, 
14,) that they which should by Christ be made 
priests unto God his Father, Rev. i. 6, (as all 
true Christians are, 1 Pet. ii. 5, 9,) should 
be made partakers of Christ (who is both our 
meat-offering, our sin and trespass -offering ;) 
and feeding on his flesh by faith, should be 
nourished unto life eternal, John vi. 35, 50, 
31 ; compared with Heb. xiii. 10 — 15. 
Every male,] And not the female : for the 
priest's wives and daughters might not eat of 
the most holy things, as they did eat of the 
holy and common things, ver. 11, 13, 19; 
Lev. vi. 18, 29 ; vii. 6. But now for our 
partaking of Christ, ' there is neither male 
nor female, for we are all one in Christ Jesus,' 
Gal. iii. 28. Holy,] Heb. holiness : in Gr. 
kol^ things shall they be unto thee : meaning 
that only the priests, and they in their holi- 
ness and cleanness should eat thereof. The 
blemished priests might eat, but the unclean 
might not, Lev. xxi. 21, 22; xxii. 3 — 6. 
The flesh itself also must be holy, for if any 
unclean thing touched it, it was burnt and 
might not be eaten. Lev. vii. 19. 

Ver. 11 — And this,] Here he passeth 
on to the light holy things, which might be 
taten by the priests, male and female, with- 

out the sanctuary. The heave-offering 
OF THEIR GIFT,] That is, which the Israelites 
give to the priest out of their heave-offerings, 
such were (as Jarchi also here explain ethj 
" the heave-offering of the sacrifice of confes- 
sion, and of the peace-offering, and of the 
NazM-ite's ram;" whereof see Lev. vii. 11, 
12, 14, 32, 34 ; and Num. vi. 17 — 20. In 
Deut. xii. 6, 17, there is mentioned ' the 
heave-offering of your hand,' which is meant 
of the first-fruits spoken of in Deut. xxvi. 
See the annot. on those places. The wave- 
offerings,] As the breast of the peace-ofl'er- 
ings. Lev. vii. 30, 31, 34 ; for that was 
waved as the shoulder was heaved. Thy 
daughters,] Understand, whiles they re- 
mained in their father's house : but being 
married to strangers they might not eat of 
the holy things: see Lev. xxii. 12, 13. 
Every clean person,] Though the priest's 
slave, bought into, or born in his house ; but 
no stranger nor hired servant, Lev. xxii. 10, 
11 ; neither might any unclean person eat of 
it, Lev, vii. 20, 21. 

Vf.r. 12. — All the fat,] That is, as 
the Chald. expoundeth it, all the best ; which 
the Gr. translateth, all the Jirst-fndts. The 
fat is often used for that which is good, and 
best of things, not of beasts only, but of 
wheat, as Deut. xxxii. 14; Ps. Ixxxi. 17 ; 
cxlvii. 14 ; and here, of oil and wine; and 
so of the land in general, as Gen. xxvii. 28; 
xlv. 18. And as after God saith to the Le- 
vites, in ver. 30, ' when ye have heaved the 
fat thereof:' so this concerned all the people 
that they should do the like. " They heave 
not up any but the fairest," saith Maim, in 
Trumoth, chap. v. sect. I. See the annot. 
on Gen. iv. 4. The new oil,] In Gr. the 
oil : so after, of the wine. The law con- 
cerning these, is repeated in Deut. xviii. 4, 
thus, ' the first-fruits of thy com, of thy new 
wine, and of thy new oil, &c., shall thou give 
unto him,' that is, unto the priest. Under 
these three, all other of like sort are compre- 
hended; which the Hebs. explain thus; "all 
man's meat that is kept, which groweth out 
of the earth, is bound (to pay) the heave-ofler- 
ing (or first-fruits.) And it is a command- 
ment to separate out of it the first-fruits for 
the priest, Deut. xviii. 4. As corn, wine, 
oil, are man's meat, and grow out of the 
earth, and have owners, as it is written, thy 
corn: so whatsoever is of like sort, is bound 
(to pay) the heave -offering, and likewise the 



fat of tlic new wine, and of the corn ; the ^rst/ruits of tliem which 
tliey shall give unto Jehovah, them have I given unto tliee. '^ Tlie 

tithes.'' Maim, in Trumoth, chap. ii. sect. 
1. Sec after on ver. 21, for the tithes. As 
for the first-fruits which the owners brought 
into the sanctuary, Deut. xxvi. the Hebs. say, 
they were but of seven tilings only, as is 
noted on Exod. xxii. 29. Observe, therefore, 
a dill'erence between the first-fruits left for 
the priests, and the first-fruits brought before 
the Lord, and there given to the piiest: for 
these were two gifts, as after shall be showed. 
The first-fruits,] Called in Heb. Reshith, 
that is, the first or the beginning: after in 
ver. 13, he speaketh of first-fruits, called in 
Heb. Biccurinii of them he saith, "which 
they shall bring unto Jehovah," to wit, into 
the sanctuary, according to the law, in Deut. 
xxvi. 2, 3, &c. ; of these he ?aith, " which 
they shall give unto Jehovah ;" for they were 
not bound to bring them out of their place, 
but the priests came where they were, and 
took them. These, (for distinction's sake) the 
Hebs. call " the great heave-oflering ;" the 
other they call " the first-fruits." So in this 
place, Sol. Jarchi saith, " the first-fruits of 
them, this is the great heave-oflering.'' And 
of these, the Heb. canons say, " the Israel- 
ites are not bound to take pains about the 
heave-oflering, and to bring it from the corn- 
floor to the city, or from the wilderness to 
the inhabited land ; but the priests go out to 
the corn-floors, and the Israelites give them 
their portion there. And if (the priests) come 
not, then he separateth it, and leaveth it in 
the corn-floor. And if there be wild beasts 
or cattle that will devour it there, and there 
be none to keep it from them, our wise-men 
have ordained that they should then bring it 
to the city, and be paid of the priest for the 
bringing of it. For if he separate it, and 
leave it for the beasts, he profaneth the name 
(of God.)'' Maim, in Trumoth, chap. xii. 
sect. 17. For the practice of these ordi- 
nances, see Neh. x. 35 — 39 ; how the peo- 
ple brought their first-fruits and tithes to the 
liouse of God. Which they shall give,] 
The law saith not how much they should give, 
b>it leaveth it to the people's liberality. How- 
beit, in Ezek. xlv. 13, it is written, ' this 
is the heave-oli'ering which ye shall heave up; 
the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of 
wheat,' &c; that was the sixtieth part, for 
an homer contained ten cphahs, Ezek. xlv. 
1 1 ; whereupon the wise men of Israi^l or- 
dained that none should give for his first-fruits, 
less than the sixtieth part. " The great 
heave-oflering hath no set measure by the law, 
for it is said (in Deut. xviii. 4.) The first 
(fruits) of thy corn, &c. But a man may 
not separate, save according to the measure 

which our wise men have set, &c. And what 
measure is that ? A good eye, [that is, a 
liberal person,] one of foity ; and a mean 
(eye,) one of fifty; an evil [eye, that is, a 
niggard,] one of sixty. And he may not give 
less than one of sixty." Maim, in Trumoth, 
chap. iii. sect. 1, 2. The like measure they 
set for the other first-fruits brought into the 
sanctuary. Maim, in Biccurim (or first- 
fruits,) chap. ii. sect. 17. See the notes on 
Exod, xxii. 29. According hereunto is that 
saying of Ben. Syrach, ' give the Lord his 
honour with a good eye, and diminish not 
the first-fruits of thine hands, Eccl. xxxv. 8. 
Unto Jehovah,] They were given unto 
the Lord, in that they were given by his 
appointment to his priests, for their anointing 
(ver. 8,) and service in his sanctuary; there, 
fore they were holy. For this cause the 
IMJests were not to i-eceive them after any 
base or servile manner, but as gifts due to the 
Lord, and to them from him ; and as the Heb. 
canons show, the Israelites " were to give 
them their portion with honour. And it w as 
unlawful (for the priests or Levites) to snatch 
away the heave-offerings or the tithes: yea, 
if they did ask their portion with their mouth, 
it was unlawful ; but they wei'e to receive 
them with honour. For at the Lord's table 
they did eat, and at his table they did drink; 
these gifts were the Lord's, and he did vouch- 
safe them unto them ; as it is written, ' I 
have given unto thee the charge of mine 
heave-offerings,' (Num. xviii. 8.)" Maim, 
in Trumoth, chap. xii. sect. 18, &c. Given 
unto thee,] Namely, foi- the priest to eat, 
drink, and anoint himself with them, accord- 
ing to the ordinary use of the creatures. 
" The (great) heave-oflering is given for 
meat, and for drink, and for anointing: for 
anointing is as drinking, as it is said, ' and 
let it enter as water into his inward part, and 
as oil into his bones,' (Ps. cix. IS.) And 
drinking is comprehended under eating; that 
he is to eat that which is wont to be eaten, 
and drink that which is wont to be drunk, 
and anoint with that which they use to anoint 
with, not with wine or vinegar. But they 
anoint with oil that is clean, and burn (in 
lamps) that which is unclean." Maim, in 
Trumoth, chap. xi. sect. ]. Who they were 
that might eat, and who might not eat of 
these heave-ofl'erings, is showed in Lev. xxii. 
3, &c. 

Ver. 13. — The first-fruits,] These 
were another gift which the people brought 
into the sanctuary, made confession over them 
unto the Lord, and then gave them to his 
priest: whereof see Deut. xxvi. 2, &c. 



first-fruits of all which shall be in their land, which they shall bring 
unto Jehovah, shall be thine : every clean person in thine liouse 
shall eat it. " Every devoted thing in Israel shall be thine. 
'' Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which tliey sliall 
bring near unto Jehovah, of man or of beast, shall be thine : but 
redeeming thou slialt redeem the fii'st-born of man ; and the first- 
ling of the unclean beast shalt tliou redeem. "^ And those that are 
to be redeemed of him, from a month old, shalt thou redeem, by thy 
estimation ; for the silver of five shekels, by the shekel of the sanc- 

These were paid before all other duties, be- 
fore the great heave-ofl'ering forementioned, or 
the tithes alter spoken of in ver. 21. The 
Hebs. say, " when men separate the heave- 
offering, and the tithe, they are to separate 
them in order: as, he separateth the first- 
frnits [spoken of in Dent, xxvi.] first of all ; 
and after them, the great heave-oflering; and 
after that, the first tithe, [which was given 
to the Levites, ver. 21 ;] and after that, the 
second tithe, or tithe of the poor, [whereof, 
see Deut. xiv. 22, 23, 2S, 29.]" Maim, 
in TrumoOi, chap. iii. sect. 23. Shall eat 
It,] In Gr. shall eat them. Of the clean per- 
son in the priest's house, see ver. 11. The 
eating of these first-fruits was to be only in 
Jerusalem, the holy city: "and whosoever 
eateth of that gift wherein holiness is, blesseth 
(God) who sanctified them with the sanctifi- 
cation of Aaron, and commanded them to eat 
so or so." Maim, in Biccurim., chap. i. 
sect. 2. 

Ver, 14. — Devoted thing,] In Heb. 
Cherem : of this the Hebs. say, some things 
were devoted absolutely ; and such are spoken 
of here, and given to the priests: some things 
were devoted in special unto God or to his 
sanctuary, and they, or the price of them, 
went to the sanctuary. See the annot. on 
Lev. chap, xxvii. ver. 28, &c. Shall be 
THINE,] The use of these is not restrained to 
the sanctuary, or holy city, or to the priests 
alone; but (by the Hebs.) " these were the 
priest's due in every place, and were common 
things." Maim, in Biccurim, chap. i. sect. 7. 

Ver. 15. — That oi'eneth the womb,] 
Heb, everi/ opening of the womb : which the 
Gr. ti-anslateth, cvoy thing that opeiieth every 
womb (or matrice.) Hereby the first-born 
only is meant, as the law showeth in Exod. 
xiii. 2 ; and such as were males, Deut. xv. 
19 ; Exod. xxxiv. 19. Redeeming thou 
shalt redeem,] That is, thou shalt surely, 
or in any case redeem: the father was to give, 
the priest to take the redemption money. It 
figured the redemption of God's people, call- 
ed ' the church of the first-born, which are 
written in heaven,' Heb. xii. 23 ; ' wlio are 
not redeemed with corruptible things, as sil- 

ver and gold, &c., but with the precious 
blood of Christ,' 1 Pet. i. IS, 19. So being 
' bought from among men, they are the first- 
fruits unto God, and to the Lamb,' Rev. xiv. 
4. Of the unclean beast,] This is trans- 
lated in Gr. of unclean beasts, as implying 
all sorts, elsewhere the law nientioneth the 
ass, it may be for an instance, Exod. xiii. 
13; xxxiv. 20. But the Hebs. say, " the 
unclean beast spoken of here, is the ass only." 
Maim, in Biccurim, chap. xii. sect. 3, Thou 
SHALT REDEEM,] The ass was to be redeemed 
with a Iamb, or else the owner was to break 
the neck of the ass: see the notes on Exod. 
xiii. 13 ; xxxiv. 20. The Hebs. say, " these 
two commandments (of redeeming it with a 
lamb, or of breaking the neck of it) were of 
force in every place, and at t\ery time ; and 
the commandment of redeeming it, was be- 
fore the commandment of breaking the neck 
of it. The lamb wherewith it was redeemed 
was given to the priest. Num. xviii. 15. The 
first-born ass was unlawful to be used (or 
made profit oO till it were redeemed. And 
if he sold it before it were redeemed, the 
price of it was unlawful, &c. Priests and 
Levites are freed from redeeming the first- 
born ass; for it is said (in Num. xviii. 15.) 
The first-born of man, and the first-born of 
the unclean beast, thou shalt redeem. Who- 
soever was charged to redeem the first-born 
of man, was likewise for the unclean beast: 
and he that was fiee from the one, was free 
from the other. Maim, in Biccurim, chap, 
xii. See other things noted hereabout, on 
Exod. xxxiv. 20. 

Ver. 16.. — Redeemed of him,] Or of 
them, meaning the men fore-spoken of: the 
Gr. translateth, "the redemption of him:" 
and Thargum Jonathan addeth for explana- 
tion, "of the son of man." From a month 
old,] Heb. from the son of a month. See 
the annot. on Lev. xxvii. 6. The silver of 
FIVE shekels,] that is, five shekels of silver. 
This sum was befoie given for every first- 
born. Num. iii. 45,46. Twentv Gerahs.J 
The gerah weighed 16 barley corns, the 
shekel of the sanctuary (or holy shekel) 
weighed 320 barley-corns, as is before noted 



tuary, which is twenty gerahs. " But the firstling of a cow, or the 
firstling of a sheep, or the firstUng of a goat thou shaltnot redeem, 
they are holy : their blood thou shalt sprinkle upon the altar, and 
tlieir fat thou shalt burn, /or a ^ve-offering, for a savour of rest unto 
Jehovah. '« And the flesh of them shall be thine : as the wave 
breast, and as the right shoulder, shall it be thine. " All the heave- 

holy things: they sprinkle the blood, and 
burn the fat, and the residue of the flesh is 
eaten by the priests. If the firstling have a 
blemish, whether it be burn with his blemish, 
or a blemish fall on it after it is perfect, yet 
it is the priest's. If he will, he may eat it 
in any place, or he may sell it, or feed others 
with it, whom he will, though it be an 
heathen : for it is a common thing ; as it is 
written (in Deut. xv. 21, 22.) And if there 
be any blemish therein, &c. thou shalt eat it 
within thy gates; the unclean and the clean 
shall eat it alike, as the roebuck, and as the 
hart: and lo that is the priest's goods." 
Maim, in Bechoroth, chap. i. sect. 2, 3. 

VeR. 18. As THE WAVE BREAST,] The 

parts of the peace-offerings given to the 
priests, Lev. iii. 34. See also before, on 
ver. 11. 

Ver. 19. — All the heave-offerings,] 
The Gr. and Chald. expound it, every sepa- 
rated thing. This conclusion includeth all 
other holy gifts, expressed in other places of 
the law, though not enumerated here. And 
this showeth God's bounty to his priests, in 
allowing them so large means of livelihood, 
for their service of him ; ' that they might 
be encouraged in the law of the Lord;' as is 
said in 2 Chron. xxxi. 4. There was none 
of them that did ' shut the doors of God's 
sanctuary, or kindle fire on his altar for 
nought,' Mai. i. 10. And when the people 
neglected their duty, in not giving such 
things as were appointed, then was the house of 
God forsaken: and the godly governors looked 
to the redress hereof, Neh. xiii. 10, 11, 12, 
&c. The Heb. doctors write of twenty -four 
several gifts, which God bestowed on the 
priests, with the order and use of them all. 
" Four and twenty gifts were given to the 
priests, and they are all expressed in the law: 
and concerning them all, was the covenant 
made with Aaron, and whosoever eateth of 
any gift wherein holiness is, blesseth (God) 
who sanctified him with the holiness of Aaron, 
and commanded him to eat so and so. Eight 
of these gifts, the priests did cat no where but 
in the sanctuary, within the wall of the court- 
yard. And five gifts they did not eat but 
in Jerusalem, within the walls of the city. 
And five gifts were not due unto them by the 
law, but in the land of Israel only. And five 
gifts were due unto them, both within the 

on Lev. xxvii. 25. The Hebs. hold, that this 
redemption of the son, might be " cither with 
money, or money's worth, so as it were of 
movable goods, but not with lands, nor with 
servants, nor with bills (or writings;) and if 
he redeemed his son with them, he was not 
redeemed." Maimony in Biccuruii, chap. 
xi. sect. 6. Now because the tribe of Levi 
was taken instead of all the first-born of 
Israel, Num. iii. therefore they and theirsecd 
were free from this redemption : and so the 
Ileb. canons say, " Priests and Levites are 
freed from the redemption of their sons, and 
fni ther, an Israelite that cometh of a woman 
of Levi is iree; for the case dependeth not 
on the father, but on the mother; as it is said, 
that which openeth the womb, &c. Maim, 
ibidem, chap. xi. sect. 9. 

Ver. 17. — The firstling,] Or, the fint- 
born: in Gr., the firstling of cows, &c. under- 
stand, being a male firstling, as Exod. xxxiv. 

19, otherwise it was not sanctified, or given 
to the priest." A firstling which is both male 
and female, hath no holiness in it at all ; but 
is as a female, whereto the priest hath no 
right." Maimony in Becoroth, chap. ii. 
sect. 5. Shalt not redeem,] Thou mayest 
not give the worth of it, or any other for it ; 
but the beast itself is to be given: neither 
may the owner use, or make profit of it, or of 
the wool, or any thing thereon, Deut. xv. 19. 
They are holy,] And therefore must be 
hallowed (or sanctified) to the Lord, Exod. 
xiii. 2. The Hebs. say, a man " is command- 
ed to sanctify the first born of his clean beast, 
and to say, Behold this is holy. All are bound 
(to sanctify) the firstling of a clean beast; 
both Priests, Levites, and Israelites: although 
the firstling is the priest's. If he have a 
fiistling born, he is to offer the blood and fat 
(on the altar) and to eat the rest of the flesh, 
according to the law of the firstlings." Maim, 
in Bechoroth, chap. i. sect. 4, 7. A savour 
OF REST,] That is, as the Gr. translateth, of 
sweet smell; which the Chald. explaineth, 
"that it may be accepted with favour before 
the Lord." But if it were blemished, it 
might not be odered by the law. Lev. xxii. 

20, 21, &c. What did they then with their 
blemished firstlings? The law showeth in 
Deut. XV. and the Hebs. explain it, " Tiie 
firstling of the clean beast is slain in the 
court-yard (of tho sanctuary) as other light 


N U M B E R S. 

offerings of the holy tilings, wliich the sons of Israel shall ofler 
inito Jehovah, 1 have given to thee, and to thy sons, and to thy 
daughters with thee, by a statute^;* ever : it is a covenant of salt 
Jhr ever before Jehovah, to thee and to thy seed with thee. • ^" And 
Jehovah said unto Aaron ; thou shalt have no inheritance in tlieir 
land, neither shalt thou have a part among them ; 1 am tliy part, 

land, and without the land. And one gift 
was due unto them from the sanctuary. The 
eight gifts which they did not eat but within 
the sanctuary, were these: 

' 1. The flesh of the sin-offering, whether 
fowl or beast (Lev. vi. 25, 26.) 

' 2. The flesh of the trespass-ofTering, 
(Lev. vii. ), 6.) 

' 3. The peace-ofTerings of the congrega- 
tion, (Lev. xxiii. 19, 20.) 

' 4. The remainder of the Omer (or Sheaf, 
Lev. xxiii. 10, &c.) 

' 5. The remnants of the meat-ofTerings of 
the Israelites, (Lev. vi. 16.) 

' 6. The two loaves, (Lev. xxiii. 17.) 

' 7. The shew-bread, (Lev. xxiv. 9.) 

' 8. The leper's log of oil, (Lev. xiv. 10, 

' These were not eaten but in the sanctu- 

The five which they might not eat but in 
Jerusalem, [and before that, within the camp 
of Israel, to which Jerusalem afterwards was 
answerable, as is noted on Num. ii. 28.] 
were these: 

' 1. The breast and shoulder of the peace, 
ofi'erings, (Lev. v. 31, 34.) 

'2. The heave-ofl'ering of the sacrifice of 
confession, (Lev. v. 7, 12, 14. 

' 3. The heave-ofi'ering of the Nazarite's 
Ram, (Num. vi. 17, 20.) 

' 4. The firstling of the clean beast, 
(Num. xviii. 15; Dent. xv. 19, 20.) 

'5. The first-fruits, (Num. xviii. 13.) 
These were not eaten but in Jerusalem." 

The five things due from the land of Israel 
only were: 

' 1. The heave offering (or first-fruits, 
(Num. xviii. 12.) 

• 2. Tlie heave-ofieriiig of the tithe, (Num. 
xviii. 28.) 

'3. The cake, (Num. xv. 20.) ' And these 
three were holy. 

'4, The first-fiuits of the fleece, (Deut. 
xviii. 4.) 

' 5. The field of possession, (Num. xxxv.) 
and both of these were common. Thise 
were not due unto them by the Jaw, save in 
the land of Israel.' 

The five things due to the priests in eveiy 
place, weie: 

' 1. The gifts (of the beasts slain, Deut, 
xviii. 3.) 

'2. The redemption of the first-born son. 
(Num. xviii. 15.) 

' 3. The firstling of the ass, (Exod. iv. 
20; Num. xviii.) 

' 4. I'he restitution of that which is taken 
by rapine from a stranger, (Num. v. 8.) 

'5. The devoted things, (Num. xviii, 

These five are common thnigs, in all re- 

The gift due unto them trom the sanctu- 
ary, was: 

' 1. The skins of the burnt-oflering, (Lev. 
vii. 8.) And the same law was for the skins 
of the other most holy things : they all were 
the priests. 

' The gifts which the females had part in, 
as well as the male (priests) were five. 1. 
The heave-oflering (or first-fruits.) 2. The 
heave-ofl'ering of the tithe. S. The cake. 
4. The gifts of the beast, (Deut. xviii. 3.) 
6. And the first of the fleece." Maimcny 
in Biccurim, chap. i. sect. 1, &c. A cove- 
nant OF SALT,] That is, a stable, firm and 
incorruptible covenant. So the kingdom 
over Israel was given to David and to his 
sons, by a covenant of salt, 2 Chron. xiii. 5. 
and there the Gr. explaineth it, " an ever- 
lasting covenant. 

Ver. 20. — Thou shalt have,] This con- 
cerneth not so much Aaron himself, (who 
died before he came into the land. Num. xx. 
28.) as his posterity ; and not them only, but 
all the Levites ; as after Moses showeth in 
Deut. xviii. 1. 'The priests the Levites, 
all the tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor in- 
heritancewith Israel.' Inheritanceintheie 
LAND,] Which was divided by lot to the 
other tribes, according as God numbered 
them, when the tribe of Levi was numbered 
apait, Num. xxvi. 53, 55, 57, 62. Not- 
withstanding, they had cities to dwell in, and 
suburbs given from the other tribes, Num. 
xxxv. and in Ezek. xlviii. 10, &c. an holy 
oblation, out of the spiritual land, is given to 
the priests and Levites. A part,] Or, a 
portion, a share union ff them. This word, 
though often it be spoken of a part or portion 
of land, as in Jos. xv. 13; xix. 9 ; xviii. 5, 
&c. yet also it is meant of a part in the spoils 
or prey, as in Num. xxxi. 36; 1 Sam. xxx. 
24. And so it seemeth to be intendtd here, 
of the spoils gotten by war of the Canaan- 



and thine inheritance, among the sons of Israel. ^' And to tlie 
sons of Levi, bcliold I liave given all the tenth in Israel, for an 
inheritance for tlieir service which they serve, the service of 
tJie tent of the congregation. ^^ And the sons of Israel shall not 
come nigh henceforth, unto the tent of the congregation, to bear 

ites, which were of great worth, as appear- 
eth by Deut. ii. 35 ; iii. 7; vi. 11, so that 
Josliua said to some of the people, ' Return 
with much riches unto your tents, and with 
very much cattle, and with silver, and with 
gold, and with brass, and with iron, and with 
very much raiment,' &c. Jos. xxii. 8, yet 
Levi might have none, because the Lord had 
given him his portion in the holy things; and 
he was to war another warfare in the Lord's 
sanctuary. Num. iv. 23, and according to 
the apostle's doctrine, ' No man that warreth, 
entangleth himself with the aflairs of this 
life ; that he may please him who hath chosen 
him to he a soldier,' 2 Tim. ii. 4. Of this 
matter the Hebs. say; " All the tribe of Levi 
are warned that they have no inheritance in 
the land of Canaan ; likewise they are warned 
that they take no part of the spoil, at the time 
when they conquer the cities, Deut. xviii. 1. 
* And a son of Levi, that taketh a part of the 
spoil, is to be beaten: and if he have received 
an inheritance in the land, they are to take 
it away from him. It seemelh unto me, that 
these things are not spoken but of the land, 
which was promised by covenant to Abraham, 
Isaac, and ilacob, &c. But all other lands, 
which any of the kings of Israel should sub- 
due, the priests and Leviles were for tho e 
lands, and the spoils of them, like all other 
Israelites. And why had Levi no right of 
inheritance in the land of Israel, and spoils 
thereof, with his brethren? Because he was 
separated to serve the Lord, and to minister 
unto him, and to teach his right ways, and 
his just judgments unto many,' as Deut. 
xxxiii. 10. Therefore were they separated 
IVom the ways of the woild ; they wage not 
war, like other Israelites, neither have they 
inheritance, &c. but they are the Lord's 
power, as it is written, ' Bless Lord his 
power,' Deut. xxxiii. 11, and the blessed 
(God) himself is their reward, as he saith, I 
am thy part and thine inheritance." Maim, 
tom. iii. treat, of the Release and Jubilee, 
chap. xiii. sect. 10, 11, 12. So in Ezek. 
xliv. 28. God saith of the priests, ' Ye shall 
give them no possession in Israel, I am their 
possession.' I am thy part,] Both by the 
gifts fore-appointed, (as is said in Deut. xviii. 
1, ' The fire offerings of Jehovah, and his 
inheritance, shall they eat;') and by other 
blessings, wherewith he would abundantly 
recompcuce tht'ir worldly want, administering 
unto them liis heavenly graces. Hereupon 

the godly testified their faith, and hope in 
God, by these and such like speeches ; ' God 
is my part for ever,' Ps. Ixxiii. 26. ' Tliou 
art my part, in the land of the living,' Ps. 
cxlii. 6. ' Jehovah is my part, saith my soul ; 
therefore will I hope in him,' Lam. iii. 24. 
' I rejoice at thy word, as one that findetb 
great spoil,' Ps. cxix. 162. 

Ver. 21. — And to the sons of Levi,] 
Now followeth the law concerning the Le- 
vites, who were joined to the priests in ser- 
vice, and so in provision for their mainten- 
ance. And this word and, Chazkuni here 
noteth as an addition to that which went be- 
fore, saying " that the covenant of salt for 
ever, was to the Levites also. All the 
TENTH,] Or, all the tithe. This is the fir.>t 
tithe which the Israelites payed to the Le- 
vites; after which they separated a second 
tithe, which they themselves did eat before 
the Lord, the first year and the second, and 
every third year gave it to the Levites and 
poor: whereof see Deut. xiv. 22, 23, &c. 
Touching this, the Heb. say, that the Israel- 
ites, " After they had separated the great 
heave-ofiering (or first-fruits spoken of in 
Num. xviii. 12,) they separated one of ten 
out of that which remained, and this is called 
the first tithe ; and it is that which is spoken 
of in Num. xviii. 24, and this tithe was for 
the males and females of the Levites. They 
pay no tithe but of the choice (or best) as it 
is said (iu Num. xviii. 30.) When ye have 
heaved the fat thereof, &c. as the tithe which 
the Levites separate, is to be of the fat 
thereof; so the tithe which the Israelites sepa- 
rate from the floor or winepress, is to be of the 
fat. They pay not the tithe but by mea- 
sure, or by weight, or by number. He that 
separateth this tithe blesseth (God) first, as 
they use to bless for other commandments: so 
he blesseth for the second tithe, and for the 
poor man's tithe, and for the tithe of the tithe, 
he blesseth for every one severally.' Maim, 
tom. iii. treat, of tithes, chap. i. sect. i. 13, 
14. 16. 

Ver. 22. — Not come nigh any more,] 
To serve in the tabernacle, as they did in the 
rebellion of Korah, Num. xvi. To bear 
sin,] That is, lest they suffer the punishment 
for their sin. So in ver. 23, ' bear their ini- 
quity, as in ver. 1. To die,] Or, and die; 
see the notes on Gen. ii. 3, this showeth the 
punishment to be death: the Gr. translateth 
it, deadly (or death procuring) sin. 



sin, to die. ^^ But the Levite, he shall serve the service of the tent 
of tlie congregation ; and they shall bear their iniquity : it shall be 
a statute yor ever tJiroughout your generations, that among the sons 
of Israel they shall not inherit any inheritance. ^* But the tithe of 
the sons of Israel, wliicli they shall offer up unto Jehovah, for an 
heave-offering, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance : 
therefore I have said unto them, among the sons of Israel they 
shall not inlierit any inheritance. ^^ And Jehovah spake unto 
Moses, saying ; ^^ And unto the Levites thou shalt speak, and say 
unto them ; when ye take of«tlie sons of Israel the titlie, which I 
have given unto you from them, for your inheritance, then ye shall 
offer up thereof, the lieave-offering of Jehovali, the tithe of the 
tithe. ^'' And your lieave-offering sliall be counted unto you as tlie 
corn of the threshing floor, and as the fulness • of the wine-press. 
^^ Tlius you also shall offer the heave-offering of Jehovah, of all 
your tithe which ye receive of the sons of Israel, and ye shall give 

Ver. 23.— Bear their iniquity,] That 
is, bear the punishvietit of their own ini- 
quity, if they transgress; aud of the people's, 
if they sufler them to transgress. Thus Sol. 
Jarchi expoundeth it; "They (the Levites) 
shall bear the iniquity of the Israelites; for 
it is their duty to warn strangers from coming 
near unto them." 

Ver. 24. — Heave up,] In Gr. and Chald., 
separate unto the Lord: so in ver. 26. This 
showeth the tithes to be an oblation to the 
Lord, and a sign of the Israelites' homage, 
subjection and thankfulness unto him for his 
blessings. And upon this ground, the apostle 
proveth Melchisedec to be a greater priest 
than Abraham, or Aaron; because Abraham 
(and all the Levites and priests in his loins) 
paid tithes to Melchisedec, Gen. xiv. Heb. 
vii. • Now consider how great this man 
was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham 
gave the tenth of the spoils, Heb. vii. 4. 

Ver. 26. — The tithe of the tithe,] 
Or, a tenth part of the tenth, 

Ver. 27. — As the fulness,] Or, as the 
plenty, that is, the plentiful increase; or, the 
full, that is, ripe liquor: the Gr. translateth 
it, as the separated thing. Sol. Jarchi saith, 
"Fulness meaneththe ripe fruit which isfuU." 
See the notes onExod. xxii. 29, wh^re this word 
is also used for full-ripe fruit. From hence the 
Hebs. gather, that seeing the Levites' first 
tithes (out of which they paid the priest's 
tithes) were as the corn of the floor, and li- 
quor of the press; therefore they were as 
common things. " The first tithe is lawful 
to be eaten by Israelites, and lawful to be 
eaten in uncleanness, for there is in it no 
holinessat all: aud wheresoeverholiness, or re- 
demption of the tithe is spoken of, [as in Lev. 

xxvii.] it is not meant but of the second 
tithe. And they count the first tithes as 
common things, because it is said, 'And your 
heave-oflering shall be reckoned unto you as 
the corn of the floor, &c. as the floor and 
wine-press are common for every thing, so 
the first tithe (o<it of which the heave -offer- 
ing is taken) is common for every thing." 
Maim, treat, of tithes, chap. i. sect. 2. This 
is to be understood, after the Levites had se- 
parated the tenth of the tithe, then the rest 
should be common, like the corn of the floor, 
as is explained in ver. 30. 

Ver. 28. — Thus you also,] Or, so you 
also ; you Levites as well as other Israelites, 
though you have no inheritance in the land, 
yet shall you honour the Lord with an heave- 
oflering out of your first tithe: and it shall 
be reckoned or imputed into you, as if you 
had lands and possessions, and ofTered tithes 
out of them. To Aaron,] And so to his 
posterity the priests, as was observed in the 
ages following, as it is written, • And the 
priest the son of Aaron, shall be with the 
Levites, when the Levites take tithes; and 
the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the 
tithe, unto the house of God, to the chambers 
in the treasure house,' Neh. x. 3S. Thus 
also are we to understand the apostle, when 
he saith that the priests, 'the sons of 
Levi who receive the office of priesthood, 
have a commandment to take tithes of the 
people according to the law,' &c., Heb. vii. 
5, that the Levites took them of the people 
immediately, and the priests mediately, in 
taking the tithe of the tithe from the Levites, 
as this place showeth, compared witli Neh. x. 
37. 3S. 



thereof the lieave-offering of Jehovah, to Aaron the priest. " Out 
of all your gifts ye shall offer every heave -offering of Jehovah, of 
all the fat thereof, the hallowed part thereof out of it. ^" And 
thou shalt say unto tiicm, Wlien ye have heaved the fat thereof 
from it, tlien it shall be counted unto the Levites, as tlie revenue of 
the threshing floor, and as the revenue of the wine-press. ^' And 
ye shall eat it in every place ; you, and your house : for it is a re- 
ward unto you for your service in the tent of tlie congregation. 
^^ And ye shall not bear sin for it, when ye have heaved the fat 
tliereof from it : and ye shall not profane the holy things of the 
sons of Israel, that ye die not. 

Ver. 29. — Out of all your gifts,] 
This is more general, and seemeth to imply, 
besides the tenth of their tithe, the tenth also 
of other things, as of their own ground, the 
suburbs and fields which were given to the 
Levites, Num. xxxv. 4. So Chazkuni here 
saith, " Out of all your gifts, ye shall heave 
up: to teach that even of the fruit that grew 
in the fields of the suburbs of the Levites' 
cities, they were bound to give unto the 
priests," &c. And it is proportionable, that 
as God was to be honoured with the tithes of 
other men's lands, so of the Levites, that they 
also hereby might signify their homage and 
thankfulness to God. Yea the Hebs. bring 
the priests themselves also under this duty, 
saying; " Levites and priests do separate the 
first tithe, for to separate out of it the heave- 
oflering of the tithe. And so the priests do 
separate the other heave-offerings and the 
tithe for themselves, that the priest may re- 
ceive of all. Lest they should eat their fruits 
untithed, the scripture saith, 'Thus you also 
shall heave up,' (Num. xviii. 28,) which we 
have heard expounded thus ; you, these are 
the Levites; also you, this implieth the 
priests." Maim, treat, of tithes, chap. i. 
sect. 3. The fat,] That is, as the Chaid. 
cxpoundeth, the best, or fairest: in Gr., the 
frst-/rtiits: see before on ver. 12, 21. So 
Chazkuni here saith, " Of all the best and of 
all the fairest thereof, ye shall separate out of 
it the hallowed part thereof, that it may be an 

Ver. 30. — The revenue,] In Gr. the 
fruit of the threshing-floor. This word 
revenue, as the Hebs. distinguish it, " is com 
after it is eared; and after it is threshed and 
fanned, it is called (dagan) corn." Maim, 
tom. 1. in Beracoth, chap. iii. sect. 1. 

Ver. 31. — In every place,] Sol. Jarchi 

explaineth it, thotigh it be in the place of 

burial; and that was an unclean place. 

The first tithes therefore which were paid to 

Vol. II. 

the Levites, might be eaten by them as com- 
mon things, in every place: but the second 
tithe (which the owners separated after the 
first, and did eat themselves) might not be 
eaten every where, but before the Lord only, 
that is, within the city of Jerusalem, after the 
temple was built therein. See Deut. xiv. 
22, 23, &c. Your house,] That is, your 
household; as the Chald. translateth it, the 
men of your house. A reward,] Or 
wages; and so your due for your service: so 
the apostle speaking of the honour due to the 
ministers of Christ, saith, 'The labourer is 
worthy of his reward,' 1 Tim. v. 17, 18, and 
Christ himself, sending his disciples to preach, 
said unto them, * And in the same house re- 
main, eating and drinking such things as 
they give: for the labourer is worthy of his 
reward. Go not from house to house,' Luke 
X. 7. 

Ver. 32. — Bear sin for it,] That is, 
bear the punishment of sin for the tithe: 
which the Levites should do, if they heaved 
(or separated) not a tenth part of the best of 
that tithe from it, as is before commanded. 
Profane the holy thing,] Heb. the holi- 
ness. This is a general warning both to 
priests and Levites, that the holy things of the 
people be not profaned by them, nor suflered 
to be profaned by others. And holy things 
might be profaned, if either they were eaten 
out of the time limited by God, as in Lev. 
xix. 7, 8, or if the priests were unclean 
when they did eat them, as Lev. xxii. 2, 3, 
9, or if others did them, to whom they did 
not pertain, as Lev. xxii. 10, 15, 16, or if 
other the like unlawful actions were done or 
suflered. The ministers of God therefore 
had this charge upon them, by all means to 
sanctify the Lord, his tabernacle and holy 
things; that so they might procure the wel- 
fare and salvation both of themselves and 
others; as 1 Tim. iv. 16. 




1. The Lord commcmdeth a red heifer to he ski'm hy the priest, some 
of her Mood to he sprinkled, the residue, with her hody, to he hurned, to- 
getJier with cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet ; and the ashes of all these 
to he gathered up and Jcept for the congregation, to make therewith a 
water of separation and purification from sin. 11. The lam for the use 
of it, in purification of the unclean hy the dead. 

SS 3 

' And Jehovah spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, = This 
t&the ordinance of the law which Jehovah hath commanded, saying, 
Speak unto the sons of Israel, that they take unto thee a red heifer, 
perfect, wherein is no blemish, upon which never came yoke. 

S3 e 3 Here is the thirty-ninth section of 
the law, after the Hebrews' account: see Gen. 
vi. 9. 

Ver. 2. — The obdinance,] Or, the sta- 
tute, constitutio7i, the prescript ordinance ; in 
Gr. the distinction of the law. As in the 
former chapter, God gave order for his mini- 
sters, the tribe of Levi, by whom the service 
in his tabernacle should be performed, and his 
people should come near unto him, to offer 
all their sacrifices: so here he giveth a law 
for all men generally, how they should be 
purified from their uncleanness, whensoever 
they were to come into his sanctuary with 
their sacrifices, and for the service of his holy 
Majesty ; that their hearts might be confirm- 
ed in his grace, against their own infirmities. 
Take unto thee,] That is, take and bring 
unto thee: see the like phrase in Gen. xv. 
9; Exod. XXV. 2; Lev. xxiv. 2. This 
heifer was taken of the people, to show the 
interest that they all had in it ; and by faith 
in that which it figured Christ. A red 
HEIFER,] Thargum Jonathan addeth, " a 
three yearling:" so in the Heb. canons they 
say, " It is commanded that the red heifer 
be of the third year, or of the fourth year, and 
it may be older," Maim, in Pharah adum- 
mah, (or treat, of the Red heifer,) chap. i. 
sect. 1. Perfect,] In Gr. without blemish. 
As all sacrifices were to be unblemished, 
Lev. xxii. so this; but the perfection here 
spoken of, the Hebs. refer to the colour also, 
that it be " perfect in redness, because if it 
have but two hairs black, it is unlawful," 
saith Sol. Jarchi. The same is affirmed also 
by Maim. " if it have two hairs white or 
black, &c. it is to be refused." Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. i. sect. 2. No blemish,] " If 
it hath had a wen (or wart) and it be cut 

oflj though red hairs be grown in the place, 
yet is it disallowable. All blemishes that 
disable the holy thing, disable this heifer. If 
it have been cut out of the mother's body, or 
been the price of a dog, or hire of an whore, 
(Deut. xxiii. 18,) or been torn, or been 
abused by mankind, (Lev. xx. 15,) it is un- 
lawful. For whatsoever maketh holy things 
unlawful for the altar, maketh the heifer un- 
lawful." Maim, in Pharah, chap. i. sect. 
6, 7. Yoke,] That is, which hath not been 
used of men for any work: and this is pecu- 
liar to this heifer, for other sacrifices were 
not disabled by the yoke or any work, save 
the heifer for expiation of murder, Deut. xxi. 
3. " This heifer excelleth other holy things, 
for work done by it disableth it. As the 
yoke spoken of concerning the heifer, (Deut. 
xxi.) maketh all other works like the yoke: 
so in this heifer, &c. But the yoke disableth 
her, whether it be in the time of working or 
not: whereas other works disable her not, 
save in the time of working. As, if one 
bind a yoke upon her, although she hath not 
ploughed with it, she is unlawful:' but if one 
took her in to tread out corn, (as Deut. xxv. 
4,) she is not made disallowable, until he 
tread out corn with her; and so in all like 
cases," Maim, in Pharah, chap. i. sect. 7, 
As other sacrifices of beasts prefigured Christ, 
so this in special figured him ; red, in his 
human nature and participation of our afflic- 
tions, Is. Ixiii. 1, 2 ; Heb. ii. 14, 17, 18 ; 
perfect and without blemish of sin, both in 
his nature and actions, Luke i. 35 ; 1 Pet. i. 
19 ; ii. 22 ; without yoke, as being free from 
the bondage of sin and corruption, and from 
servitude to the ordinance of men in religion, 
and as doing voluntarily the things that per- 
tained to our redemption, Lam. i. 14 ; John 



3 And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the, and he shall bring 
Jier.fortli without the cainp, and one shall slay her before his face. 
■• And Eleazar the priest sliall take of her blood with liis finger, 
and shall sprinkle of her blood directly before the tent of the con- 
gregation seven times. ■' And one shall burn the heifer in his eyes; 
lier skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall he burn. 

viii. 33—36; 1 Tim. vi. 1; 1 Cor. vii. 23 
John X. 17, 18. 

Ver. 3. — Unto Eleazar,] He was 
Aaron's son, and by doing this work he was 
unclean, ver. 7 ; wlierefore Aaron himself, 
who was high priest, did it not. Heuce the 
Ilebs. say, tliat " an ordinary priest was fit 
for to burn the heifer: for it is said, give her 
unto Eleazar the priest, and yet Aaron him- 
self was living. And by word of month we 
have been taught, that this was done by 
Eleazar; and all other heifers (were done) 
either by the high priest or by a common 
priest. And he that did it, was arrayed 
with the four ornaments of a common priest, 
whether he were the high priest or an ordi- 
nary priest that did it." Maim, in Pharah, 
chap. i. sect. 11, 12. It figured, that the 
work of our redemption and piirification from 
sin, should be the work of Christ's priestly 
office, Heb. ix. 9, 13, 14. He in perform- 
ing the truth of this type, was both priest 
and sacrifice. He shall bring,] The Gr. 
translateth, " they shall bring ;" and so after, 
they shall slay ; as if, not Eleazar himself, 
but some other at his appointment did it. 
And the words following, ' he shall slay her 
before his face,' seem to imply so much, that 
some other man did slay her before Eleazar's 
face. And it is frequent in Scripture to 
make cue the doer of a thing which he com- 
mandeth to be done , as Pilate gave the 
body of Christ to Joseph, Mark xv. 45 ; that 
is, commanded it to be given, Matt, xxvii. 
53. See the amiot. on Exod. vii. 17; Gen. 
xxxix. 22; xlviii. 22. Without the camp,] 
Which figured Christ's suli'ering without the 
gates of Jerusalem, Heb. xiii. 11, 12. So 
in ages following, they burned this heifer 
without Jeiusalem, as in the Heb. records it 
is said, " they burnt not the heifer, but with- 
out the mountain of the house (of God) as it 
is written, and he shall bring her forth with- 
out the camp, (Num. xix. 3,) and they use 
to burn it on mount Olivet." Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. iii. sect. 1. Without the 
camp, malefactors were to be put to death, 
I.ev. xxiv. 10; Num. xv. 3(). One shall 
slay her,] " A stranger (or other man) did 
slay her, and Eleazar beheld it," saith Sol. 
Jarchi on this place. So in ver. 5, ' lie shall 
burn the heifer in his eyes,' that is, another 
man shall burn her in Eleazar's siiiht: which 

is confirmed by ver. 7, 8, where first the 
priest (Eleazar) is commanded to wash his 
clothes, and after, he that burned her was to 
wash his clothes ; so that these were divers 
men. Hence also the Hcbs. say, " they 
may not slay two red heifers at once, for it 
is written, and he shall slay her." Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. iv. sect. i. 

Ver. 4. — With his finger,] Figuring 
the finger, that is, the Spirit of our priest 
Christ Jesus, whereby he hath sprinkled the 
way for us into heaven, and our hearts from 
an evil conscience, that we may have access 
thither by his blood, Heb. ix. 22 — 24 ; x. 
19, 20, 22. For as ' the finger of God,' 
L<ike xi. 20; is interpreted ' the Spirit of 
God,' Matt. xii. 28 ; so the finger of the priest 
here, signified the Spirit of our high priest 
Christ, by the power whereof our way is pre- 
pared into the kingdom of God, through the 
applying and sprinkling of his own blood, 
Heb. xii. 24; X. 19; 1 Pet. i. 2; 1 Cor. 
vi. 11. The Hebs. gather from this precept, 
that it was " unlawful to receive the blood 
in a vessel, because it is said, the priest shall 
take of her blood with his finger. Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. iv. sect. 4. Directly be- 
fore THE tent,] That is, towards the fore- 
part or door of the tabernacle. The priest 
stood without the camp where the heifer was 
slain, and there sprinkled towards the sanc- 
tuary seven times, (which is a full and com- 
plete number, as is noted on Lev. iv. 6 ;) 
and that place being a figure of heaVen, Heb. 
ix. 24 ; this sprinkling thitherward figured 
out how liberty should be procured for God's 
people, ' to enter into the holiest by the 
blood of Jesns, by the new and living way 
which he hath consecrated for us,' Heb. x. 
19,29. By the Heb. canons, " if he sprin- 
kled (the blood) and not towards the sanc- 
tuary, it was unlawful. Likewise, if he did 
slay or burn her, and not over against the 
sanctuary, it was unlawful." Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. iv. sect. 5. 

Ver. 5. — One shall bdrn,] That is, 
some shall burn in Eleazar's sight ; or Elea- 
zar shall cause it to be burnt before his eyes. 
For another man burned it, as appeareth by 
ver. 8 ; wherefore Thargum Jonathan ex- 
plaineth, " another priest shall burn." The 
burning of the heifer without the camp, figur- 
ed ' hosv Jesus, that he might sanctify the 



* And the priest shall take cedar wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, 
and shall cast them into the midst of the burning of tlie heifer. 
^ And the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh 
in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp, and tlie priest 

people with his own blood, should suffer with- 
out the gate (of Jerusalem,') Heb. xiii. 11, 

Ver. 6. — Cedar wood,] This, with the 
hyssop and scarlet following, were used in 
the cleansing of lepers that were healed, Lev. 
xiv. 4. See the annot. on that place. The 
cedar is one of the greatest and tallest trees, 
(opposed to the hyssop as the lowest, 1 Kings 
iv. 33 ;) it is durable wood and rotteth not, 
being choice (or excellent,) Song v. 15 ; fi- 
guring the perpetual eiRcacy of the death of 
Christ, who, * by one offering hath perfected 
for ever them that are sanctified,' Heb. x. 
14. Eyzop,] Or, hyssop, whereof see Exod. 
xii. 22. As here it was burned with the 
heifer, so after in ver. 18, a sprinkle was 
made with it, figuring the virtue and fragrance 
of Christ's death, to purge our sins, and to 
sprinkle'our hearts ' from an evil conscience,' 
Heb. i. 3 ; X. 22. Scarlet,] Or, twice 
dyed scarlet, called in Heb. Sheni tholagnath; 
whereof see Exod. xxv. 4. This bloody co- 
lour sometimes signifieth sins. Is. i. 18 ; 
and it is the death and blood of Christ that 
cleanseth us from all sin, Rom. vi. 10 ; 1 
-Tohn i. 7; the preaching hereof maketh the 
lips ' like a thread of scarlet,' Song iv. 3. 
Into the midst of the burning,] The 
jjianiier of burning this heifer in the ages fol- 
lowing, is described by the Hebs. thus: " they 
made a bank (or causey) from the mountain 
of the house of God (in Jerusalem) unto 
mount Olivet ; [the mountain which our 
Lord Jesus used to frequent, Luke xxi. 37; 
John xviii. 2 ; whither he went the night 
that he was betrayed to death, Luke xxii. 
39, 40, &c. ; and it was ' over against the 
temple,' Mark xiii. 3 ; and from thence, after 
his resurrection, he ascended up into heaven. 
Acts i. 9 — 12 ;] and the heifer, and he that 
burned her, and all that assisted him in the 
burning of her, went out of the mount of the 
temple, unto mount Olivet upon that bank. 
The elders of Israel went before them on 
their feet to mount Olivet, and there was a 
place to baptize (or wash) in: and the priest 
and they that assisted him to burn the heifer, 
went on the bank and came to mount Olivet, 
&c. and the elders imposed their hands upon 
tlie priest, and said unto him, Wash once. 
He went down and washed, and came up and 
wiped himself. And there was wood laid in 
a row, wood of cedar, and oak, and fir-tree, 
and fig-tree, which they took and made a 
pile of like a tower, &c., and the fore-part 

was towards the west [that was towards the 
temple.] Then they bound the heifer, and 
laid her upon the pile of wood, with her head 
to the south, and her face to the west ; and 
the priest stood on the east-side, with his face 
to the west. He killed her with his right 
hand, and took the blood in his left hand, and 
sprinkled with the finger of his right hand, 
of the blood that was in the palm of his left 
hand, seven times toward the most holy place 
(of the temple.) At tvery sprinkling, he 
dipped his finger in the blood, and the resi- 
due of the blood which was on his finger, was 
unlawful to sprinkle with ; therefore, at every 
sprinkling he wiped his finger on the body of 
the heifer. When he had made an end of 
sprinkling, he wiped his hands on the heifer's 
body, and came down from the pile, and kin- 
died the fire with small sticks, which he put 
under the sticks of the pile, and the fire be- 
gan to burn, and the priest stood afar off and 
observed it, till the fire bumed upon her and 
her belly cleft asunder. And afterward he 
took cedar wood and hyssop, not less than an 
handbreadth, and wool dyed in scarlet, five 
shekels weight, &c. And he bound the hys- 
sop with the cedar, with the tongue [or long 
piece] of scarlet, and cast them into her belly, 
(Num. xix. 6.) And he cast them not in 
before the fire was kindled upon the bulk 
of her body, nor after that she was burnt to 
ashes; and if he did, it was unlawful; for it 
is said, into the midst of the burning, not be- 
fore the fire is kindled on her body, nor after 
she is turned to ashes." Maim, in Pharah 
aduvimah, chap. iii. sect. 1, 2. 

Ver. 7. — Wash his clothes,] Which 
was a sign of purification from uncleanness, 
as is noted on Lev. xi. 25 ; xv. 5. The 
same was concerning him that burned the 
heifer, ver. 8 ; and the clean man that ga- 
thered up her ashes, ver. 9, 1 0. Hereby the 
imperfection of the legal priesthood was 
showed, in that the priests which prepared 
the means of sanctification for the church, 
were themselves polluted in the preparing 
and doing of them, as may be gathered by 
proportion from Heb. vii. 27, 28 ; x. 1 — 3. 
The sin also of the priests and others that 
procured the death of Christ (though it was 
the life of the world), seemeth hereby to be 
signified. Matt. xxvi. 65, 66, &c. ; Acts ii. 
22, 23, 38 ; iii. 14, 15, 17—19. Albeit, 
by the tradition of the Hebs. they were very 
careful about the cleanness of their priests 
when they did this work: for the priests that 



shall be unclean until the evening. ' And he that burneth her 
shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, and 
shall be unclean until the evening. ® And a man that is clean shall 
gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them up without tlie 

burned this heifer, " they separated him 
(from his house) to a chamber prepared in tlie 
court (of the temple) which was called the 
stone chamber, because all the vessels thereof 
were of stone, which do receive no unclean- 
ness, and he ministered in a vessel of stone, 
all the seven days that he was separated, and 
his brethren the priests might not touch him 
for the more care of his cleanness. Seven 
days before the burning of the heifer, they 
separated the priest that burned her from his 
house, as they separated the high priest for 
his service on atonement day, (whereof see 
the notes on Lev. xvi. 33.) Also they sepa- 
rated him from his wife, lest he should have 
her disease, and so he be unclean seven days, 
(as Lev. xv. 24.) Every one of those seven 
days of his separation, they sprinkled him with 
the water of purification (lest he should be un- 
clean by the dead, and not know it,) and with 
the ashes of the heifer that had been burned 
already (before.)" Maim, in Pharah, chap. 
ii. Notwithstanding all this care, " Whoso- 
ever busy themselves about this heifer, from 
the beginning to the end, do make their gar- 
ments unclean, and are bound to wash them- 
selves, and are unclean till the evening. And 
wheresoever the law speaketh of washing of 
clothes for uncleanness, it is to teach us, that 
not the clothes only upon him are unclean, 
but every cloth or vessel which this unclean 
person shall touch, while his uncleanness is 
on him, is made unclean. And not this hei- 
'er only, but all sin-offerings that are burnt, 
(without the camp,) whether bullocks or 
goats ; he that burneth them, defileth his 
clothes the time of the burning of them till 
they be turned to ashes," (Lev. xvi. 28.) 
Maim. ibid. chap. v. 

VeR. 9. — A MAN THAT IS CLEAN,] This 
man is said in Thargum Jonathan, to be " a 
priest." The ashes,] It is reported, that 
" after they had finished the burning of her, 
they beat her with staves, her, and all the 
wood of the pile wherewith she was burned, 
and sifted all with sieves: and whatsoever 
was black, which possibly they could pound 
and make it ashes, either of her flesh or of the 
wood, tliey poimded it till it was made ashes; 
and that which had no ashes in it, they left 
the same ; and every one of her bones that 
remained unburnt they pounded." Maim, 
in Pharah^ chap. iii. sect. 3. As the burn- 
ing of the heifer signified the suflerings of 
Christ, Hel). xiii. 11, 12 ; so the ashes were 
the monument of his most base and utmost 

afflictions ; for ashes were used as greatest 
signs of sorrow and misery, 2 Sam. xiii. 19 ; 
Job xxx. 19; xiii. 6; Jer. vi. 26; and to 
be brought to ashes upon the earth, is noted 
for tlie extremity of God's fiery judgments, 
Ezek. xxviii. 18. But the memorial of 
Christ's most ignominious death, is to be kept 
as a most glorious monument of our life, justi- 
fication and sanctification through faith in his 
name, 1 Cor. xi. 24, 26 ; Gal. vi. 14 ; Phil. iii. 
8 — 10. Without the camp,] To signify 
that they which v\ould have part in the death 
of Christ, ' must go forth unto him, without 
the camp, bearing his reproach,' Heb. xiii. 
13. In a clean place,] Figuring a clean 
heart and pure conscience, in which only 
the monuments of Christ's death are reserved 
by faith, Acts xv. 9 ; Heb. x. 22 ; Eph. iii. 
17. The Hebs. say, " they gathered not 
any of her ashes to lay up in the court (of the 
sanctuary:) but they divided all the ashes 
into three parts. One part they put in (the 
place called) the Cheil, [the fort or frontier,] 
and another part in mount Olivet, and the 
third was parted to all the wards (or custo- 
dies of the Levites ) That which was parted 
to all the wards, the priests sanctified there- 
with ; and that which was put in mount Oli- 
vet, the Israelites sprinkled with it : and 
that which was put in the Cheil, was reserved 
and laid up, as it is written, ' and it shall 
be for the congregation for a reservation, to 
teach that they laid up some of it.' And 
thus they laid up some of every heifer which 
they burned, in the Cheil. And they did 
(burn) nine red heifers, after they were com- 
manded this precept, till the desolation of the 
second temple. The first was done by Moses 
our master, the second by Ezra, and seven 
after Ezra, till the temple was destroyed. 
And the tenth shall be done by the King 
Christ, who shall be revealed with speed. 
Amen, so be the good will of God." Maim, 
in Pharah, chap. iii. sect. 4. This last 
speech of the Jew, showed their zeal with- 
out knowledge ; for " we know that the Son 
of God is come, and hath given us an under- 
standing, that we may know him that is true, 
and we are in him that is true, even in his 
Son Jesus Christ,' 1 John v. 20; and by 
him was this legal type (as all other) accom- 
plished ; as 'it is written, " If the ashes of 
an heifer sprinkling the unclean sanctifieth to 
the purifying of the flesh, how much more 
shall the blood of Christ, who through the 
eternal Suirit oflered himself «ithoMt spot to 



camp in a clean place ; and it shall be for a reservation for tlie con- 
gregation of the sons of Israel, for a water of separation, it is a 
purificatio7i for sin. " And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer 
shall wash his clothes, and sliall be unclean until the evening -. and 
it shall be unto the sons of Israel, and unto the stranger that so- 
journeth among them, for a statute for ever. " He that toucheth 
the dead of any soul of man, lie shall be even unclean seven days. 

God, purge your conscience from dead works 
to serve the living God.?' Heb. ix. 13, 14. 

Wlierefore Christ the King hath been reveal- 
ed, and they have done unto him whatsoever 
they would: but even unto this day, when 
Moses is read, a vail is laid upon their heart, 
so that they cannot stedfastly look to the end 
of that which is abolished; ' nevertheless, 
when it shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall 
be taken away,' 2 Cor. iii. 15, 16. The« 
shall they look upou him ' whom they have 
pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as 
one mourneth for his only son, and shall be 
in bitterness for him,' &c. Zach. xii. 10. 
And this day, God cause to come with speed. 
Amen. For a reservation,] Or, for mi 
asservation, a keeping, that is, to be reserved 
or kept. See the like phrase in Exod. xvi. 
32—34 ; Num. xvii. 10. Sol. Jarchi here 
saith, " that which was in the Cheil (or fort) 
was put there for a reservation," according 
to that fore-noted out of Maimony. But this 
may be understood of all the ashes, (and not 
of a third part only,) which was kept for the 
use of Israel, as after followeth. For the 
CONGREGATION,] Hence the Hebs. say, that 
" all Israelites were fit to keep it. There- 
fore, any of the common people which bring- 
eth a vessel out of his house, though an earthen 
vessel, and saith, this vessel is clean for the 
sin (water,) lo, it is clean, they sanctify in 
it, and sprinkle out of it ; though that vessel 
is unclean for the sanctuary, and for the heave- 
offering. And so any of the common people 
that shall say, I am clean for the sin-water, 
or that hath the sin -water by him, and saith 
it is clean, he is to be tnisted : for there is 
no man of Israel too vile for it." Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. xiii. sect. 12. Water of 
SEPARATION,] That is, water to be sprinkled 
for separation, to be sprinkled on such as are 
separated and removed because of unclean- 
tiess, from other people. This appeareth by 
ver. 13, where it is said, ' because the water 
of separation was not sprinkled upon him.' 
The Heb. Niddah, which properly signifieth 
a separation or removal for uncleanness, is 
sometimes figuratively used for uncleanness 
itself, which is to be done away; as in 2 
Chron. xxix. 6 ; Ezra ix. 11. Whereupon 
the water which cleanseth it, is called " the 
water of separation;" which the Gr. and 

Chald. version call " water of sprinkling, be 
cause it was sprinkled on the unclean to pu- 
rify him, ver. 18, 19. According to which 
phrase, Christ's blood is called ' the blood of 
sprinkling,' Heb. xii. 24 ; because it purifi- 
eth the conscience, and was figured by this 
sprinkling water, Heb. ix. 13, 14. A pu- 
rification FOR SIN,] Heb. a sin : which 
word as it is often used for a sin-oflering, or 
sacrifice that expiateth sin, as in Lev. iv. 3, 
&c. ; so here it is the name of that water 
which purified sin, as after is manifested in 
ver. 12, &c. Wherefore the Gr. translateth, 
" it is a sanctification or purification." And 
these two names here given to this water, 
the prophet useth when he foretelleth the grace 
of Christ, ' in that day there shall be a foun- 
tain opened to the house of David, and to the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for sepa- 
ration,' Zach. xiii. 1, that is, for a purifica- 
tion for sin, and for a water of separation for 
uncleanness, which the Gr. there interpreteth, 
" for a removal away, and for a sprinlding." 

Ver, 10 Shall wash,] As when any of 

the blood of the sin-oflering was sprinkled on 
a garment, it was to be washed, Lev. vi, 
27 ; so here, he that gathered up ashes was 
to wash his clothes, for it could not be but 
some of the ashes would light upon them. 
See the notes on ver. 7. The str.'INGer 
THAT SOJOURNETH,] In Gr. the proselytes 
that are adjoined. 

Ver. 11. — Of any soul of man,] That 
is, of any dead man, or any corpse of man: 
the soul is here used for the dead body, as is 
noted on Lev. xix, 26; and Num. vi. 6 ; 
and this is an explanation of the former dead, 
that it is meant of man only: for he that 
touched a dead beast was not unclean 
seven days, but one day only, Lev. xi. 24, 
27, 39 ; neither was he to be sprinkled with 
these ashes. Sol. Jarchi here saith, it is 
spoken " to except the soul of a beast, for the 
uncleanness thereby needeth no sprinkling." 
Unclean seven days,] During which time 
of his uncleanness he might not come into the 
sanctuary, nor touch any holy thing, Lev. vii. 
19, 21 ; nor be in the Lord's camp. Num. 
vi. 2 ; (unto which the city Jerusalem was 
answerable in the ages following, called there- 
fore the ' holy city,' Neh. xi. 1, 18; Matt, 
iv 5 ) .And herei>y was figured such as were 



'^ He shall purify jjinisolf witli it in the tliinl day, and in the 
seventh day lie shall be clean ; and if he purify not himself in the 
third day, and in the seventli day, he shall not be clean. '^ Wlio- 
soever touched the dead, the soul of a man that is dead, and puri- 

dead in trespasses and sins, Eph. ii. 1 ; and 
such as have their consciences defiled by dead 
works, Heb. ix. 13, 14 ; which may not en- 
ter during their uncleanness, into the city of 
God, Rev. xxi. 27. Of this legal pollution, 
the Hebs. have these sayings ; " a dead per- 
son defileth by touching, and by bearing, and 
by the tent, with seven days' uncleanness. 
The uncleanness by touching, and by the 
tent, are expressed in the law, Num. xix. 11, 
14. Uncleanness by bearing, is by tradition 
[gathered by consequence.] For if a dead 
beast which maketh one unclean but till even- 
ing, and defileth not by the tent, doth defile by 
bearing, as is written by Lev. xi. 25 ; how 
much more doth a dead man. And as a dead 
beast, which, in touching defileth till even- 
ing, defileth also till evening by bearing,; so 
a dead man wliich by touching defileth seven 
days, defileth also seven days by bearing. 
Uncleanness by touching, spoken of in every 
place, whether of a dead man or other unclean 
things, is, when a man with his flesh toucheth 
the unclean thing itself, whether it be with his 
hand, or with his foot, or with any other part of 
his flesh, &c. Uncleanness by bearing, spoken 
of in any place, either of a dead man, or of 
other unclean things, is when a man beareth 
the unclean thing, although he touch it not, 
although a stone be betwixt him and it. For- 
asmuch as he beareth it, he is unclean ; whe- 
ther he bear it on his liead, or on his hand, 
or with any other part of his body: Yea, 
though the unclean thing hang by a thread, 
or by a hair, if he hang the thread on his 
hand, and lift up the unclean tiling by it, lo, 
he beareth it, and is unclean. Nothing is 
defiled by bearing, save man only: not ves- 
sels. As, if a man hold in his hand ten ves- 
sels, one above another, and a dead carcase, 
or any the like thing be in the uppermost 
vessel, the man is unclean by bearing the 
carcase, and the vessels upon his hand are 
all clean, save the uppermost vessel which 
the unclean thing toucheth ; and so in all 
like cases, &c. There is no kind of living 
thing which is defiled while it is alive, or that 
doth defile while it is alive, save man only, 
and he that is of Israel, &c. A dead man 
defileth not till his soul be departed from 
him, as it is wiitten, ' the soul of a man 
that is dead,' Num. xix. 13. A dead un- 
timely birth, &c. defileth by touching, by 
bearing, and by tent, as a great man wliich is 
dead ; as it is written, ' he that toucheth 
the dead of any soul of man,' Num. xix. 11. 

Likewise so much as an olive of a dead man's 
flesh, either moist or dry as a potsherd, defil- 
eth as doth a whole dead man. A limb cut 
olF from a living man, is as an whole dead 
man, and defileth by touching, by bearing, 
and by tent, though it be but a little limb of 
a child of a day old, &o. A limb separated 
from a dead man defileth also by touching, by 
bearing, and by tent, as doth the dead man," 
&c. Maim. torn. iii. in Tvmaih meth, 
chap. i. and ii. These and other the like 
legal pollutions, teach God's people how care- 
ful they should be, that they defile not them- 
selves with sin, or communion with dead 
sinful works, as the apostle saith, ' touch not 
the unclean thing,' 2 Cor. vi. 17 ; 'be not 
partaker of other men's sins, keep thyself 
pure,' 1 Tim. v. 22. 

Ver. 12. — He shall purify himself,] 
By sprinkling the foresaid water; as the 
Chald. expoundeth it, he shall sprinkle; the 
Gr. he shall be purified. The original word 
signifieth to purify from sin ; which showeth 
that this outward uncleanness figured the 
pollution of the soul by sin, and the purifica- 
tion here commanded, signified 'repentance 
from dead works, and faith towards God, 
which purifieth the heart,' Heb. vi. 1 ; Acts 
XV. 9. With it,] With the water fore- 
spoken of, ver. 9, and the ashes, as Thargum 
Jonathan here expresseth: the manner where- 
of followeth. He sh.all be clean,] That 
is, as the Gr. translateth, and he shall he 
clean. And in the seventh,] Chazkuni 
here observeth, " Lest any should think, il' 
he forget and be not sprinkled in the third 
day, he may be sprinkled twice on the seventLi 
day, and it will serve the turn as if he were 
sprinkled on the third day, and on the seventh; 
therefore the scripture saith, If he purify not 
himself in the third day, and in the seventh, 
&c. for it is necessary that there be three 
days between sprinkling and sprinkling. 

Ver. 13. — The soul,] That is, the 
corpse, as before is showed. That is dead,] 
In Gr. if he be dead. From these words the 
Hebs. gather, "that the dead defile not, till 
his soul be departed," Maim, in Tumath 
victh, chap. i. sect. 15. For death is the 
departing of the soul from the body, Geu. 
XXXV. 18; Ps. cxlvi. 4. He defileth the 
TABERNACLE,] If he come in that estate into 
the court of the tabernacle: yea though he 
have washed himself, "yet if he have not 
been sprinkled the third day and the seventh 
day, he defileth it," as Jarchi here noteth, 



fietli not liimself, lie defileth tJie tabernacle of Jehovah, and that 
soul shall be cut off from Israel : because the water of separation 
was not sprinkled upon him, he shall be unclean ; his uncleanness 
is yet upon him. " This is the law : When a man dieth in a tent, 
all that come into tlie tent, and all that is in the tent, shall be un- 
clean seven days. " And every open vessel, which hath no cover- 
ing bound upon it, it is unclean. " And whosoever toucheth in the 

and Moses after showeth. That soul shall 
BE CUT OFF,] lu Chald. that man shall be 
destroyed. This is meant if he come in pre- 
sumptuously; but if he do it ignorantly, he 
is to briug a sacrifice, Lev. v. 3 — 6. So the 
Hebs. explain this law, Maim, in Biath 
hamikdash, chap. iii. sect. xii. See the 
notes on Num. vi. The water of separa- 
tion,] In Gr. and Chald. the water of sprink- 
ling. This signified, that when any have 
sinned he cannot be cleansed from it before 
God, by any of his own works, nor satisfy by 
his own sufferings, but only by having his 
conscience sprinkled with the blood of Christ 
by his Spirit; for that is it which ' cleanseth 
us from all sin,' 1 John i. 7; Heb. ix. 13, 

Vkr. 14. — In a tent,] And in like man- 
ner, in a house, as the Gr. here translateth it; 
for a tent is named, because the people then 
dwelt in tents in the wilderness. But for 
uncleanness the Hebs. say, "that only a tent 
■was unclean, and to be sprinkled," as is after 
noted on ver. 18. And all that is in the 
tent,] The pollution by the dead is in this 
respect above all other pollutions, as the Hebs. 
say, " The uncleanness of the tent is not like 
other uncleannesses, but by the dead only. 
And whether there come into the tent of the 
dead man or vessel, or the dead be brought into 
the tent where men or vessels are, or that 
the dead be with men or vessels under the 
same tent, they are unclean. Whether he 
come wholly into the tent of the dead, or 
come but some part of him, he is unclean by 
the tent. Though he do but put in his hand, 
or the tops of his fingers, &c. he is all un- 
clean, &c. Whether the dead person be an 
Israelite or an heathen, he defileth by being 
touclied or carried, but an heathen defileth 
not by tent. This is by tradition, for lo he 
saith of the war of Midian, whosoever hath 
touched any slain, Num. xxxi. 19, and he 
mentioneth not there the tent. Likewise an 
heathen is not made unclean by the dead, 
but an heathen that toucheth the dead, or 
beareth him, or cometh into the tent where 
the dead is, lo he is not as if he had not 
touched him. -A.nd why? because he is as a 
beast that toucheth the dead, &c. And this 
is not for the dead only, but for all other un- 
cleannesses every one, heathens and beasts 

are not made unclean by them," Maim, in 
Tumath meth, chap. i. sect. 10 — 13. Un- 
clean SEVEN days,] This is the ordinary 
time for the uncleanness of men or of ves- 
sels that are defiled by the dead ; but those 
which touch such a defiled man, are unclean 
but until evening, ver. 22 

Ver. 15. — Every open vessel,] The 
Chald. translateth it, every open earthen ves . 
sel (or vessel of potter's clay:) and so the 
Heb. doctors expound this law, as Jarchi 
saith, " The scripture speaketh of an earthen 
vessel which receiveth no uncleanness in the 
outside of it, but in the inside," &c. So 
Maim, in Tumath meth, chap. xxi. Of 
vessels and their uncleanness, see the annot. 
on Lev. xi. 32, 33. No covering bound 
UPON it,] In Gr. not bound with a bond upon 
it: by covering, some understand a cloth upon 
it. The vessel was so to be stopped, that the 
air of the tent might not go into it: then 
both it and all things in it were clean, other- 
wise they were unclean. From hence the 
Hebs. gather also by inference, that if ano- 
ther tent were within the tent (A the dead, 
the things in it were clean, because they 
were hid or covered; and likewise, if the un- 
clean thing were swallowed up by a living 
creature. But nothing put up in vessels 
free from uncleanness, except the vessel had 
a covering bound upon it. Neither was any 
thing clean by being buried in the ground 
under the tent or house : but if an house were 
unclean, and vessels hidden in the floor 
thereof, though an hundred cubits under- 
neath, they were unclean. Maim, in Tumath 
meth, chap. xx. 

Ver. 16. — In the face of the field,] 
That is, in the open field where no tent is, 
there pollution is by touching only. Slain 
with the sword,] Or with any instrument; 
the sword is named for an instance. There- 
fore in Num. xxxi. 19, the law saith more 
general!}', ' whosoever hath killed any per- 
son, and whosoever hath touched any slain,' 
&c. Thargum Jonathan here addeth, " one 
that is slain with the sword, or the sword 
wherewith he was slain." So in the Heb. 
canons it is said, " the sword is as the dead 
person, to wit, for defiling him that toucheth 
it," Maim, in Tumath meth, chap. v. sect. 
3. The word sometimes is used for wounded, 



face of the field, one that is slain with the sword, or a dead body, 
or a bone of a man, or a grave, he shall be unclean seven days. 
'' And they shall take for the unclean person, of the dust of the 
burnt heifer of purification for sin ; and he shall put thereto living 

though not dead, as in Ps. Ixix. 27; cix. 22. 
Hereupon the Ilebs. say, " A limb cut off 
from a living man, it is as an whole dead 
man, and maketh unclean by touching, by 
bearing, and by tent, though it be but a 
small limb of a child of a day old. For 
there is no stinted measure of limbs, as it is 
wiitten, Whosoever toucheth in the face of 
the field one that is slain with the sword, 
and it is a known thing, that it is all one, 
whether he be slain with the sword, or with 
a stone, or with other things. This teacheth 
that he is unclean, which toucheth a limb 
that the sword hath cut off; provided that it 
be a whole limb as it is created of flesh, 
sinews and bones," Maim, in Tmnath metli, 
chap. ii. sect. 3. Or a dead body,] Though 
not slain by violence, but dying alone. A 
BONE OF A MAN,] By reason of this unclean, 
ness by dead men's bones, the prophet saith, 
' When any seeth a man's bone, he shall set 
up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried 
it,' &c. Ezek. xxxix. 15. The Hebs. write, 
"that the blood also of a dead man defileth as 
doth the dead man: but the blood of a living 
man (they say) is clean, so long as he is 
alive," Maim, in Tumath meth, chap. ii. A 
ORAVE,] Or, a sepulchre, to wit, wherein any 
dead have been buried. "A grave, all the 
while that uncleanness is within it, defileth 
by touching and by tent, as doth the dead 
person, by the sentence of the law. Num. 
xix. 16. And whether one touch the top of 
a grave, or touch the sides of it (he is un- 
clean.) A field wherein a grave is ploughed 
up, and the bones of the dead are consumed 
in'o dust, the dust defileth by touching and 
by beaiing," Maim, in Tumath meth, chap, 
ii. sect. 15, 10. Tlius the pollution by man- 
kind being dead, is above all other legal pol- 
lutions whatsoever: which lively showeth the 
fruit and efiect of sin, which caused death, 
Rom. vi. 23, and the horror of death, hold- 
ing men in subjection, until by the voice of 
Chiist they be raised and brought out of 
their graves, John v. 28, 29. The Ilebs. 
say, "The cause of the uncleanness of the 
dead, is by means of the angel of death [the 
devil] that brciught poison into man," R. 
Mcnachem on Num. xix. Hereby also was 
figured the estate of such as are dead in sin, 
even dead while they are alive, Col. ii. 13; 
1 Tim. V. 0, whose throat is 'an open grave,' 
I's. V. Ut, so that their corrupt words and 
.sinful works do infect others. 2 Tim. ii. 17, 
18; 1 Cor. V. 6. 
Vol. II. 

Ver. 17. — And they shall take,] That 
is, some shall take, some clean man, as ver. 
18. For the unclean,] To cleanse him. 
Of the dust,] That is, of the ashes, as the 
Gr. explaineth it. Of the burnt heifer 
OF PURIFICATION FOR SIN,] Heb. o/* //ifl burn- 
ing of shi, that is, of the sin-offering (the 
heifer) that is burned, ver. 9. He shall 
PUT,] That is, some clean man shall put. 
Living water,] That is, as the Cliald. ex- 
[loundcth it, spring (or wcllinff) irater, which 
tor the continual motion is called living water, 
as is noted on Lev. xiv. 5; Gen. xxvi. 19. 
In a vessel,] Touching the manner of per- 
forming this rite, the Hebs. have many ob- 
servations. " The water on which the hei- 
fer's ashes are put, is not filled but in a ves- 
sel, and out of fountains that spring, or of 
rivers derived from them: and the putting of 
the ashes upon the water that is filled is 
called sanctifying. And the water on which 
the ashes are put, is called the water of pu- 
rification from sin, and sanctified water, and 
the scripture calleth it water of separation, 
(Num. xix. 9.) It is lawful for any to fill 
the water, save for the deaf, and the fool, and . 
the child; and lawful for any to sanctify, save 
for the deaf, the fool, and the child: and they 
sanctify not but in a vessel, neither do they 
sprinkle, but out of a vessel ; and the filling 
and sanctifying may be done by night, but 
they do not sprinkle, nor wash, but by day ; 
and all the day long they may sprinkle or 
wash. In any vessel they may fill, and 
sprinkle, and sanctify, though vessels of 
stone, of earth, &c. He that turneth a 
spring into his wine-press, or into a cistern, 
and then filleth a vessel out of that press or 
cistern, it is unlawful: for it is necessary to 
take the water out of the spring into a ves- 
sel at the first. The main sea, as the ga- 
thering together of water, is not as a spring: 
therefore they fill not out of it to sanctify, 
&c. When they sanctify the water with tho 
ashes, he putteth the water which is filled liy 
the name of sin-water, into a vessel, and 
putteth the ashes upon the face of the wattr, 
and mixeth all together; and if he put in 
the ashes first, and afterward the water, it is 
unlawful. And whereas it is said in the law, 
And he shall put thereto living water, (Num. 
xix. 17,) it is meant to mix the ashes with 
the water. He that sanctifieth, must do it 
purposely, and put tlie ashes with his hand 
on the water; as it is said, And they shall 
take for the unclean person ; so that he must 



water in a vessel. '^ And a clean man shall take hy.ssop, and dip 
it in the water, and shall sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all 
the vessels, and upon the souls which were there, and upon him 
that touched a bone, or one slain, or one dead, or a grave. " And 

have an intent to sanctify, and to fill, and to 
sprinkle, &c. He that delivereth sanctified 
water, or water filled for sanctificatioii, to 
an unclean person to keep it, it is become 
unlawful. He that is hired is unlawful to 
sanctify or to sprinkle, but not nnlawful to 
fill the water, &c. he may receive wages for 
filling, or for carrying the water ; but he 
must sanctify for nothing, and he that sprink- 
leth must sprinkle for nothing," Maim, in 
Pharah adummak, chap. vi. sect, i, &c. ; 
chap. ix. sect. 1, &c. ; and chap. vii. sect. 2. 
Ver. is. — A CLEAN MAN,] Either he that 
took the ashes and put them on the water, or 
any other: see the notes on ver. 9. "He 
that filleth the water for sanctification, it is not 
necessary that it be he himself that saucti- 
fieth, and that spririkleth ; but one may sanc- 
tify, and another may sprinkle," Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. xix. Hyssop,] That herb 
which was used in cleansing of the leper, 
whereof see Lev. xiv. 4. "A clean man 
taketh three stalks of hyssop, and bindeth 
them in a bunch, &c. and dippeth the tops of 
the branches in the water of separation which 
is in a vessel, and purposely sprinkleth on 
the man, or on the vessels," &c. Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. xi. sect. 1. Dip it in the 
Water,] " He that sprinkleth, needeth not 
to dip for every sprinkling, but dippeth the 
hyssop, aud sprinkleth one time after another, 
till the water be ended. And he may 
sprinkle with one sprinkling on many men, 
or on many vessels at once, though they be 
an hundred: whatsoever the water toucheth, 
it is clean every whit, if so be he that sprink- 
leth do intend to sprinkle upon it," Maim, 
in Pharah, chap. x. sect. fi. Upon the 
Tent,] In Gr. upon the house. The tent 
was unclean by the dead, though it touched 
it not, as this law showeth. "The tent it- 
self, whereinto the uncleanness came, though 
the uncleanness touched it not, yet is it ini- 
clean with seven days' uncleanness by the 
law, and is as cloths that touch the dead 
corpse ; for it is said. And he shall sprinkle 
upon the tent," Maim, in Tumath meth, 
chap. V. sect. 12. All the vessels,] No- 
thing but this water could puiify the vessels; 
though they were melted in the fire, yet they 
Were in part unclean, as it is said, ' Every 
thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make 
it go through the fire, and it shall be clean: 
nevertheless it shall be purified with the 
water of separation,' Num. xxxi. 32. The 
souls,] The living persons, or wen, as Thar- 

gum Jonathan explaineth it. And this is 
spoken largely without limitation, though 
they had other uncleanness upon them, than 
by the dead. And so the Hebs. explain it 
largely, saying, " All that are imclean do re- 
ceive the sprinkling; as men or women that 
have running issues, women separated for 
their disease, and women in child-bed, which 
are defiled by the dead, they sprinkle upon 
them in the third day, and in the seventh, 
and lo they are cleansed from the uncleanness 
by the dead, although they are unclean still 
with other uncleanness, for it is said (in Num. 
xix. 19,) 'And a clean person shall sprinkle 
upon the unclean,' &c. whereby thou must 
learn, that the sprinkling is available for him, 
though he be unclean. And so an uncir- 
cumcised person receivetli the sprinkling ; as 
an uncircumcised person that is unclean by 
the dead, and one sprinkle upon him in the 
third day and in the seventh, lo he is clean 
from uncleanness by the dead; and when he 
is circumcised, lie washeth (or baptizeth) and 
eateth of the holy things at evening," Maim, 
in Pharah, chap. xi. sect. 3. And for the 
effect of this sprinkling, they say, "A man 
defiled by the dead, and one hath sprinkled 
on him, when any of the water of separation 
hath touched any place of the skin of his 
flesh who was unclean, the sprinkling is 
available for him, though it fall but upon the 
top of his finger, or of his lip, &c. And so 
for an unclean vessel sprinkled, when any 
whit of the water toucheth the body of the 
vessel, the sprinkling is available for it," 
Maim. ibid. chap. xii. sect. 1. A bone,] 
That is, a marl's hone, as the Gr. translat- 
eth, and as was expressed in ver. 16. 

Ver. 19. — In the third day,] To wit, 
after his uncleanness being certainly known. 
" Whoso is unclean by the dead, and tarrieth 
many days without sprinkling, when he Com- 
eth to be sprinkled, he counteth before him 
three days, and they sprinkle on him in the 
third day, and in the seventh," &c. Maim, 
in Pharah, chap. xi. sect. 2. And in the 
seventh,] Which is the day of the accom- 
plishment of his purification: the third day 
was mystical, having reference to the resur- 
rection of Christ, which was on the third day 
after his death, 1 Cor. xv. 4, whereof see the 
annot. on Gen. xxii. 4. The seventh day 
was also mystical, as being the number of 
perfection of the Sabbath, and of accomplish- 
ing a work, as is noted on Gen. ii. 2 ; Exod. 
xii. 15; Lev. iv. 6 and so it figured our full 



a clean person sliall sprinkle upon the unclean, in the third day, 
and in the seventh day; and he sliall purify himself \\\ the seventh 
day, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe (his flesh) in water, and 
shall be clean at evening. ^" And the man that shall be unclean, 
and shall not purify liimself, that soul shall even be cut off from 
among the church, because lie hath defiled the sanctuary of Jelio- 
vah ; the water of separation hath not been sprinkled upon him, 
he is unclean. ^' And it shall be unto them for a statute j^r ever ; 

cleansing, and ceasing from our sinful and 
dead works, after that we are sprinkled with 
the blood of Jesus, and water of his Spirit, 
Heb, iv. 9, 10; ix. 13, 14. Wash his 
CLOTHES,] Which was a common rite, for all 
that were defiled with other uncleannesses; 
whereof see Lev. xi. 25; xiv. 8, 9; i. 55. 
Bathe his flesh, J In Gr. wash his body: 
the word flesh is expressed before in ver. 7, 
and it is meant of his whole body, or ' all his 
flesh,' as Lev. xv. IG. Clean at evening,] 
Alter the sun is set, at what time a new day 
beginneth; and so in mystery, a new life to 
begin. This cleansing of the defiled by the 
dead, figured Clirist's work of grace upon 
dead and sinful men; of liim it is prophesied, 
' He shall sprinkle many nations,' Is. lii. 15, 
and of him doth the apostle open this figure, 
saying, ' If the blood of bulls and goats, and 
the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the unclean, 
sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh ; how 
much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
thiough the eternal Spirit offered himself 
without blemish unto God, purge your con- 
science from dead works to serve the living 
God?' Hub. ix. 1.3, 14. The sprinkling of 
tlie ashes of the heifer, figured the applying 
unto us of Christ's death, whereunto 'lie was 
delivered for our ofTences, and was raised 
again for our justification,' Rom. iv. 25. 
The living water wherewith the ashes were 
mixed, figured the Spirit of God, which they 
that believe in Christ do receive, John vii. 
38, 39, of which he gave this promise, 
' Tlien will I sprinkle clean water upon you, 
and ye shall be clean,' Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 
These being applied unto our consciences by 
faith (as with hyssop) which purifieth the 
heart. Acts xv. 9, and by the preaching 
thereof. Gal. iii. 2, do baptize us into Christ's 
death, that like as he was raised up from the 
dead, unto the glory of the Father; even so 
we also should walk ' in newness of life,' 
Rom. vi. 3, 4. And so we draw near unto 
God, ' with a true heart, in full assurance of 
faith, having our liearts sprinkled from an 
evil conscience, and our bodies washed with 
pure water, and our robes washed, and made 
white in the blood of the Lamb,' Heb. x. 
ii2; Rev. vii. 14, and cleansing ourselves 
' from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, 

we perfect holiness in the fear of God,' 2 
Cor. vii. 1. Of these mysteries the Heb. 
doctors, though estranged from the true life 
and light of Christ, retained some knowledge; 
for they say, " When the living water is 
niixed with the ashes, it purifieth the unclean, 
whereas before that, while the ashes were 
alone, they defiled all that were employed 
about them. And behold, the living water 
signified the water that is on high, which 
taketh away uncleanness from the ashes, &c. 
And lo when it is sprinkled on the unclean, 
the uncleanness fleeth fi'om him, &c. and a 
clean spirit resteth upon him, and purifieth 
him," 11. Meuachem on Num. xix. 

Ver. 20. — Unclean,] By any of the 
things aforesaid, about the dead. Not purl. 
FV hijiself,] Or, not be purified, to wit, by 
having the water sprinkled itpon him, as the 
Chald. explaineth it; and the latter part of 
this verse manifesteth. That soul,] In 
Chald. that man. Cut off,] In Gr. and 
Chald. destroyed. Defiled the sanctuary,] 
By coming into it beiore he hath been puri- 
fied. For such were shut out of the host, 
Num. V. 2, how much more out of the sanc- 
tuary? Therefore porters were set there at 
the gates, ' that none which was unclean in 
any thing should enter in,' 2 Chron. xxiii. 
19. ' An unclean person that cometh into 
the sanctuary presumptuously, his puuish- 
ment is cutting ofl,' Num. xix. 20; 'if igno- 
rantly, then he is to bring the sacrifice ap- 
pointed,' Lev. vii.. Maim, in Biath hamik- 
dash, chap. iii. sect. 12. See the annot. on 
Lev. V. 2, 3. 

Ver. 21. — Wash his clothes,] As being 
unclean, and so to continue until evening; 
likewise he that toucheth the water of sepa- 
ration shall wash his clothes, and be unclean 
until evening. This interpretation Chazkuni 
here givelh of it, that in the former branch 
uncleanness is imjilied until evening; and in 
the latter branch, the washing of his clothes 
also is implied, though not expressed. Tliis 
is one of the mysteries of this law, that a 
clean man (as he is called in ver. 18, 19,) 
was made unclean, by sprinkling or touching 
the holy water, wliich sanctified those that 
were unclean, and so it had contrary effects 
to purify the unclean, and to pollute the dean ; 



and he that sprinkleth tlie water of separation, shall wash his 
clothes ; and he that toucheth the water of separation, shall be un- 
clean nntil the evening. ^- And whatsoever the unclean person 
toucheth, shall be unclean ; and the soul that toucheth, shall be 
unclean until the evening. 

as the sua melteth wax, and hardeneth clay. 
Hereby the Holy Spirit seemeth to signify 
the imperfection and insufficiency of these 
Ifegal rites, which in their greatest virtue did 
but sanctify ' to the purifying of the flesh,' 
as the apostle saith, Heb. ix. 13, and yet 
even then also, left the purifier himself in 
uncleanness, which he had not before. That 
by consideration of these effects, the people 
might be led unto Christ and his Spirit, who 
is able to ' purge the conscience from dead 
works, and to save them to the uttermost that 
come unto God by him,' Heb. ix. 14; vii. 
25. The Hebs. understand tliis of such 
as sprinkled or touched the water, when there 
was no need as when no unclean person or 
vessel was to be sprinkled with it. Maim, in 
Pharah, chap. xv. 

Ver. 22. — Whatsoever,] Or, whomso- 
ever; Heb. all, implying men, vessels, &c. 
The unclean,] To wit, by the dead, of 
whom was spoken before. Shall be un- 
clean,] To wit, until evening, as the end of 
the verse showeth : and this is an inferior de- 
gree of uncleanness; for the man or vessel 
polluted by the dead, was unclean seven 
days, ver. 11, 14, but that which such an 
unclean man or vessel touched, was unclean 
till the end of that day. So in the Heb. 
canons, "A man which is defiled by the 

dead, and the vessels which that man touch- 
eth, are unclean seven days, as it is said, 
' And ye shall wash your clothes in the 
seventh day, and ye shall be clean,' (Num. 
xxxi. 24.) But a man that shall touch a 
man which is defded by the dead, whether 
he touch him after that he is separated from 
the things that defiled him, or touch him 
while he toucheth the dead, lo this second 
man is unclean till the evening, as it is said, 
(in Num. xix. 22,) ' And the soul that touch- 
eth, shall be unclean until the evening," 
Maim, in Tuniath vieth, chap. v. sect. 2. 
The soul,] In Chald. the man. That 
TOUCHETH,] To wit, hiin that is defiled, as 
before is noted ; or, it, the thing which is 
defiled by the touch of an unclean man. 
Thus pollution passed from one thing to ano- 
ther, and from that other to a third; whereby 
God figured the congregation of sin, spread- 
ing abroad, and infecting where it goeth ; 
leaving uncleanness till the end of that day, 
and beginning of a new: then washing our- 
selves by repentance and faith in the blood of 
Christ, we are clean. ' For we are buried 
with him by baptism into death, that like as 
Christ was raised up from the dead, by the 
glory of the Father, even so we also should 
walk in newness of life,' Rom. vi. 4. 


1. The children of Israel came to Zin, where Mary dieth. 2. They 
murmur for want of mater. 7. The Lord desireth Moses to specik to 
the rocJi, and it should give forth water. 1 1 . Moses sfniteth the rock, 
and water cometh out. 12. The Lord is angry with Moses a7id Aaro7i 
for their unbelief. 14. Moses at Kadesh desireth passage through 
Edom, which is denied him. 22. At nwimt Hor, Aaron resigneth his 
place to Eleazar his son, and dieth. 

' And the sons of Israel, even the whole congregation, came 
into the wilderness of Zin, in the first month ; and the people abode 

Ver. 1. — The whole congregation,] To 
wit, o! the next generation of the Israelites, 
when their fathers (according to the judgment 
threatened in Num. xiv. 29, &c.) were for 
the most part now dead in the wilderness, as 
ai'peareth by Deut. ii. 14, 15. Zin,] Or 

Tsin: whereof see the notes on Num. xiii. 
21. Between Hazeroth, mentioned in 
Num. xii. 16; and this place in Zin, where 
now they camped, there where eighteen 
other stations or resting places, whither the 
Israelites had come. Num. xxxiii. 18 — 36. 



ill Kadesli, and Mary died there, aiid was buried there. ' And 
there was no water for the congregation ; and they gathered them- 
selves together agamst Moses and against Aaron. ^ And the peo- 

The first month,] To wit, of the fortieth 
year, after they were come up out of Egypt, 
Hs appeareth by Num. xxxiii. 3S ; compared 
with tlie 2Stli ver. of this chap., and Deut. ii. 
1 — 7. So this was the last year of Israel's 
travel in the wilderness : and from the send- 
ing of the spies, Num. xiii. unto tliis time, 
was about thirty-eight years, Deut. i. 22, 
23; ii. 14. In all whicli space, we see how 
few things are recorded concerning Israel ; 
and the things that are mentioned, are partly 
their murmuring? and rebellions, by which 
they provoked God, and for which they were 
punished : partly the means of grace, recon- 
ciliation and sanctification, taught them of 
the Lord, to be obtained by Jesus Christ, 
figin'ed by the sacrifices and ordinances 
wl\ich JMoses sliowed them, that it miglit 
appear, that ' wliere sin abounded, grace did 
mucli more abound,' Rom. v. 20. Abode 
IN K.^DESH,] About four months they stayed 
here; then removing to mount Hor, there 
Aaron died, the first day of the fifth month. 
Num. xxxiii. 3S. This Kadesh (which the 
Chald. named Rckam,) was either another 
wilderness, or another place in the wilder- 
ness, than that from wliich the spies were 
sent, Num. xiii. 26; called ' Kadesh bamea,' 
Deut. i. 19. Chazkuni here saith, " This 
is not the Kadesh whereof it is said, ' and ye 
abode in Kadefh many days,' (Deut. i. 4(5 ;) 
for that Kadesh is El-Pharan, Gen. xiv. 6; 
and is called Kadesh-barnea, and from thence 
the spies were sent ; but this Kadesh in 
Num. XX. is ill the wilderness of Zin, in the 
border of the land of Edom." After the re- 
bellion of the spies, God sent the people back 
again throui;h the wilderness towards the red 
sea. Num. xiv. 25; (where they might renew 
the memorial of their baptism, 1 Cor. x. 2;) 
and from Eziongaber (which is a port ' on the 
shore of the red sea,' 1 Kings ix. 26;) they 
removed next to this Kadesh, Num. xxxiii, 
30. So Jephthah saith, Israel ' walked 

through the wilderness unto the Red sea, and 

came to Kadesh, Judir. xi. 16. Mary,] 

Heb. Mir jam ; in Gr. Mariam : she was 

sister to Moses and Aaron, and a prophetess, 

by wliom God guided the Israelites in their 

travels, as it is written, ' I sent before thee, 

Moses, Aaron, and Mary, Mic. vi. 4. Of 

her, see Exod. xv. 20; Num. xii. In this 

fortieth year of Israel's travel, God took from 

them by death, Mary their prophetess, in the 

first month; Aaron their priest, in the fifth 

month. Num. xxxiii. 38 ; and Moses their 

king in the end of the year, Deut. i. 3; and 

xxxiv. 5. When these three ministers of 

the law were deceased, Jesus the son of Nun 
(a figure of Jesus the son of God) bringeth 
them into the promised land, Jos. i. 1, 2. 
&c. ; so after the abrogating of the law, our 
Lord Jesus Christ bringeth us into the king- 
dom of God, Mark i. 15 ; Rom. vii. 4, 5, 6. 
Dan. ix. 24. 

Ver. 2. — There was no water,] In 
the first year, when they were come out of 
Egypt to Rephidim in the wilderness, they 
wanted water, Exod. xvii ; and in this last, 
the fortieth year, they wanted water again: 
here God tried the children, as he had done 
the fathers, and they also rebelled against him. 
And many things were like in both places. 
That Rephidim was the tenth encamping 
place or station from Egypt: this in Kadesh 
was the tenth encamping place before they 
entered Canaan, as by their rehearsal of their 
journeys in Num. xxxiii. is to be seen. 
There the people in their thirst, instead of 
praying unto God, contended with Moses, 
and murmured for that he had brought them 
out of Egypt, Exod. xvii. 2, 3 ; here they 
do the same, ver. 3, 4. There Moses cried 
unto the Lord for the outrage of the people, 
Exod. xvii. 4; here Moses and Aaron fall 
down before the Lord, ver. 6. There God 
promised and gave them water out of the 
rock, Exod. xvii. 6 ; here he doth likewise 
ver. S. There God willed Moses to take his 
rod : here also he commandeth him, ' Take 
the rod.' There the Lord promised to stand 
before Moses, Exod. xvii. 6 ; here his gloiy 
appeareth unto him and Aaron, ver. 6. 
There Moses by commandment smiting the 
rock with his rod, waters came out of it : 
here he smiting the rock without command- 
ment, waters came out. There the place 
was named Meribah or Contention, Exod. 
xvii. 7 ; here tlie place is named Meribah, 
ver. 13. That was the people's sixth rebel- 
lion, after they were come out of Egypt, as 
is noted on Num. xiv. 22 ; this was their 
sixth rebellion after they were come from 
mount Sinai, (if we except the private mur- 
muring of Mary and Aaron against Moses, 
Num. xii.) For the first was at Taberah, 
Num. xi. 1, 3; the next at Kibroth hatta- 
avah. Num. xi. 24; then in the wilderness 
of Pharan, Num. xiv. 1,2; after that fol- 
lowed the rebellion of Korah and his company, 
Num. xvi. and after it, of all the congrega- 
tion, for tlie death of those rebels, Num. xvi. 
41 ; now the sixth is in Kadesh. 

Ver. 3. — Contended,] Chode with bitter 
and reproachful words, which the Gr. trans- 
lateth, reviled; see Exod. xvii. 2. Anh 



pie contended with Moses ; and they said, saying, And oh that we 
had given up the ghost, wlien our bretlu'en gave up the ghost be- 
fore Jehovah. * And why have ye brought the church of Jehovah 
into this wilderness to die there, we and our cattle ? ^ And why 
liave ye made us to come up out of Egypt to bring us in, unto this 
evil place ? it is no place of seed, or of figs, or vines, or of pome- 
granates, neither is there any water to drink. ® And Moses and 
Aaron went from tJie presence of tlie church unto the door of the 
tent of tlie congregation, and they fell upon their faces, and the 
glory of Jehovah appeared unto them. And Jehovah spake unto 
Moses, saying, ^ Take the rod, and gatlier togetlier the congre- 

OH,] Or, yind ivould God. The word, And, 
slioweth the passion of mind, out of which 
they spake abruptly: see the notes on Gen. 
xxvii. 2S ; Num. xi. 29. We had given 
np THE GHOST,] In Chald. we had died : in 
Gr. tve had perished in the perdition of our 
brethren, before the Lord : whereby they 
seem specially to mean the pestilence (the 
last plague wherewith their brethren died, 
Num. xvi. 49;) which pestilence above other 
judgments, cometh most immediately from 
the Imnd of God, as David acknowledgeth, 
2 Sam. xxiv, 14, 15. And this evil they 
wished, as being easier than to perish with hun- 
ger or thirst: as the prophet also complaineth, 
' They that be slain with the sword, are bet- 
ter than they that be slain with hunger : for 
these pine away, stricken through for the 
fruits of the field, Lam. iv. 9. Wherefore 
they here use the word giving up (or breath- 
ing out) the ghost ; which seeraeth to mean 
a more easy kind of death, than that which 
is by force of sword, or by hunger, or thirst, 
or other like violent means. So the Heb. 
explain, giving up the ghost, to be a death 
without pain or long sickness. 

Ver. 4. — To DIE THERE,] Understand, 
that we should die there with thirst; the Gr. 
translateth, to kill us and our children, 
which words they spake in Exod. xvii. 3. 

Ver. 5. — Of seed,] To sow seed in, or to 
plant fig-trees, vines, &c., for the wilderness 
was a ' land of deseits and of pits, a land of 
drought and of the sliadow of death, a land that 
no man passed through, and where no man 
dwelt,' Jer. ii. 6. Otherwise had there 
been commodiousness of place, the Israelites 
might liave sown and reaped, planted and 
gathered fruits in those thirty-eight years, 
which they abode therein, Dent. ii. 14. 

Ver. 6. — From the presence, Or, from 
the face, for fear of them, and because of their 
outrage; so in Rev. xii. 14; Ps. iii. 1. Fell 
ON their f.\ces,] In prayer unto God, whose 
glory resided in that sanctuary: so in Exod. 
xvii. 4; ' Moses cried unto the Lord. See 
Num. xvi. 4. 45. Appeared,] In the 

cloud, as Num. xii. 5 ; a sign that he heard 
their prayer, and would save them : see Num. 
xiv. 10; xvi. 19, 42. 

Ver. 8. — Take the rod,] In Gr. Take 
thy rod: so God spake before, in Exod. xvii. 
6 ; but here, some gather from ver. 9. that it 
was the rod of Aaron which had budded, and 
was laid up 'before the testimony,' Num. 
xvii. 10; Chazkuni saith, " This was Aaron's 
rod, for lo, it is here written (in ver. 9..) 
And Moses took the rod from before the 
Lord, and this was the rod of Aaron, as it is 
written (in Num. xvii. 10.) Bring Aaron's 
rod again before the testimony, to be kept for 
a sign against the sons of rebellion: and for- 
asmuch as Aaron's rod was a sign against 
the sons of rebellion, hereupon Moses said 
(in ver 10.) Hear now ye rebels." How- 
beit Moses rod (which is also called the ' rod 
of God,' Exod. iv. 20; xvii. 9.) might be 
kept also in the sanctuary: and after in ver. is said, Moses smote the rock 'with 
his rod.' Speak ye unto the rock,] He 
saith not, smite the rock: yet in ver. 11. 
Moses 'smote the rock; and in ver. 10. he 
spake to the people ; but it is not said that 
he spake to the rock, as hei-e he was com. 
manded. Some others think, that God's in- 
tention in bidding him. Take the rod, was to 
smite the rock with it ; and that he sinned, 
not in smiting it, but in unbelief, for which 
he is blamed in ver. 12. It shall give 
FORTH his water,] Or, the ivaters of it ; 
this promise of God, was that whereon the 
faith of Moses and Aaron should have rested. 
Thou shalt bring forth,] God was he 
that brought forth, and gave water to the- 
people, as is often mentioned to his glory ; 
' He clave the rock in the wilderness, and 
gave drink as out of the great deeps, and 
brought forth streams out of the rock,' &c. 
Ps. Ixxviii. 15, 16. So in Ps. cv. 41 ; cxiv. 
8; Deut. viii. 15. Neh. ix. 15, 20. But 
that work is here ascribed to Moses minis- 
terially, for that the waters should come out 
at his speaking. So in other works of grace, 
tlie ministers of the word are called saviours. 



gallon, thou and Aaron thy brotlier, and speak ye unto the rock 
before tlieir eyes, and it shall give forth his water : and thou shalt 
give forth to them water out of the rock ; and thou shalt give the 
congregation and their cattle drink. ^ And Moses took the rod 
from before Jehovah, as he commanded him. ^" And Moses and 
Aaron gathered together the church before the rock, and he said 
unto them, Hear now, ye rebels, shall we bring forth water for you 
out of tliis rock ? " And Moses lifted up his liand, and he smote 
the rock with Iiis rod twice ; and much water came out, and the 
congregation drank, and their cattle. 

^'^ And Jehovah said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Because ye 

Obad. ver. 21 ; for in the faithful perform- 
ance of their office, they botli save them- 
selves, and those that hear them, 1 Tim. iv. 

Ver. 9. — From before jehovah,] That 
is, out of the taber7iade ; for so the phrase 
importetli, as la Num. xvii. 7 ; Exod. xvi. 
13, 34. 

Ver. 10.' — Hear now ye rebels,] As 
here he speaketh to the people, who was 
bidden speak 'to the rock.' ver. 8; so the 
manner of his speech showeth great passion 
of mind, more than at other times: and the 
scripture noteth, that now the people had 
' bitterly provoked his spirit, so that he spake 
unadvisedly (uttering his anger) with his 
lips/ Ps. cvi. 33. Shall we bring forth 
WATER,] A speech of doubting and unbelief, 
both in Moses and Aaron, as in ver. 12. 
God blameth them because they believed not 
in him. So before, when Moses said, ' shall 
the flocks and the herds be slain for them,' 
&c., he was blamed with this answer, ' Is 
the Lord's hand waxed short ? Num. xi. 22, 
23. Moses was sore moved against this 
latter generation of Israelites, who had seen 
so many miracles, and their lathers perished 
for rebellion, and yet they were not bettered: 
he might fear, lest for their sinning like their 
fathers, the Lord would leave them, as he 
after speaketh in Num. xxxii. 14, 15. 

Ver. 11. — Lifted up his hand,] An- 
other sign of indignation, being joined with 
smiting. Twice,] the doubling of the stroke 
showed also the heat of his anger. Sol. Jarchi 
(on this place) conjectureth, that he smote it 
twice, " because at first it brought forth but 
drops, (of water) because God had not bidden 
him smite it, but speak unto it." Much 
water,] Or, many waters. ' lie clave the 
rocks in the wilderness, and gave drink, as 
out of the great deeps, Ps. Ixxviii. 15. The 
unbelief of man maketh not the faith of God 
without eliect, Rom. iii. 3. Moses and 
Aaron believed not God, to sanctify him, 
ver. 12; yet lie faithfully kept his promise, 
and sanctified himself, ver. 13. The con. 

gregation drank,] Thus the Lord knew his 
people ' in the wilderness, in the land of 
droughts,' Hos. xiii. 5. ' And they thirsted 
not, when he led them through the deserts ; 
he caused the waters to flow out of the rocks 
for them : he clave the rocks also, and the 
waters gushed out, Isa. xlviii. 21. The 
water out of the rock, besides the refreshing 
which it gave unto their bodies, was also a 
'spiritual drink, from that spiritual rock 
Christ,' 1 Cor. x. 4 ; who being smitten for 
our transgressions, Isa. liii ; with the rod of 
the law, which worketh wrath, Rom. iv. 15; 
from him proceeds the living water, where- 
with the Israel of God may quench their 
thirst for ever, John iv. 10, 14. For who- 
so ' believeth in him, out of his belly shall 
flow I'ivers of living water,' even the waters 
of the Holy Spirit, John vii. 38, 39. To 
these waters, ' every one that thirsteth ' is 
called to come freely, Isa. Iv. 1; Rev. xxii. 
17. Their cattle,] That water, which 
was both a natural and spiritual refreshing 
to the people, is given also to the beasts for 
their natural thirst, because the signs and 
seals of God's grace are such in respect of the 
use of them, to those unto whom they are 
sanctified of God for that purpose. So the 
waters of Jordan were sanctified for baptism, 
unto repentance, and believing sinners. Mat. 
iii. 6 ; which out of that use were common 
waters. And now, not only the Israelites' 
cattle, but the wild beasts also of the wilder- 
ness, had benefit by this mercy of God to his 
people: whereunto the Lord hath reference, 
when he saith by his prophet, ' The beasts 
of the field shall honour me, the dragons and 
the owls, because I give waters in the wil- 
derness, rivers in the desert, to give drink 
to my people, my chosen,' Isa. xliii. 20. 

Ver. 12. — Ye bklieved not i.n jie,] 
The Chald. expoundeth, ye believed 7iot in 
my word. Thus unbelief was here the chief 
sin, and cause of other sins, as before in the 
people. Num. xiv; so here in Moses and 
Aaron, who were both partners in the trans, 
gression. And this their sin is called a re- 



believed not in me, to sanctify me, in the eyes of tlie sons of Is- 
rael, therefore ye shall not bring this church into the land which I 
have given them. '^ This is the water of Meribah, because the 
sons of Israel contended with Jehovah : and he v/as sanctified in 

" And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh, nnto the king of 

hellion against the mouth of the Lord, Num. 
xxvii. 14 ; and a transgression, Deut. xxxii. 
51; which word, as R. Menachem here 
noteth, im]p\\eth, falsehood, as in Lev. vi. 2; 
it is joined with false denial: and the apostle 
saith, ' He that believeth not God hath made 
him a liar,' 1 John v. 10. To sanctify 
ME,] Inwardly in the heart by faith, out- 
wardly by obedience, to do that which I com- 
manded ; and by both to ascribe unto me the 
glory of my truth and power. So when it is 
said, ' Sanctify the Lord of hosts,' Isa. viii. 
13 ; the apostle expoundeth it, 'Sanctify the 
Lord God in your hearts,' 1 Pet. iii. 15. In 
THE EYES,] The Gr. translateth it, be/ore 
the sons of Israel. This seemeth to be the 
reason of God's severity at this time against 
Moses and Aaron, more than before, when 
Moses bewrayed also his unbelief, in Num. 
xi. 21 — 23; because he now publicly dis- 
honoured God before all the people, (which 
did aggravate the sin) whereas the former 
time he did it not in their eyes, but in pri- 
vate before the Lord. Therefore,] Chaz- 
kuni observeth, that this word implieth an 
oath. Neither indeed could Moses' repent- 
ance or prayer get this sentence to be re- 
versed: for when the Lord hath sworn, he 
will not repent, Ps. ex. 4. Ye shall not 
BRING,] This chastisement was grievous tmto 
Moses, so that he besought the Lord that he 
might go over, and see the good land ; but 
the Lord was wroth with him for the peo- 
ple's sakes, and would not hear him, Deut. 
iii. 23 — 16. And as God here spake, so it 
came to pass ; for Aaron died in mount Hor, 
Num. XX. 24 — 2S; and Moses on mount 
Nebo, after he had seen the land with his 
eyes, but might not go over thither, Deut. 
xxxiv. The Psalmist saith, 'Thou wast 
unto them a God that forgiveth, and taking 
vengeance on their practices,' Ps. xcix. 8. 
Moses the minister of the law, though he 
guided Israel through the wilderness, to the 
borders of the promised land, yet could not 
bring the people there-into , but Jesus ( or 
Joshua) his successor, gave them the posses- 
sion of it; to signify, that the law (which 
' worketb wrath,' Rom. iv. 15.) and the 
works thereof (by ' which no flesh shall be 
justified. Gal. ii. l(i.) cannot bring us into 
the kingdom of God, but Jesus Christ (who 
hath loved us, and given himself for us) giv- 
uth us by faith the inheritance of the hea- 

venly kingdom, Rom. iv. 24, 25; v. 1, 2. 
&c. Gal. ii. 16; iii. 43, 14. &c. 

Ver. 13. — Of meribah,] That is, of cow- 
tention or strife ; which the Gr. translateth, 
of contradiction ; so called for a memorial of 
their sin, and for a warning to ages follow- 
ing, not to do the like; whereupon it is said 
by David, ' Harden not your lieart, as in 
Meribah,' Ps. xcv. 8. The same name was 
given to the former place in Rephidim, Ex. 
xvii. 7. To distinguish between them, the 
scripture calleth this, ' Meribah of Kadesh, 
in the wilderness of Zin,' Deut. xxxii. 51. 
Contended with jehovah,] In that they 
contended with Moses, ver. 3. it is accounted 
as contention against the Lord himself, as 
he told them before, in Exod. xvi. 8. The 
Gr. translateth it, reviled before the Lord. 
He was sanctified,] Or, he sanctified him- 
self in them. Though Moses and Aaron 
sanctified him not by faith and obedience, 
yet was he sanctified among the people, by 
the work of his grace, in giving waters for 
their thirst. Or, he was sanctified in them, 
that is, in Moses and Aaron, as Thargum 
Jonathan explaineth it: for by punishing their 
rebellion, he sanctified himself in them ; as 
it is written, "That the heathen may know 
me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O 
God, before their eyes ;" where it is under- 
stood of punishment ; as it followeth, 'And 
I will plead against him with pestilence, and 
with blood, &c, thus will I magnify myself, 
and sanctify myself, and I will be known in 
the eyes of many nations,' Ezek. xxxviii. 16; 
xxii. 23. See also the annot. on Lev. x. 3. 
And thus Sol. Jarchi expoundeth it, '' in 
them, for Moses and Aaron died because of 
them ; for when the holy blessed God doth 
judgment, &c., he sanctifieth himself before 
his creatures ; and so it is said, ' Fearful art 
thou, O God, out of thy sanctuaries," ' Ps. 
Ixviii. 36. 

Ver. 14. — Edom,] The Edomites, the 
posterity of Esau, who was surnamed Edom, 
Gen. XXV. 30 ; xxxvi. 1. This message 
which Moses sent unto Edom, and all things 
about it following, were done by the direc- 
tion and word of God, as appeareth by Deut. 
ii. 1, 2, 4, &c. Thy brother, Israel,] 
So the whole nation is called, because Jacob, 
whose name was called Israel, Gen. xxxii. 
28, was natural brother to Esau: and this 
title of brotherhood continued long after, as 



Edom : thus saith thy brother Israel ; thou knowest all the travel 
tliat liath found us. '^ And our fathers went down into Egypt, 
and we have dwelt in Egypt many days, and tlie Egyptians did 
evil to us, and to our fathers. '^ And we cried out unto Jehovah, 
and he lieard our voice, and sent an angel, and hath brought us forth 
out of Egypt; and behold, we are in Kadesh, a city in the utter- 
most of thy border. " Let us pass, I pray thee, through thy 
country ; we will not pass through the fields, or tlirough the vine- 
yards, neither will we drink of the water of the well : we will go 
by the king's way, we will not turn aside, to the right hand or to 
the left, until we have passed thy border. '^ And Edom said unto 
him, TJiou slialt not pass through me, lest I come out against thee 
with the sword. '^ And the sons of Israel said unto him, We will 
go up by the liigh-way ; and if we drink of thy water, I and my 
cattle, then I will give the price of it ; only without doing any thing 
else, I will pass through on my feet. "^^ And he said, Thou shalt 

in Obad. ver. 10, 12. Also the law saith, 
' Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is 
thy brother,' Deut. xxiii. 7. Travel that 
HATH FOUND OS,] The wearisome molestation 
that hath befallen us. See the like phrase 
in Exod. xviii. 8 ; Neh. ix. 32. 

Ver. 15. — Into egypt,] The history 
hereof is in Gen. xlvi. Dwelt,] Heb. 
sitten, that is, continued ; in Gr. sojourned. 
Many days,] see Exod. xii. 40. Did 
EVIL,] Afflicted with rigorous bondage, and 
other cruelty, see Exod. i, &c. 

Ver. 16. — We cried out,] As is recorded 
in Exod. ii. 23. An Angel,] This was 
Christ: see Exod. iii. 2 ; xiv. 19 ; xxiii. 20, 
with the antiot. Some of the Hebs. under- 
stand it of Moses, because the prophets are 
called Angels or Messengers, as in Judg. ii. 
1 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15,16; Hag. i. 13. In 
kadesh, a city,] Or, by Kadesh, to wit, in 
the wilderness lying near, and having the 
name of Kadesh the city, Num. xxxiii. 36. 
The Chald. here and usually nameth it 

Ver. 17. — Through thy country,] Be- 
cause it was the nearest way: therefore when 
Edom refused to let them go through, they 
' turned and passed by the way of the wilder- 
ness of Moab,' Deut. ii. 8 ; Judg. xi. 17, 18. 
The vineyards,] To rob, or make spoil of 
any man's goods. Water of the well,] 
That is, of the wells, or, of any well : the 
Gr. translateth, of thy well: meaning either 
that they would not drink without paying for 
it, as in ver. 19 ; or, that they would drink 
of the rivers which were common, not of 
wells which were private, and digged of men 
for their own use. The king's way,] That 
is, the high way, which is common for all to 
Vol. II. 

pass by, ver. 19. So again in Num. xxi. 

Ver. 18 Not pass through me,] 

That is, through my country, ver. 17, as 
the Chald. explaineth it, through m,y border. 
See the like phrase in Deut. ii. 30; Rom. 
XV. 28. Lest i come,] it is a threatening 
which the Gr. explaineth, otherwise I will 
come : see the annot. on Gen. iii. 3. With 
the sword,] The Chald. expoundeth it, 
tvith them that kill with the sword ; the Gr. 
in war. It had been the duty of Edom, to 
have met their brother Israel ' with bread and 
with water in the way,' as God speaketh of the 
Moabites, Deut. xxiii. 4 ; but by this un. 
kindness the Lord would have his people to 
see, how all worldly friends and kindred after 
the flesh will fail them, yea, and oppose them, 
that their hope and strength may be in him 
alone, Mat. x. 21, 22. 

Ver. 19. • — The high way,] Or causey; 
that which before was called ' the king's way, 
ver. 17 ; the Gr. here translateth it, the 
mountain. The price,] Heb. the sale f 
which both Gr. and Chald. translate, the 
price. This was so commanded of God, 
• Ye shall buy meat of them for money, that 
ye may eat: and ye shall also buy water of 
them for money, that ye may drink. For 
Jehovah thy God hath blessed thee in all the 
woi-k of thine hand,' Deut. ii. 6, 7. With- 
out doing any thing else,] H( I), u'ithout a 
trord, that is, without any thing ; which the 
Chald. explaineth, any evil thing, (or word.) 

Ver. 20. — With much people,] Heb. 
with an heavy people ; which the Chald. ex- 
poundeth, a great army. The scripture con- 
firmeth this, as that which in 1 Kings iii. 9. 
is written ' an heavy (or weighty) people, is 



not pass tlirough : and Edom came out against him with much 
people, and with a strong hand, ^' And Edom refused to give 
Israel, to pass through his border ; and Israel turned aside from 

^^ And they journeyed from Kadesh, and the sons of Israel, even 
tlie whole congregation, came unto mount Hor. ^^ And Jehovah 
said unto Moses and Aaron, in mount Hor, by tlie border of the 
land of Edom, saying. ^* Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, 
for lie shall not enter into the land whicli I have given unto the 
sons of Israel, because ye rebelled against my mouth at the water 
of Meribah. 

'"^^ Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring them up unto 
mount Hor. *^ And strip iVaron of his garments, and put them 

in 2 Chron. i. 40, expounded 'a great peo- 
ple.' This coming out was to i-esist Israel by 
force aiid strong hand, for Edom was afraid 
of them, Deut. ii. 4, and trusted not their 

Ver. 21. — To GiVE,]That is,to suffer, or to 
(j/ive Israel\e&\eto pass, as the Chald. expound- 
eth it. Notwithstanding, as they went along 
their coast, the Edomites suflered them to buy 
Tictuals of them, as appeareth by Deut. ii. 
28, 29. Turned aside,] And went along 
through the wilderness, and compassed the 
land of Edom, Judg. xi. 18. ' For the 
Lord had charged them that they should not 
meddle with the sons of Esau, or their pos- 
session,' Deut. ii. 4, 5. So Thargum Jona- 
than here paraphrasetli, " they were com- 
manded by the word of (the God of) heaven, 
that they should not wage war with them, be- 
cause the time was not yet come, when he 
would execute vengeance on Edom by their 
hands." Thus Israel suffered patiently the 
unkindness of Edom, and obeyed the Lord 
herein, though the way which they after went 
through the wilderness, was very grievous 
unto them, and their souls were discouraged 
because of the same. Num. xxi. 4, 5. 

Ver. 22. — Mount hor,] A mount in the 
edge of the land of Edom, and the next rest- 
ing place which they came unto from Kadesh, 
Num. xxxiii. 37. The name itself signifieth 
a mount, for Har in Heb. is a mountain; and 
Sol, Jarchi here explaineth it, " a mountain 
upon a mountain : '' Thargum Jonathan nameth 
it, " mount Omanos." 

Ver. 24. — Gathered unto his people,] 
That is, die, and be buried, and his soul be 
amoDg ' the spirits of just men made perfect,' 
as Heb. xii. 23. Gathering signifieth here 
taking away by death, as in ver. 26, and in 
Isa. Ivii. 1, ' merciful men are gathered, that 
is, taken away:' and that which is gathered, 
is the spirit of man, as in Ps. civ. 20, thou 
gatherest their spirit, they give up the ghost, 

and retum unto their dust. The people 
mean the fathers deceased, as is spoken of 
David in Acts xiii. 36, and in Judg. ii. 20, 
all that generation were gathered unto their 
fathers. So his people here, are Aaron's 
godly forefathers: as David desireth the 
contrary, ' Gather not my soul with sinners,' 
Ps. xxvi. 9. See the annot. on Gen. xxv. 8. 
Rebelled against biy mouth,] That is, 
against my word, as the Chald. expoundeth 
it: the Gr. saith, ye provoked vie. See be- 
fore on ver. 12. 

Ver. 26. — Strip aaron,] Or, disarray 
Aaron of his garments, meaning of his priestly 
robes, the garments of holiness, which Moses 
had made him 'for honour; and for beautiful 
glory,' Exod. xxviii. 2, and which at his con- 
secration to the priesthood Moses had put 
upon him, Lev. viii. 7 — 9. So Thargum 
Jonathan expoundeth it," strip Aaron of the 
honourable garments of the priesthood." The 
taking off of these garments, and putting 
them upon Eleazar, signified the taking away 
of his office and dignity, and giving the same 
to another : as by a like similitude God said 
unto Shebna the treasurer, ' I will drive thee 
from thy station, and from thy state shall he 
pull thee down. And it shall be in that day, 
that I will call my servant Eliakim, the son 
of Hilkiah, and I will clothe him with thy 
robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and 
I will commit thy government unto his hand, 
and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem,' &c. Is. xxii. 15, 19 — 21. As 
by Aaron's offering for his own sins first, and 
then for the sins of the people, Lev, xvi. 6, 
11, 15, the Holy Spirit showed the inability of 
the legal priesthood (in comparison with 
Christ's) to reconcile men unto God, Heb. 
vii. 26. — 28, so by this disarraying and 
death of Aaron, he signified the disanulling 
of that priesthood, ' for tlie weakness and un- 
profitableness thereof,' Heb. vii. 11 — 18. 
Wlien therefore the same hands of Moses, 



ViDon Eleazar his son, and Aaron shall be gathered and sliall die 
tliere. '^' And Moses did as Jehovah commanded, and they went 
lip into mount Hor, in tlie eyes of all the congregation. 

^^ And Moses stripped Aaron of liis garments, and put them upon 

nhich had put on the garments, did pull 
tlu'ni off, and now at this time for the sin 
wliich the high priest had committed, ver. 
12, Deut. xxxii. 50, 51, they and all the 
people were taught to expect a better priest- 
iiood of the Son of God, ' who is perfected for 
evermore,' Heb. vii. 28. Eleazar his 
SON,] This was a comfort to all, especially to 
Aaron the father, that the priestly function 
ended not with the death of the priest, but 
was derived to his posterity, and so continued 
through all ages, till Christ came, who is ' a 
priest for ever, after the order of Melchise- 
tlek the true Eleazar, that is, the help of 
God ; who is made, not after the law of a car- 
nal commandment, Imt after the power of an 
endless life,' Heb. vii. 11, 16. Wherefore 
to signify the continuance of his grace and 
love to the church, God promised that ' the 
priests the Levites should not want a man 
before him, to olFer burnt-ofl'erings and to 
kindle meat-offerings, and to do sacrifice con- 
tinually,' Jer. xxxiii. 18. So Aaron did be- 
hold in the clothing of his son, a type of his 
own, and of all Israel's salvation, that his 
death might not be bitter unto him, but he 
might depart in peace, because his eyes did 
see (thougn as afar ofl) the salvation of God, 
as Luke ii. 29, 30. Shall be gathered,] 
Unto his peoples, ver. 24. And shall die,] 
He that before in the work of his priesthood, 
' made atonement for the people, and stood 
between the dead and the living, and the 
plague was stayed,' Num. xvi. 47, 48, now 
dieth himself, for his own sin: an evident 
demonstration of the insufficiency of the 
Levitical priesthood. Whereupon the apostle 
teacheth, that ' they were many priests, be- 
cause they were not suflered to continue by 
reason of death. But Christ, because he 
continueth ever, hath a priesthood which 
passeth not from one to another: wherefore 
he is able also to save them to the uttermost, 
that come unto God by him, seeing he ever 
liveth to make intercession for them,' Heb. 
vii. 23—25. 

Ver. 28. — Moses stripped aaron,] The 
actions of Moses signified the effects of his 
ministry and law, 2 Cor. iii. 13. Whereas 
therefore he unvested Aaron, by reason of 
sin and death which was to ensue, it showed 
that no priest who was a siiuiei", and under 
the power of death, could satisfy the justice 
of the law, and avoid the wrath of God: so 
the legal priesthood now might say, ' He 
hath stript me of my gloiy, and taken the 

crown from my head,' Job xix. 9. Again in 
putting the priestly garments upon Eleazar 
(who was before this, ' the prince of the 
princes of the Levites,' Num. iii. 32,) he 
signified, that ' the law had a shadow of good 
things to come, Heb. x. I, and therefore the 
blessings figured thereby, should not be frus- 
trated, but continue under hope by succes- 
sion, till He should come unto whom the right 
of the high priesthood belonged, even 'the 
branch that should build the temple of the 
Lord, and should bear the glory, and sit and rule 
upon his throne, and shoiild be a priest upon his 
throne, and the counsel of peace be between 
them both,' Zach. vi. 12, 13; Jer. xxxiii. 
18. Thus the law was a ' schoolmaster unto 
Christ,' Gal. iii. 24. It may also be observ- 
ed, how among the Gentiles, their prophets 
and prophetesses, who did wear some orna- 
ments and ensigns of their dignity, used 
solemnly to put them off before their death, 
as resigning them up unto God, and judging 
it an unmeet thing to die in them, as appear- 
eth by the example of Cassandra, in the 
Greek poet .^schylus, and of Amphiareus 
the prophet, in Statius Papinius, Thebaid. 7. 
ToF OF THE MOUNTAIN,] Things that were 
very memorable and significative, are often 
noted in scripture to be done on mountains, 
as being conspicuous, remarkable, and imply- 
ing high and heavenly mysteries. So the 
ark of Noah rested on mount Ararat, Gen. 
viii. 4. Abraham sacrificed his son on 
mount Moriah, Gen. xxii. 2, &c. ; as the 
Son of God was sacrificed on Calvary, Luke 
xxiii. 33. The law of Moses was given 
upon mount Sinai, Exod. xix.; the law of 
Christ came from mount Zion, Mic. iv. 1, 2; 
and on a mountaiii he preached the gospel, 
and expounded the law. Matt. v. 1, &c. 
Ezekiel in a vision was showed the city called 
' The Lord is there, upon a very high moun- 
tain,' Ezek. xlii. &c.; xlviii. 3.>. John was 
also showed the same city upon a great high 
mountain. Rev. xxi. 10, &c. Moses him- 
self on the mountain of Nebo, viewed all the 
promised land, and died there, Deut. xxxiv. 
1 — 5, and was with Christ when he was 
transfigured, and spake of his death, upon an 
high mountain. Matt. xvii. 1—3; Luke ix. 
30, 31, and now he was with Aaron at his 
death, and translation of the priesthood from 
him mito Eleazar, where he also beheld the 
Levitical priesthood afar off, and so the trans- 
hition of it, and of the law thereof, unto 
Christ, whose day he desired, Heb. xi. 12. 



Eleazar his son ; and Aaron died there in the top of the mountain : 
and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. ^^And all 
the congregation saw that Aaron had given up the ghost : and 
they wept for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel. 

WEPT,] That is, they mourned. For public 
persons, the whole congregation mourned, as 
here for Aaron, so for the death of his sons, 
Lev. X. 6, and for the death of Moses, Deut. 
xxxiv. 8. Thirty days,] See the annot. on 
Gen. 1. 10. Mourning for the dead is hon- 
ourable, and here the people mourn for Aaron 
thirty days, whom they had dishonoured by 
rebelling against him forty years. So long 
also they wept for Moses, Deut. xxxiv. 8, 
and it is the lot of many of the servants of 
God, to have more honour after their death, 
than in their life. As Mary the sister, the 
prophetess of Israel, died in the first mouth, 
ver. 1, so Aaron the high priest died ' in the 
first day of the fifth month, in the fortieth 
year after their coming out of Egypt, vrhen 
he was 123 years old,' Num. xxxiii. 38, 39. 
His burial also (though here omitted) is 
spoken of in Deut. x. 6. 

Ver. 29. — Saw that aaron had given 
UP THE GHOST,] seeing is here ior perceivitig 
by knowledge and understanding, as by the 
relation of Moses and Eleazar, as also that 
Aaron came not down with them. ' So 
Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, 
when he heard thereof,' Gen. xlii. 1 ; Acts 
vii. 12. The people ' saw the voices,' Exod. 
XX. 18, and sundry the like. Here also they 
might see the hand of God, chastising their 
sin upon Aaron, who died not only for his 
own transgression, but for their sakes,' as 
Moses after speaketh of himself, ' The Lord 
was wroth with me for your sakes,' Deut. iii. 
26, yet in beholding his priesthood continued 
in his son, they might also behold God's 
mercy towards them in Christ, who should 
perfectly reconcile them unto God, when the 
priesthood of the law, which now began to 
die away, should utterly be abolished. They 


1. The Canaanites fight with Israel, and take some of them captive ; 
hut Israel hy a vow, obtain help of God, and destroy them and their 
cities. 4. The people murmuring because of their wants in the way, 
are plagued rvith fiery serpents. 7. They repenting, are healed by a 
brazen serpent. 10. Sundry journeys of the Israelites. 16. Their 
song at Beer, for water, which God gave them. 21. They requesting 
passage through the Amorites^ country are denied it. 24. Israel van- 
quisheth them, and Sihon their Tcing, and possesseth their cities. 27. 
Proverbs or prophecies of Sihon' s overthrow. 33. Og, king of Bashan, 
fighteth against Israel^ and is also vanquished, and Israel possesseth 
his land. 

^ And the Canaanite the kinj 
south, heard that Israel came the 

Ver. 1. — King of arad,] Arad seemeth 
to be the name of the city where the king 
reigned, as in Jos. xii. 14, and so the Chald. 
here explain it. In the south,] The south 
part in the land of Canaan, Num. xxxiii. 40. 
The way of the spies,] Or, the way of 
Atharim, as the Gr. version retaineth the 
Heb. name, as proper; and it might be a way 
so called, and well known in that time. But 
the Chald. translateth it, the way of the 
spies; meaning that they came towards 
Canaan, after they had been turned back to- 

1 of Arad, which dwelt in the 
way of the spies : and he fought 

wards the Red sea, Num. xiv. 25, and had 
been at Ezion-gaber, Num. xxxiii. 35, they 
returned towards Canaan again, along by 
Edom's coast, to come unto the land which 
the spies had searched, Num. xiii. A cap- 
tivity,] That is, some captives, or prisoners. 
So captivity is used for captives, or people 
taken in war, Num. xxxi. 12; Judg. v. 12; 

2 Chron. xxviii. 5, and often: as 'poverty,' 
for a company of poor people, 2 Kings xxiv. 
10; and 'spoil,' for spoiled people, Amos v. 
9 ; 'thanksgivings,' for a company of th&rks- 



against Israel, and took captive of tliem, a captivity : ' And Is- 
rael vowed a vow unto Jehovah, and said. If giving thoa wilt 
give this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their 
cities. ^ And Jehovah liearkened to the voice of Israel, and gave 
up the Canaanite, and they utterly destroyed them and tlieir 
cities : and he called the name of the place Hormah. 

* And they journeyed from mount Hor, by the way of the red 

givers, Neh. xii. 31 ; and many the like. 
The Canaanites having heard of the over- 
throw which was given Israel, thirty-eight 
years before. Num. xiv. 43; and of the hand 
of God against them so long in the wilder- 
ness, were hardened and emboldened to en- 
counter them now when they heard again of 
their coming; and Satan endeavoured hereby 
to discourage Israel, that as their fathers 
through unbelief being afraid, entered not 
into the promised land, Deut. i. 27, 32, 35; 
so the children also might be deprived. 
And God, for a chastisement of their sins, and 
for the trial of their faith, sufTereth the enemy 
at first to prevail, that his people might know 
that they should not conquer the land by their 
own strength or for their own worthiness, 
Ps. xliv. 3, 4; Deut. ix. 4. 

Ver. 2. — Vowed a vow,] calling upon 
God for help, and religiously promising to 
devote unto him their enemies and all their 
substance. See the annot. on Gen. xxviii. 
20. If giving thou wilt give,] That is, 
if thou wilt indeed give ; and it implieth a 
prayer, which often is uttered after this man- 
ner: as, ' Jabez called on the God of Israel, 
saying. If blessing thou wilt bless me,' &c. 
1 Chron. iv. 10. Utterly destroy,] Or, 
devote ; in Gr. anathematize ; things devoted 
after this manner, the persons were to die, 
their goods confiscate to the Lord, Lev. xxvii. 
28, 29. So when Jericho was devoted, the 
people and beasts were killed, the city burnt, 
the goods carried into the Lord's treasury, 
Jos. vi. 17, 19, 21, 24. 

Ver. 3. — Hearkened to the voice,] 
That is, as the Chald. explaineth it, received 
the prayer of Israel. Gave up the Can- 
aanite,] To wit, into their hand, as the Gr. 
here repeateth from ver. 2. They utterly 
destroyed] Heb. he utterly destroyed or de- 
voted, speaking of Israel, as of one body. 
But how could they, being so far off in the 
wilderness, destroy their cities, lying within 
Canaan, Num. xxxiii. 40 ; into which they 
came not, till after Moses' death? It seem- 
etli the accomplishment of this vow was per- 
formed long after, when tliey were come into 
the land. For the king of Arad is reckoned 
for one of those that Joshua conquered, Jos. 
xii. 14. See also Judg. i. 16, 17. They 
now conquered the Cauaanite's army that 

came out against them, and devoted the 
spoils which they took; and when their cities 
came into their possession, they utterly de- 
stroyed and devoted them, and so paid their 
vow, which now they promised. He 
CALLED,] Or, they called, meaning Israel, 
unless it be applied in special to Moses. 
The Gr. translateth, they called. Hor- 
mah,] Or Chorviah; in Gr. Anathema, that 
is, devotement, or utter destruction. By this 
name they both set up a memorial of God's 
mercy, who gave their enemies into their 
hand ; and of their duty, to keep the vow 
which they had promised. 

Ver. 4. — To compass the land,] Be- 
cause Edom had denied them passage through 
it, Num. XX. 18, 21, by reason whereof their 
travel was increased. Soul of the people 
WAS shortened,] Or, zims straitened, that 
is, was grieved, or discouraged. This word, 
when it is applied to the hand, signifieth in- 
ability, as in Num. xi. 23 ; Isa. xxxvii. 27; 
2 Kings xix. 26 , unto the soul (as in this 
place) it meaneth grief, vexation, or discom- 
fort ; so in Judg. xvi. 16. Samson's soul 
was shortened, (that is, vexed) unto death ; 
and in Judg. x. 16, the Lord's soul was 
shortened, (that is, grieved) for tho misery of 
Israel: and sometimes it is with a kind of 
lothing, as in Zach. xi. 8 ; ' my soul was 
shortened for them,' that is, lothcd them. 
A like phrase is of the shortness of the spi- 
rit, which also signifieth anguish, trouble 
and vexation, as in Exod. vi. 6 ; Job xxi. 
4 ; and want of power, as in Mic. ii. 7. The 
Gr. here translateth, the people ufcre feeble- 
minded, or of small soul, or courage. Be- 
cause of the way,] Or, in the way: but 
in often noteth the cause of a thing ; as, the 
Lord's ' soul was grieved in (that is, for, or 
because of) the misery of Israel,' Judg. x. 
16, or according to the like phrase in Zach. 
xi. 8 ; their soul lothed the way, both for 
the longsomeness of it, and for the many 
wants and troubles that they found therein, 
as in ver. 5- So the Gr. interpreteth M,for 
the ivay : and Sol. Jarchi in like manner, 
saying, " Because it was heard unto them, 
they said, we were now near to enter into 
the land, and we turned backward; so our fa- 
thers turned, and lingered thirty-nine years 
unto this day ; therefore their soul was short- 


N U M B E R S. 

sea, to compass tlie land of Edpm j and the soul of the people 
was sliortened, because of the way. ^ And the people spake 
against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us 
up out of Kgypt, to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, 
neither is there water, and our soul lotheth this light bread. 
" And Jehovah sent among the people fiery serpents, and tliey bit 

died for the afflictions of the way." This way 
into the land of promise, figured the way into 
the kingdom of God, through the wilderness 
of this world, ' the wilderness of peoples,' as 
in Ezek. xx. 35 ; into which kingdom we 
cannot enter, but 'through much tribulation,' 
Acts xiv. 22 ; ' because the gate is strait, 
and the way is narrow that leadeth unto life,' 
Mat. vii. 14; and we are to go 'through 
fire and through water,' Ps. Ixvi. 12. The 
discouragement of this people, showeth hu- 
man frailty and infirmity, through want 
of faith and patience: for as they erred in 
heart, and knew not the Lord's ways, Ps. 
xcv. 10, so many, ' when tribulation or per- 
secution ariseth because of the word, by and 
by they are offended,' Mat. xiii. 21. 

Ver. 5. — Spake against god,] The 
Chald. expoundeth it, mtirmured before the 
Lord, and contended with Moses, and so in 
ver. 7. This was their wonted carriage, in 
their tentations: see Exod. xiv. 11 ; xv. 24 ; 
xvi. 2, 3 ; xvii. 2, 3 ; Num. xi. 1, 4, 5 ; 
xvi. 13, 14; XX. 3 — 5. By God here is 
meant -Christ, the Angel of God's face or 
presence, in whom his name was, Exod. xxiii. 
20, 21 ; Isa. Ixiii. 9 ; as the apostle openeth 
this place, saying, • Neither let us tempt 
Christ, as some of them also tempted, and 
were destroyed of serpents,' 1 Cor. x. 9. 
This light bread,] Meaning manna; as 
the Chald. explaineth it, this manna the 
light meat : in Gr. this vain (or empty) bread. 
So they call it, either because it was light of 
digestion, that they felt it not in their hot 
stomachs ; or in contempt, counting it base 
and vile, in comparison with other meats: 
See Num. xi. 5, 6, 8. This manna being 
rained upon them from heaven, Ps. Ixxviii. 
23, 24, was both corporal and spiritual food 
unto them, a figure of the hidden manna, 
which Christ feedeth his people with, unto 
life eternal. Rev. ii. 17; Job vi. 48 — 51. 
So the contempt thereof, was the contempt 
of Christ and his grace: and into this sin do 
all they fall, that lothe and leave Christ and 
his gospel, for the momentary pleasures of 
this life ; ' the enemies of the cross of Christ, 
whose end is destruction, whose God is their 
belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who 
mind earthly things,' Phil. iii. 18, 19. 

Ver. 6. — Fiery serpents,] Or, burning 
serpents, as the Chald. translateth: the Gr. 
in this place calleth them deadly (or killing) 

serpents. In the Heb. they are named sera- 
phim, that is, burners, because when they 
bite a man, he bnrneth with extreme heat 
and thirst, it may be also in respect of their 
colour, for some serpents are of a fiery colour; 
Nicander in Theriacis. Of the Heb. saraph, 
the Gr. by changing the order of letters, 
have borrowed the name prester, which is a 
kind of venomous serpent, called also dipsas, 
and causon; of which it is reported, that who 
is stung therewith, he hath such a vehement 
thirst, "that he cannot be satisfied, but is 
tormented with it continually, and though he 
drink never so largely, yet is he presently as 
thirsty as before. And again, that the bit- 
ings of these serpents were left of the most 
ancient (physicians) as altogether incurable," 
Dioscorid. lib. vi. cap. 38, 40. They are 
said to be like unto vipers, but their bit- 
ing more hurtful ; for the heart of a man is 
inflamed with their biting, and his lips are 
parched and dry with thirst, as Nicander 
writeth of them. Sol. Jarchi saith, " they 
are called seraphim (burners) because they 
burned men with the venom of their teeth." 
The prophet Isaiah mentioneth < the flying 
fiery serpent,' in Is. xiv. 29; xxx. 6, where- 
by it seemeth to be a kind of serpent with 
wings. With these and other serpents, the 
wilderness through which they went, did 
abound, as Moses showeth in Deut. viii. 16, 
but God, who guided them through it, kept 
them from hurting his people, till now for 
their sin, he gave them power to bite and 
kill them: as he saith elsewhere, 'I will 
command the serpent, and he shall bite 
them,' Amos iii. 9. Here also there was a re- 
aembrance of the first sin that came into 
mankind by the serpent, and the death that 
followed thereupon. Gen. iii. ; for as the 
venom of the serpents killeth the body, so 
the venom of satan, which is sin, killeth jjoth 
body and soul: and as the serpent biting any 
one part, the venom and contagion spreadeth 
over all the body, and killeth the whole man, 
so the poison cf sin, which entered by one 
man, hath infected and killed all the lump of 
mankind, Rom. v. 15 — 18. Died,] The 
judgments of God are both inevitable and in- 
curable of man, Jer. viii. 17; Amos v. 19 — 
23; ix. 1—3; Deut. xxviii. 27. And as 
no salve or medicine could heal the bodies of 
those that were bitten: so can no work of 
man cure the biting of that old serpent or 



the people, and much people of Israel died. ' And the people came 
to Moses, and said, We have sinned: for we have spoken against 
Jehovah, and against thee ; Pray unto Jehovah, tliat he take away 
the serpents from us ; and Moses prayed for the people. * And 

sting of sin, but the venom thereof rageth 
and reigneth, tormenting the conscience unto 
death, Rom. v. 12, 14,21; iii. 20. 

Ver. 7. — We have sinned,] The afflic- 
tions which God Jayeth upon his people, are a 
mean (through his grace) to bring them to the 
sight and acknowledgment of their sins, and 
seeking unto him, as it is said, ' When he 
slew them, then they sought him: and they 
returned, and inquired early after God,' Vs. 
Ixxviii. 34. Yea, the wicked are often forced 
hereby, to confess and seek help of God, as 
did Pharaoh, Exod. ix. 27, 2S. That he 
TAKE AWAY,] Or, and let him take aioay the 
serpetits; in Heb. the serpent, put for the 
multitude of them; as in Exod. viii. 6, the 
frog, is for frogs, and in Exod. viii. 17, the 
louse, for lice, and many the like. They de- 
sire the removing of the punishment, after 
repentance and confession of sin; without 
which, plagues are not only continued, but 
increased, Lev. xxvi. 21, 23, 24, 28. How- 
beit God did not presently take away the ser- 
pents, but gave a remedy for such as were 
bitten, ver. 8, 9. Moses prayed,] As at 
other time?, so still he showeth himself an 
example of meekness, unmindfulness of in- 
juries, and readiness to forgive the wrongs 
done unto him. Thus Samuel also did in 
like case, and said, ' Far be it that I should 
sin against the Lord, in ceasing to pray for 
you; but I will teach you tlie good and the 
right way,' 1 Sam. xii. 19, 23 

Vek. 8. — Make thee a fiery serpent,] 
Or, a burning serpent, Heb. sarciph, which 
the Gr. translateth, a serpeyit: hereby is 
meant, ' a serpent of brass,' ver. 9, a simili- 
tude of one of those fiery serpents, a figure 
of Christ, as himself hath opened it, saying, 
' As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilder- 
ness, even so must the Son of man be lifted 
up,' John iii. 14. For as this had the simi- 
litude of a serpent, but had no venom ; so 
Christ had the similitude of a sinful man, 
'yet without sin,' Heb. iv. 15. Upon a 
POLE,] Ox, for a sign; the original wm signi- 
fieth an ensign or banner lifted up on high, 
and is here by the Gr. and Chald. translated 
a sign, meaning a pole or perch, which is 
visually set up for a sign or signification of 
something. And hereupon our Saviour useth 
the word of ' lifting up,' or ' setting on high,' 
in John iii. 14, meaning of his cross, upon 
which he was lifted up at his death, or of the 
preaching of him crucified: as elsewhere he 
likewise saith, ' When ye have lifted up the 

Son of man,' John viii. 28 ; and again, when 
he signified ' what death he should die,' he 
said, 'And I, if I be lifted up from the 
earth, will draw all men unto me,' John xii. 
32. So the setting of this serpent on a pole 
or sign, was a figure unto them of Christ to 
be crucified, and preached unto the world for 
salvation. When he looketh upon it, 
shall live,] Or, then he shall see (or louU 
upon) it, and he shall live; so implying both 
a commandment and a promise. And this 
was the reason of the putting it upon a pole, 
that the people which were far off might pre- 
sently see it, every man from his place. As 
the serpent lifted up, was a figure of Christ; 
so the looking upon it signified faith in 
Christ, as it is written, ' At that day shall a 
man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall 
have respect to the holy One of Israel,' Is. 
xvii. 7. And thus our Lord himself ex- 
poundeth it, ' As Moses lifted up the serpent 
in the wilderness, even so must the Son of 
man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth 
in him should not perish, but have eternal 
life,' John iii. 14, 15. Likewise among the 
Hebs. Thargum Jonathan explaineth it thus, 
" He shall look upon it and live, if his heart 
be attent unto the name of the word of the 
Lord." And Sol. Jarchi saith, " when they 
submitted their heart unto their Father which 
is in heaven, they were healed, otherwise 
they perished." Shall live,] That is, 
shall be healed, and have his life and health 
continued; as in Is. xxxviii. 21, 'he shall 
live,' that is, shall recover, or be cured. 
And by this recovery and continuance of na- 
tural life, was figured life eternal to all that 
believed in Christ, John iii. 15, who is 'the 
root of Jesse, standing up for an ensign of the 
people, whereunto the nations should seek,' 
Is. xi. 10. And the work of grace was 
hereby lively signified. As they that were 
bitten with these serpents, if they looked 
upon their sores, and not to the sign erected 
of God, they died: so they that are bitten 
with sin, if they fix their eyes thereon, 
though with repentance, and look not unto 
Christ, do despair and die, Matt, xxvii. 3 — 
5. As they, if they sought to surgeons or 
physicians, or used salves or medicines of 
their own or others, perished: so whosoever 
seeketh to any but Christ, or endcavoureth by 
his own works or sutlerings to have life with 
God, dieth in his sins, John viii. 24; Gal. 
V. 4. As the brazen serpent was an unlikely 
thing in human reason, to heal such deadly 


Jehovah said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and put it 
upon a pole ; and it sliall be, that every one that is bitten, when 
he looketh upon it, shall live. 

^ And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole ; 
and it was, that if a serpent had bitten a man, when he beheld the 
serpent of brass, he lived. 

" And tlie sons of Israel journeyed, and encamped in Oboth. 
^' And tliey journeyed from Oboth, and encamped in Ije Abarim, 
in the wilderness whicli is before Moab, toward the sun-rismg. 

wounds: so 'Christ crucified, is unto the 
Jews a stumbling-block, and unto the Greeks 
foolishness; but unto them which are called, 
both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of 
God, and the wisdom of God,' 1 Cor. i. 23, 


rnetal, besides that it is of a fiery colour, 
Ezek. i. 7 ; Rev. i. 15, and so might resem- 
ble the colour of the serpents; it is also 
strong and durable, and in that respect might 
figure out the strength of Christ, who was 
enabled by the power of the Godhead to en- 
dure and overcome all his tribulations, other- 
wise than any man could: whereupon Job 
saith in his sorrows, ' Is my strength the 
strength of stones? or is my flesh of brass?' 
Job vi. 12. But unto the prophet Christ 
showed himself ' a man, whose appearance 
was like the appearance of brass,' Ezek. xl. 
3. Upon a pole,"] Or, for a sign, as in ver. 
8. This was the work of Moses ; whereupon 
it is said, ' As Moses lifted up the serpent in 
the wilderness,' John iii. 14, and it signified 
how 'Moses' law was our schoolmaster unto 
Christ, that we might be justified by faith,' 
Gal. iii. 24, by his writings, Christ is lifted 
up as an ensign unto all peoples, for he wrote 
of Christ, John v. 46, and by the rigour of 
his law, which urgeth satisfaction for sin, 
and curseth all transgressors, Christ was 
lifted up upon the cross, ' God sending his 
own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh,' who 
by his sacrifice ' for sin, condemned sin in 
the flesh,' Gal. iii. 10 — 13; Rom, viii. 3. 
If a serpent,] Or, as the Gr. translateth, 
when a serpent bit a man; so that the serpents 
were not taken away from the people, as they 
desired, in ver. 7, but continued still as a 
chastisement, to nurture the disobedient 
people: only God provideth a remedy to heal 
the repentant and believing sinners. Where- 
fore also the brazen serpent was not left 
standing in that place, but they carried it 
along through the wilderness, even into the 
land of Canaan, where it continued many 
years, 2 Kings xviii. 4. Such is the work of 
grace towards us in this life, for neither are 
our sins utterly taken from us in this life, but 

we have forgiveness of them by the blood of 
Christ, 1 John i. 7 — 10; Jam. iii. 2: neither 
are our tentations and afflictions wholly re- 
moved, though we beseech the Lord there- 
fore; but we receive grace from him, which 
is sufficient for us, and his ' strength is made 
perfect in weakness,' 2 Cor. xii. 7 — 9. 
When he beheld,] Or, and if he beheld 
(or looked unto) the serpent of brass, then he 
lived: where Thargum Jonathan addeth again, 
" and directed his heart to the name of the 
word of the Lord, then he lived." And the 
author of the Book of Wisdom, speaking of 
this serpent, (which he calleth ' a sign of sal- 
vation') saith, 'He that turned himself to- 
wards it, was not saved by the thing that he 
saw, but by thee [O God] that art the 
Saviour of all,' Wisdom xvi. 6, 7. This 
showeth the truth of God's promises and 
signs, that they give life to them that obey 
and believe in Christ: and when God pro- 
miseth to pour out the Spirit of grace upon 
his people, it is with these words, • They 
shall look upon me whom they have pierced,' 
Zech. xii. lO. Thus 'the just shall live by 
his faith,' Hab. ii. 4, and he that heareth the 
word of Christ, and believeth on him that 
sent him, ' hath everlasting life, and shall not 
come into condemnation, but is passed from 
death unto life,' John v. 24. ' For the 
wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is 
eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord,' 
Rom. vi. 23. 

Ver. 10. — Oboth,] Of these places and 
journeys, see Num. xxxiii., where they are 
reckoned in order; for here some are named, 
and others omitted. 

Ver. 11. — Before Moab,] Before the 
Moabites' country. The posterity of Moab 
and Ammon the sons of Lot, Gen. xix. 36 
— 38, had vanquished the giants (called 
Emims and Zamzummims) which before 
dwelt in those parts, and succeeded them, 
and dwelt in their stead, Deut. ii. 10, II, 
20, 21. Through the wilderness, along by 
their coasts did Israel pass, but were forbid, 
den to war with them, or with the Edomites, 
Deut. ii. 5, 9, 19. 



'- From thence they journeyed, and camped in the valley of Zared. 
'■' From thence they journeyed, and camped on the other side of 
Arnon, which is in the wilderness, wliich cometli out of tlie border 
of tlie xVmorite ; for Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab 
and the Amorite. 

'* Wherefore it is said in the book of tlie wars of Jehovah, Va- 
Iieb in a whirlwind, and the brooks of Arnon. '^ xAnd the stream 
of tlie brooks whicli declineth to the situation of Ar, and leanetli 
upon the border of Moab. "^ And from tlience to Beer, that is, the 

usually signifieth whirlivbid or storm) to iio 

Ver. 12. — The valley of zared,] Or, 
the bourn of Zared, or Zcrcd: whicli word 
bourn (as also the Ileb. nachal) is both a val- 
ley, and a river running through a valley: 
and so this Zared was a river or brook also, 
over which Israel passed: see Deut. ii. 13. 

Ver. 14 It is said,] Heb. it shall be 

said. The time to come, notelh a continued 
or common saying; so he speaketh as of a 
known speech. The book,] Or, the narra- 
tion, (the rehearsal) of the tears <f Jehovah: 
what book this was, is uncertain; whether 
some writing of Israel, not now extant; or. 
some writing of the Amorites, wliich con- 
tained songs and triumphs of their king Si- 
hon's victories; out of which Moses may 
cite this testimony, as Paul sometimes doth 
out of heathen poets. Acts xvii. 28; Tit. i. 
12. Vaheb,] This is thought by some to be 
the name of the king of Moab, whom Sihon 
vanquished, ver. 2'J, iiy others, to be the 
name of a place or city. The Gr. interpreters 
here mistaking a Z T for a V "i (which iu 
Heb. are one like another) read it Zoob, and 
give tliis sense, " Therefore it is said in the 
book, The war of tlie Lord hath set on fire 
(ot burned) Zuub, and the brooks of Arnon." 
The Cliald. paraplirast (whom others also 
follow) taketh it for no proper name, l)ut ex- 
poundeth it thus: " The wars that the Lord 
did at tlie lied sea, and the mighty works at 
the brooks of Arnon." L\ a u-hirlwind,] 
Or, zvith a tempest; understand, the Lord (by 
the war of Sihon against Moab) hath con- 
sumed Fuhcb in a ivhirliuind, or with a tem- 
pest. So wars are often set forth by the simili- 
tude of fire, tempest, whirlwinds, and the 
like; as, ' I will kindle a fire in the wall of 
Rahab, and it shall devour the palaces there- 
of, with shouting in the day of battle, with a 
tempest in the liny of the whirlwind,' Amos 
i. 14, and. Thou shalt be visited of the Lord 
of hosts with thunder, &c. with whirlwind 
and tempest, and the flame of devunring fire,' 
Is. xxix. (), and again, ' The Loid will come 
with fire, and with chariots like a whirlwind,' 
Is. Ixvi. 15. So in Nah. i. 3; Is. v. 28; 
.ler. iv. 13. And thus the Gr. explaineth 
it, "The war of the Lord hath set Zoob on 
fire." Some take the Heb. suphah (which 
Vol. 11. 

here the name of a place, the same that is 
called sur)h in Deut. i. 1, which also is the 
name of tlie Red sea, as is noted on Exod. x. 
y, so the Chald. inteipreteth it, the Red sea. 
A.ND THE BROOKS,] Or, the bourns (j/" Arnon, 
to wit, the Lord hath consumed, or (as in 
ver. 28,) the flame hath consumed the bourns 
of Arnon. It may also be expounded, " The 
Lord warred with Vaheb in a whirlwind, and 
with the brooks of Arnon." Moses intend- 
eth by this testimony, to show how the Is- 
raelites had light to this country: for it being 
sometimes Moab's land, with whom Israel 
might not meddle, Deut. ii. 9, the Lord had 
before Israel's coming, stirred up the spirit 
of Sihon king of the Amorites, to fight 
against the king of Moab, and to take this 
part of his country from him, as is after 
mentioned, Num. xxi. 28, 29. Then Israel 
coming, and being commanded of God to war 
against the Amorites, Deut. ii. 24, took it 
again out of Sihon's hand, and so became law- 
ful possessor of this land by conquest. This 
right Jephthah defended for Israel, when 
after many years the Ammonites (brethren 
to Moab) required these lands to be restored 
again: see the story in Judg. xi. 12, 13 — 
27. For the Moabites and Ammonites werj 
neighbours; and Chazkuni noteth on Num. 
xxi. 23, that, '' As Sihon had takeii the land 
of Moab on the south side, from Jordan unto 
the river Anion; so lie had taken on the 
north-side, the land of the sons of Ammon 
luito Jabbok: and for this cause it was un- 
lawful for Israel (to possess it:) and this is 
that which our doctors have said, Moab and 
Ammon were purified by Sihon." 

Ver. 15. — And the stream,] Or, the 
shedding the efftision of the broohs. This 
ver. scemeth to be a continuance of the lormer 
testimony out of the book of the warsof Jehovai), 
to show the limits and bounds of this country 
which Sihon had won, and how it was distin- 
guished from Moab's land. Ar,] A city of 
Moab, ver. 28, called in Gr. Er. Leanetii 
ui'ON the border,] That is, as the Gr. ex- 
plaineth it, lieth by, or is adjoined to the bor- 
ders of Moab. 

Ver. 16. — From thence to beer,] Or, 



well whereof Jeliovah said unto Moses, Gather together the people, 
and I will give them water, 

" Then sang Israel this song. Spring up, O well ; answer ye unto 
it. '^ The well, the princes digged it, the nobles of the people 

to the ivell ; for so Beer signifieth ; and the 
Gr. translateth it, from thence the well (or 
pit.) Some understand here, from thence 
they journeyed to Beer: the Chald. paraphrast 
expoundeth it, " from thence was given unto 
them the well." Of this Beer there is no 
mention among the journeys of the people in 
Num. xxxiii. I will give them w.iter,] 
The Gr. addeth, 2vater to drink. The Lord 
who before had suffered the people to thirst, 
and gave them water when they murmured 
against him, Exod. xvii. ; Num. xx. ; doth 
now of his grace give them a well of water, 
when they murmured not, to teach them tc 
depend upon him by faith, for ' they that 
seek the Lord shall not want any good thing,' 
Ps. xxxiv. 10. Wherefore the people were 
to be assembled, that all might behold the 
goodness of God, and sing his praise. And 
this water of the well had also a like spiri- 
tual signification, as the waters of the rock ; 
fof as ' the rock was Christ,' 1 Cor. x. 4; 
so the well figured him, who is ' the fountain 
of the gardens, the well of living waters.' 
Song iv. 15 ; and the waters signified ' the 
Spirit, which they that believe on him shall 
receive,' John vii. 3S, 39; Is. xliv. 3; of 
which water, ' whosoever drinketh, shall 
never thirst, but the water that Christ shall 
give him, shall be in him a well of water 
springing up into everlasting life,' John iv, 
14. This grace he promised of old to hia 
people, saying, ' the poor and needy seek 
water, and there is none ; their tongue fail- 
eth for thirst: I Jehovah will hear them, I 
the God of Israel will not forsake them. I 
will open rivers in high places, and fountains 
in the midst of the valleys ; I will make the 
wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land 
springs of water, &c. That they may see, 
and know, and consider, and understand to- 
gether, tliat the hand of Jehovah hath done 
this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created 
it,' Is. xli. 17, 18, 20. And again, ' a 
fountain shall come forth of the house of the 
Lord, and shall water the valley of Shittim,' 
Joel iii. IS. 

Ver. 17. — Then sang Israel,] Singing 
here was in them a sign of mirth and joy, as 
in Jam. v. 13; and of belief in God, and 
thankfulness, as in Ps. cvi. 12 ; and typified 
the spiritual joy which the faithful have in 
Christ: concerning which it is prophesied, 
' with joy shall ye draw water out of the 
wells of salvation. And in that day shall ye 
say, Praise Jehovah, call upon his name, de- 

clare his doings among the people,' &c. Is. 
xii. 3, 4. Spring up,] Or, ascend O toell. 
Answer ye to it.] I'hat is, sing (or shout) 
ye to it, or siyig ye of it. The ^^ ord answer, 
here meaneth to sing one after another, as 
when they sung at the Red sea, Mary an- 
swered them, that is, sung after the men, 
Exod. XV. 21 ; and in 1 Sam. xviii. 7, 'the 
women answered one another,' as they played 
on instruments and sung the victory. So in 
Ps. cxlvii. 7, ' answer ye (that is, sing ye) 
to Jehovah with confession.' And the order 
of the words may be thus, ' answer (or sing 
ye unto it,) spring up, O well.' A like phrase 
is in Is. xxvii. 2, ' a vineyard of red wine, 
answer ye unto her; or, answer (that is, sing) 
ye unto her, a vineyard of red wine.' For 
the Scripture itself often changeth the order 
of words and sentences ; as, 'I will put my 
laws into their mind, and write them on their 
heart,' Heb. viii. 10; or, 'put them into 
their heart, and write them on their mind,' 
Heb. X. 16. So in Is. vi. 1, compared with 
Rom. X. 20; and Deut. v. IG, with Eph. 
vi. 2; Matt. xxi. 13, with Mark xii. 8; 
and many the like. See the notes on Gen. 
V. 6. By this song they celebrate the mira- 
cle and memory of the well which God gave 
them: and if they sung it at first when they 
assembled to dig it, it showed also their faith 
in the promise of God, who had said, he would 
give them water ; and so they speak unto the 
well (as Moses was ordered to speak to the 
rock, Num. xx. 8;) that it should ascend or 
spring up, according to the word of the Lord. 
Thus Thargum Jonathan explaineth it, " as- 
cend O well, ascend O well, did they sing 
unto it, and it ascended." Or if they sang 
it alter, it is a memorial and celebration of 
God's goodness and faithfulness, as he had 
spoken unto them ; ascend O well, that is, 
come up into our heart or memory ; answer 
(or sing) ye of it, that it may never be for- 
gotten. And ascending or coming up, is 
often used in this sense, as in Jer. iii. 16, 
' neither shall it ascend (or come up) on 
the heart, neither shall they remember it;' 
and in Jer. li. 50, ' remember the Lord 
afar ofl', and let Jerusalem ascend upon your 
heart,' that is, come into your mind. 

Ver. 18. — The well, the princes dig- 
ged IT,] Or, O well, which the princes dig- 
ged, ivhich the nobles of the people delved : 
where digged and delved are two words of 
the same meaning, as in the Heb. Cnphar 
and Carah. The princes and nobles of Israel 

CHAP. xxr. 


flelved il, with the lawgiver, with their staves. And from the wil- 
derness (they journexjed) to Mattanah ; '^ And from Mattanah to 
Nahalici ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; ^" And from Bamotli to 
the valley which is in the field of Moab, the liead of Pisgah, and it 
looketh toward Jeshimon. - 

digging this well, and the memory thereof, 
thus celebrated by tlie song of Israel, setteth 
furlh the glory of this gracious gift of God 
unto his people, and figured the labours and 
industry of the governors of the church, to 
bring forth the waters of the Spirit, by the 
preaching of the word, and opening of the 
scriptuies, 2 Chroii. xvii. 7 — 9 ; Gal. iii. 2; 
1 Tim. V. 17, 18 ; Hub. xiii. 7, 17; 1 Pet. 
i. 10 — 12. So in ages following, this well 
was renowned, being called Beer Elim, that 
is, ' the well of the mighty ones. Is. xv. 8, 
With the lawgiver,] Or, iy the laivgiver, 
that is, togeilier with liim, and by his direc- 
tion, as in ver. 16, understanding by the law- 
giver, Moses, as in Deut. xxxiii. 21 : or 
God liimself, as in Is. xxxiii. 22, ' the Lord 
is our lawgiver,' and the lawgiver in Israel 
was a figure of Christ, Gen. xlix. 10; James 
iv. 12. The Chakl. taketh one here to be 
used for many, and translateth it the scribes, 
as Ezra the priest is called ' a scribe of the 
words of the commandment of the Lord, and 
of his statutes to Israel,' Ezra vii, 1 1. With 
THEIR STAVES,] A stall" or rod in the hand of 
governors, was a sign of their power and au- 
thority from God ; wherefore the scripture 
useth these words for such signification. Num. 
xvii. 2, 3, &c. ; Ps. xxiii. 4 ; ex. 2 ; Jer. 
xlviii. 17 ; 1 Cor. iv. 21. So the Gr. trans- 
lateth this here, When they ruled over them. 
Tlie Hebs. have feigned many things of this 
well, of the springing and running of it from 
place to place, and of the mysteries of it con- 
cerning Israel: but our Saviour is the best 
expositor, who hath taught us to apply the 
brazen serpent fore-spoken of, to himself and 
his dying for the people, John iii. 14 ; and 
this well of water (which was the next token 
of grace to Israel in the wilderness) to the 
waters of the Spirit, which is a well springing 
«ip to eternal life, in such as believe in him, 
John iv. 10—14 ; vii. 37—39. Also the Hebs. 
themselves do thus far testify mMidrash Ko- 
helclh, on Eccl. i. 9 ; 'as the first Redeemer 
(Moses) brought down manna,' Exod. xvi. ; 
' so the last Redeemer (Christ) shall do,' 
Ps. Ixxii. 10. * And as the first Redeemer 
caused a well to spring up: so the last Re- 
deemer shall cause waters to spring up ; as it 
is said, And a fountain shall come forth of the 
house of the Lord, and shall water the valley 
of Shittim,' Joel iii. 18. To Mattanah,] 
^Vhich is by inteipretation a gift, and is 

likely to be the name of a place, (as the Cir. 
version also confirmeth) though neither it, 
nor those that here follow, are rehearsed by 
these names in Num. xxxiii. where all their 
journeys are told: neither is it here expressed 
by Moses that they journeyed to these places ; 
but such woids may well be understood. 
Chazkuni (on this scripture) saitli, " this is 
added to that before (in ver. 13.) They 
camped on the other side of Arnon, which is 
in the wilderness, &c., and from that other 
side which is in the wilderness, which (in 
Num. xxxiii. 46,) is Almon Diblathaim, 
they came to Mattanah, called in Num. 
xxxiii. 47, the mounts of Abarim befoie 
Nebo, the name of a place on the north side 
of the river Arnon, in the beginning of the 
land ofSihon; and it is called Mattanah (a 
gift) because there began the gift of the laud 
unto Israel," (Deut. ii. 24, 31.) But after- 
ward he showeth another interpretation, that 
" from the wilderness, a place of drought, 
water was given them for a gift:" and so the 
Chald. interpreteth it, " from the wilderness 
it was given unto thee:" and Thargum Jo- 
nathan, " from the wilderness it was given 
them foi' a gift." 

Ver. 19. — To Nahaliel,] By interpre- 
tation, the valley (or bourn) of God : the G r. 
calleth it iVaac/u'/. Chazkuni saitb, " this is 
that which in Num. xxxiii. 48, is called the 
plains of Moab." To Bamoth,] By inler- 
pietation high places : that is, called Beth 
Jesimoth (saith Chazkuni^ in Num. xxxiii. 

Ver. 20. — In the field,] That is, in the 
country of Afoab. This valley, as Chazkuni 
saith, is called in Num. xxxiii. 49, Abel 
Shittim in the plains of Moab. The head 
OF pisgah,] By head may be miderstood the 
top of the mount Pisgah, or the beginning 
of the same : the Gr. translateth it from the 
top. Chazkuni expoundeth it thus, " that 
SamaJi (or high place) which is in the field 
of Moab, is the head of Pisgah (or of the hill) 
that looketh toward Jeshimon, which is a 
great wilderness." And it looketh,] That 
is, the hill Pisgah looketh ; and so the Gr. 
version referreth it thereto. And Sol. Jarchi 
saith, " that Pisgah looketh toward the place 
named Jeshimon, which signifieth a wilder, 
ness because it is desolate. Jeshimon,] In 
(ir. the wilderness, and so the word is used 
for a wilderness, in Deut. xxxiii, 10 ; Ps. 



'^^ And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, 
Raying, -^ Let me pass through thy land : we will not turn aside 
into field or into vineyard ; we will not drink of the waters of the 
well ; we will go in the king's way until we be past thy border. 
" And Sihon would not grant Israel to pass tlirough his border : 
but Sihon gatliered together all liis people, and went out against 
Israel into the wilderness : and he came to Jahaz, and fought against 
Israel. ^* i\nd Israel smote him witli the edge of the sword, and 
possessed his land, from Arnon unto Jabbok, even unto the sons of 
Ammon : for the border of the sons of Amnion was strong. ^^ And 

Ixviii. 8; Ixxviii. 40, and elsewhere. All 
these places are bytheChald. paraphrast referr- 
ed to the well aforesaid, thus ; " and from (the 
place) where it was given unto them, it des- 
cended with them to the valleys, and from 
the valleys it ascended with them to the high 
places, and from the high places to the valley 
that is in the field of Moab," &c. So Tlmr- 
gum Jonathan to the like, and others. 


In Gr. Moses sent messerigers : which seem- 
eth to be taken from Dent. ii. 26; where 
Moses saith, ' I sent messengers.' For it is 
very frequent, when things are done by a multi- 
tude where one is chief, that the action is as- 
cribed either to the multitude, or to him that 
is chief, indiflerently : as, ' they made peace 
with David, and served him,' 1 Chron. xix. 
19; or, ' they made peace with Israel, and 
seived them,' as another prophet recordeth 
it, 2 Sam. x. 19. So ' Jehoiada, he brought 
foith the king's son, and he put the crown 
upon him,' 2 Kings xi. 12; or, ' they brought 
fortli the king's son, and they put upon him 
the crown,' 2 Chron. xxiii. 11 ; and ' they 
oii'eied burnt ofTerings,' 1 Chron. xvi. 1 ; or, 
' David ollered burnt-oH'erings,' 2 Sam. vi. 
17 ; and many the like. The occasion of 
this message now sent by Israel, was the 
commandment of God, who willed them to 
go war against Sihon, and to possess his land, 
Deut. ii. 24, 25. Sihon,] Or Sicho?i ; in 
Gr. Seo7i, king of the Amorites ; his chief 
city was Heshbon, Deut. ii. 26. Saying,] 
The Gr. version addeth (from Deut. ii. 26,) 
' with peaceable words, saying. 

Ver. 22. — Let me pass,] In Gr. let us 
pass : which phrases are often used indiffer- 
ently, when they are spoken of a multitude: 
and so the scripture setteth it down both 
ways, ' let me pass,' as here, and in Deut. 
ii. 27; and, 'let U3 pass,' Judges xi. 19. 
Through thy land,] That so I may come 
into the land of * Canaan, unto my place,' 
Judg. xi. 19; Deut. ii. 29. We will not 
turn,] In Deut. ii. 27, ' I will not turn,' 
speaking of the multitude as of one man. Into 
IIELD, OR I.NTO VINEYARD,] To the right haud 

or to the kft, Deut. ii. 27. See Num. xx. 17. 
Of the well,] In Gr. of thy tvell, mean- 
ing of any of his wells for nought ; but they 
would buy their water of him for money, 
Deut. ii. 28. The king's way,] The high 
way common for all, which in Deut. ii. 27, 
is set down thus, ' by the way, by the way.' 
See also Num. xx. 17. 

Ver. 23. — Would not grant,] Heb. 
granted (vr gave) vot t that is, would not give 
or sutler: as where it is said, ' David re- 
moved not the ark,' 1 Chron. xiii. 1.3; ano- 
ther prophet opeueth it thus, ' David would 
not remove the ark,' 2 Sam. vi. 10. And so 
Moses explains this in Deut. ii. 30, ' But 
Sihon king of Heshbon, would not let us pass 
through him.' The cause why he would not, 
was fear and distrust, as it is written, ' but 
Sihon trusted not Israel to pass through his 
coast," Judg. xi. 20; but chiefly it was of 
the Lord, who purposed to destroy the Amo- 
rites, as Moses saith, ' for Jehovah thy God 
hardened his spirit, and made his heart 
strong, that he might give him into thine 
hand,' Deut. ii. 30. Jahaz,] Or, Jahats ; 
in Gr. Jas^a / in Lat. Jasa } the name of a 
city mentioned also in Deut. ii. 32 ; Judges 
xi. 20; Is. XV. 4 ; Jer. iv. 21, 34. 

Ver. 24. — Israel SiMOTe iiiji,] For, ' Je- 
hovah the God of Israel, delivered Sihon and 
all his people into Israel's hand,' Judg. xi. 
21 ; Deut. ii. 23. Therefore the glory of 
this victory is ascribed unto God, in Ps. 
cxxxv. 10, 11 ; cxxxvi. 17 — 19. And in 
Amos ii. 9, God saith, ' I destroyed the 
Amorite before them, whose height was like 
the height of the cedai's, and he was strong 
as the oaks ; yet I destroyed his fruit from 
above, and his roots from beneath.' Was 
strong,] By reason that it was fenced with 
Jabbok, which was a river, and by mountains 
and cities on them, Deut. ii. 37 ; therefore 
the Ammonites held their territories beyond 
Jabbok, so that Sihon took them not from 
them : and as for Israel, they might not war 
against the Ammonites, Deut. ii. 19. 

Ver. 25. — Took all these cities,] Ut- 
terly destroying men, women, and children. 



Israel took all tliese cities, and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the 
Amorite, in Heshbon, and in all the daugliters tliereof. ^'^ For 
Heshbon was the city of Sihon tlie king of the Amorites, and he 
had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his 
land out of Ins liand, even unto Arnon. ^' Wherefore they that 
speak in proverbs, say, Come into Heshbon, let tlie city of Sihon 
be built and prepared. 

^^ For a fire is gone out from Heshbon, a flame from tlie city of 
Sihon ; it hath consumed Ar of Moab, tlie lords of tlie higli 

of every city, but the ctittlu and spoil of tlie 
cities they took also, Dent. ii. 34, '65. The 
DAUGHTERS,] Tliat is, as tlie Chalcl. explain- 
eth it, the toivns or villages thereof : for the 
chief cities are counted as mutiieis, the vil- 
lages about them as daughters^ throughout 
the scriptures, Ezek. xvi. 44 — 4B, 48, 53. 
Therefore, as here it is said, Heshbon and 
her daughters: so elsewhere we read, Hesh- 
bon and all her cities, Jo-;h. xiii. 17. And 
that which is called ' a city and a mother in 
I-rael,' 2 Sam. xx. 19 ; is in the Gr. inter- 
preted, ' a city and a mother city (metropo- 
lis) in Israel. These daughters Moses call- 
eth ' unwalled cities,' Deut. iii. 5. 

Ver. 27'. — That speak in pfioverbs,] 
Or, ih^it speak parables ; in Gr. JEnigma- 
tists, they that speak riddles : such in Israel 
were the prophets, they used to speak by pa- 
rables, as Ezek. xvii. 2 ; xx. 49. But it is 
also used for proverbs and byc!- words, to the 
reproach of persons that are brought down 
from high estate to misery ; as Deut. xxviii. 
37; 2 Chron. vii. 20 ; Jer. xxiv. 9; Hab. 
ii. 6 ; and so it is meant in this place. The 
Hebs. Taiicluima, and Scl. Jarchi, expound 
these that spake in proverbs, to be Balaam 
and Beor his father, (as we lead that Balaam 
tuok up his paral)le against Amalek and others, 
when he prophesied their destruction, Num. 
xxiv. 20 — 2.'3.) Jarchi saith, that " Sihon 
was not able to subdue them, and he went 
and hired Balaam to curse them ; and here- 
upon Balak said unto him, (in Num. xxii. C,) 
I know that he whom thou blessest is bless- 
ed," &c. But this is ati uncertainty, and it 
may be also understood of tlie Israelites, 
that they used these parables in rehearsing 
the works and wars of the liord. Come into 
Heshbon,] Or, into Cheshon ; in Gr. Ese- 
hon. Chazkuni cxpoundcth it, " come to 
dwell in Heshbon, for now it shall be esta- 
blished, after that Sihon hath the dominion 
of it: for so long as it was in the hand of 
the king of Moab, they were afraid to dwell 
within it, because the king was weak." Let 
the citv of Sihon,] In Gr. thus, that the 
citi/ of Scon may be I uilt : by which it appear, 
ctl), that this proverb was first taken up alter 

Sihon had won Heshbon out of Moab's hand. 
Prepared,] Or, firmly established ; mean- 
ing more than in former times it had been ; 
or, as Jarciii saith, " prepared in Sihon's 
name for to be his city." 

Ver. 28. — A Fire,] By fire and fame 
wars that consume are usually meant, as in 
Is. xlvii. 14 ; Dan. xi. 33 ; Amos i. 7, 10, 
12, 14; ii. 2, 5; Obad. i. 18; Ps. Ixxviii. 
63. So this is spoken of Sihon's wars against 
the Moabites, The Chald. expoundeth it, 
" a strong eastwind like fire, and warriors 
like a flame :" and the Jerusalcmy Thargum 
thus, " a people strong and burning like fire, 
and warriors like a flame of fire." From 
the city of Sihon,] From the city which 
noui is Sihon's, as Chazkuni explaineth it. 
These parables are after by Jeremiah applied 
against the Moabites, ' they that fled, stood 
under the shadow of Heshbon, because of the 
force (of the enemy) : but a fire is gone out 
of Hesbon, and a flame from the midst of 
Sihon, [that is, of the city of Sihon] and hath 
consumed the corner of Moab,' &c., Jer. 
xlviii. 45. Consumed Ar,] Or, eaten up 
(devoured) Ar of Moab. The Chald. explain- 
eth it, " hath killed the people of Lechajath 
of Moab." And this seemeth to be right, 
that tlie people was destroyed, and not the 
city or country. For Ar (which the Chald. 
calleth Lechajath) remained still the posses- 
sion of the i\ioabitc?, Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29 ; 
Is. XV. 1. Instead of this, Jeremiah saith, 
' the corner of Moab,' Jer. xlviii. 45. " Ar 
is the name of that country in the Hebrew ; 
and in Syriac it is called Lecajath," saiin 
Sol. Jarchi on Num. 21. The Lords,] Or, 
the masters patrons of the high pluies of .Ir- 
71071. Tliese the Chald. expoundeth Chema. 
rims {or priests) which served in the God's 
house (or temple) of the high place of ^rnon: 
the Gr. translateth it, the pillars of Arnon. 
Tlie prophet calleth them, ' the crown of the 
head, (that is, the chief or principal) of the 
sons of tumult,' Jer. xlviii. 45. High 
Places,] Where they used to serve their 
God ; as a[)pcureth also by the prophet, say- 
ing, ' I will cause to cease in Moab, saith 
Jehovah, him that oH'eictli in the high place. 



places of Anion. ^^ Wo to thee, Moab, thou art perislied, O peo- 
ple of Chemosh : lie hath given his sons that escaped, and his 
daughters into captivity, unto Sihon the king of the Amorites. 
^^ And their lamp is perished from Heshbon, even unto Diboii ; and 
we have laid them waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto 
Medeba. ^' And Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorite. ^^ i\nd 

and him that burneth incense to his God,' 
Jer. xlviii. 35. So Thargum Jerusalemy 
expoundeth this place of Moses thus; " kill-, 
ed the priests that sacrificed before their idols 
ill Arnoii." 

VeB. 29. Wo TO THEE, MoAB,] In 

Chald. u!0 to you, Moabiles. It is a contiriu- 
ance of the parable taken up against them. 
People of Chejiosh,] In Gr. of Chamos ; 
which the Chald. explaineth, j»eo/>/e that serve 
Chemosh. So in Jer. xlviii. 46, " 'Wo to 
thee, Moab, the people of Chemosh is perish- 
ed.' Tiiis ' Chemosh was the god of the 
Moabites,' 1 Kings i. 33; and it seemeth 
also of the Ammonites, Judg. xi. 24 ; for 
their service of which idol, they are called 
the people of Chemosh, as the Israelites are 
usually called the people of Jehovah. He 
HATH GIVEN,] That is, Chemosh hath given, 
or suffered his sons that escaped the sword 
to be taken captives. Thus Moab's idolatry 
is here upbraided as the cause of their ruin : 
and so Jeremiah after saith of them, ' Moab 
shall be ashamed of Chemosh, as the house 
of Israel was ashamed of Bethel their confi- 
dence,' Jer. xlviii. 13. And again, ' Che- 
mosh shall go forth into captivity, with his 
priests and his princes together,' Jer. xlviii. 
7. Likewise, another prophet saith, ' when 
it is seen that Moab is weary on his high 
place, he shall come to his sanctuary to pray, 
but he shall not prevail,' Is. xvi. 12. And 
though Chemosh was an idol, and so nothing 
ill the world, as the apostle saith, 1 Cor. viii. 
4 ; and therefore could not do evil, neither 
was it in him to do good, Jer. x. 5; yet thus 
it is spoken of him, he hath given according 
to the speech and opinion of the idolaters ; as 
Jephthah also said to the king of Ammon, 
' wilt not thou possess that which Chemosh 
thy god giveth thee to possess ?' Judg. xi. 24. 
But indeed the Gud of Israel was he that 
brought this judgment upon the Moabites for 
their idolatry, Jer. xlviii. 12, 13. 

Ver. 30. — Their lamp is perished,] 
their light is lost, that is, as the Gr. translat- 
eth it, their seed is perished ; by seed, mean- 
ing such as should inherit the kingdom; and 
so the Cliald. paraplirast explaineth it, " the 
kingdom is ceased from Heshbon:" and Thar- 
gum Jerusalemy giveth the same exposition, 
" the kingdom is ceased from Heshbon, and 
ruler from Dibon." The like metaphor is 

also used ; as, ' and unto his son will I give 
one tribe, that David my servant may have 
a lamp ahvay before me in Jerusalem,' that is, 
a seed or son to reign in Jerusalem, 1 Kings 
xi. 36. So in 1 Kings xv. 4, ' for David's 
sake did the Lord his God give him a lamp 
in Jerusalem, to set up his sons after him ;' 
where the lamp is expounded " his son." 
Thus the Hebs. here also expound it, " their 
lamp is perished," that is, saith Jarchi, "their 
kingdom is perished." And Chazkuni thus, 
" the city Heshbon hath lost her heir, from 
over all the land unto Dibon, so that no heir 
of Moab shall inherit it any more:" a lamp 
meaneth an heir, as in I Kings xi. 36. To 
this sense the old Lat. saith, •' their yoke is 
perished from Heshbon:" for a yoke signifieth 
dominion, as in Jer. xxvii. 8, 11 ; xxviii. 2, 
14. " A lamp signifieth a kingdom, and a 
yoke, and dominion," saith Sol. Jarchi. It 
may also be translated, " and we have shot 
at them:" so it agreeth with that which fol- 
loweth; ' and we have laid them waste ;' and 
they are the words of Sihon and his favour- 
ites, triumphing for their conquest over 
Moab. DiBON,] One of the high places and 
cities in Moab's country. Is, xv. 2 ; Jer. 
xlviii. 18, 22. The Chald. expoundeth it, 
" the dominion is departed from Dibon. 
Which reacheth uxto Medeba,] The 
Chald. saith, which is adjoined unto Medeba, 
that was another city in Moab's land, Is. xii. 
2. The word which, (in Heb. asher,) is 
noted extraordinarily in the Heb. with pricks 
over it, for some hidden meaning. Baal- 
hatturim saith of it thus; " R (in asher) is 
pricked, and there remaineth (that letter be- 
ing taken away) ash, (that is, fire,) because 
it was burnt with fire, and the R of it is taken 
away." The Gr. favoureth this, for it trans- 
lateth, " yet they kindled fire upon Moab." 

Ver. 31.' — The land of the Amorite,] 
III Gr. all the cities of the Amorites. This 
country, which before had been the Moabites, 
was conquered by the Amorites, and so be- 
came their land, and was taken fiom them 
by Israel, and inhabited, as is after showed in 
Num. xxxii. 33, 34, &c. 

Ver. 32. — Jazer,] A city also that had 
been sometime the Moabites', Jer. xlviii. 32; 
but now the Amorites' ; the land about it was 
goodly pasture ground, and it was after given 
to the tribe of Gad, Num. xxxiiJ 1, 3, 34, 



Moses sent to spy oat Jazer, and they took the daughters thereof, 
and drove out tlie Auiorite that was there. ^^ And they turned and 
went up the way of Baslian ; and Og the king of Bashan went out 
agahist them, he, and all his people, to the battle at Edrei. ^' And 
Jeliovah said unto Moses, Fear him not, for into thy hand have I 
given him, and all his people, and his land ; and thou slialt do unto 
him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the i\morites, which dwelt in 
Heshbon. ^' And tliey smote him, and his sons, and all his people, 
until there was none left him remaining, and they possessed his 

35. Daughters,] That is, the towns or 
villages, as tlie Gr. and Cliald. explain it: see 
ver. 25. 

Ver. 33 — The way of Bashan,] That 
is, as the Gr. translateth, the way ivhich lead- 
eth unto Bashan. This Bashan (which the 
Chald. calletli Matnan) was a 'goodly soil, 
the pastures nourished strong and fat cattle, 
whereto the Scripture hath often reference, 
as in Deut. xxxii. 14 ; Amos iv. 1 ; Mic. 
vii. 14; Jer. 1. 19. Og,] Another king of 
the Amorites, a giant of great stature: see 
Deut. iii. ; where this history is repeated and 

Ver. 33. — They possessed,] Or, they iyi- 
heriled his land. These countries God gave 
inito Israel, as the first-fruits of their inheri- 
tance, after their wearisome travels and trou- 
bles ill the wilderness ; by which they were 
to be encouraged against the residue of their 
enemies beyond the river, as Moses afterward 
saith, ' thine eyes have seen all that Jeho- 

vah your God hath done unto these two kings ' 
so will Jehovah do unto all the kingdoms 
whither thou passest: ye shall not fear them, 
for Jehovah your God he will fight for you. 
And Jehovah will do unto them as he did to 
Sihon and to Og, kings of the Amorites, and 
the land of them whom he destroyed,' Deut. 
iii. 21,22; xxxi. 4. For which also they 
were to be thankful unto God, and sing his 
praises, as David after teacheth them, say- 
ing, ' confess ye to Jehovah, for he is good, 
for his mercy endureth for ever. To him 
which smote great kings, for his mercy en- 
dureth for ever. And slew famous kings, for 
his mercy endureth for ever. Sihon king of 
the Amorites, for his mercy endureth for 
ever. And Og the king of Bashan, for his 
mercy endureth for ever. And gave their 
land for an heritage, for his mercy endurctli 
for ever. Even an heritage unto Israel his 
servant, for his mercy endureth for ever, Ps. 
cxxxvi. 1, 17—22. 


1. Balak Jc'wg of Moah, sendeth for Balaam a prophet, to curse Is- 
rael. 8. Balaam consultwg mith the Lord, is forbidden to go. 15. 
Balah sendeth the second time, and Balaam asking again of the Lord, 
is permitted to go. 22. An angel ivoidd have slain him, if his ass had 
not turned aside, which dumb beast speaking mitli man's voice, forbade 
the prophefs foolishness. 31. Balaam's eyes being opened, seeth the 
angel, confesseth his sin, and offereth to turn back, hut is suffered to go 
forn-ard. 36. Balak goelh forth to meet Balaam, and enter taincth him 

' x\nd tlie sons of Israel set forward and encamped in the 
plains of Moab, on this side Jordan, hy Jericho. 

Set forward,] Removed their camp 
' from the mountains of Abarim, Num. 
xxxiii. 48. The plains of moar,] Or, 
champagne country, which sometime had 

been Moab's, afterward the Amorites', and 
now Israel's by conquest. These plains 
reached unto the river Jordan, in that part 
which was near to, or over against Jericho, 



2 £3 S 

^ And Balak the son of Zippor, saw all that Israel had done to 
tlie Amorites. ' And Moab was sore afraid of the people, because 
they were many, and Moab was irked because of the sons of 
Israel. * And Moab said unto the elders of Midian, Now will this 

unto whom Abraham the father of Israel was 
uncle, and whom Abraham had rescued out 
of captivity, Gen. xix. 3G, 37 ; xiv. 12, 16. 
But being now degenerate from the faith of 
their father Lot, and fallen to idolatry, Num. 

(the first city which they conquered in 
Canaan, Joshua vi.) and therefore it is called 
' Jordan of Jericho : ' and here they remained 
till Moses died, encamping in these plains 
' from Bethjesimoth imto Abelshittim,' 
Num. xxxiii. 49. Here many notable 
things occurred, even all that are recorded 
from this place to the end of Deut., and in 
the beginning of Joshua; their deliverance 
from Balaam's curse, their mustering for the 
inheritance of Canaan, their victory over the 
Midianites, the addition of sundry divine 
ordinances, especially the repeating and ex- 
plaining of the whole law, and renewing of 
the covenant between God and them, by 
Moses in Deut., and the like: whereupon 
God saith unto their posterity, ' O my peo- 
ple, remember now what Balak king of 
Moab consulted, and what Balaam the son 
of Beor answered him, from Shitlim unto 
Gilgal, [that is, the many good things which 
fell out between Shittim where now they 
were, and Gilgal where Joshua circumcised 
them, Joshua v.] that ye may know the 
righteousness of the Lord,' Mic. vi. 5. 

O t7 D Here beginneth the fortieth lec- 
ture of the law, as it was divided to be read 
in the Jewish synagogues: see Gen. vi. 9. 

Ver. 2. — Balak the son of zippor,] 
in Gr. the son of Sepphor. This Balak was 
now king of Moab, ver. 4, a man of note, both 
for policy and power, Mic. vi. 5 ; Judg. xi. 25; 
' he saw all that Israel had done, but with an 
evil eye, and looked not upon it to receive 
instruction, as do the wise,' Prov. xxiv. 32. 

Ver. 3. — Afraid of the people,] Or, 
because of the. people. Thus the prophecy 
was fulfilled, ' The mighty men of Moab 
trembling, shall take hold upon them,' Exod. 
XV. 15. Moab was irked,] That is, 
grieved, distressed in themselves, pricked in 
their hearts with a lothing of this people. 
The same is spoken of the Egyptians, ' they 
were irked because of the sons of Israel, 
Exod. i. 12. There was no cause for the 
Moabites thus to fret: for Israel passed by 
them in peace, and touched not their border, 
being forbidden of God, Deut. ii. 9. They 
had also by the slaughter of the Amorites, 
freed them from evil neighbours, which had 
before taken away a pait of their land, and 
were likely in time to have taken more. 
Num. xxi. 20. And they were allied unto 
Isratl, for Moab was the posterity of Lot, 

xxi. 29 ; they feared (as do the wicked)'wheie 
no fear was,' Ps. liii. 5; and do lothe the peo- 
ple of the God of Abraham and Lot their father. 
Ver. 4. — Elders of midian,] In Gr. 
the senate of Madiavi. These elders were 
senators, such as governed the slate, called 
afterwards ' princes,' ver. 7, 8 ; and the 
Midianites were by nature the chiklren of 
Abraham, Gen. xxv. 1, 2; and so brethren 
unto Israel ; but now conspired against them ; 
being also fallen from Abraham's faith to 
idolatry with Baal-Pehor, Num. xxv. 17, IS. 
They were neighbours to the Moabites, and 
as it seemeth had bean confederates with 
them in former wars; as when Hadad king 
of Edom smote Midian in the field of Moab, 
1 Chron. i. 4t). These were not the people 
against whom Israel should war ; neither had 
they bccasion to be offended at the Amorites' 
overthrow, who held them in subjection : for 
the five kings of Midian tliat combined with 
Moab, and perished for the same. Num. 
xxxi. 8, are called 'the dukes of Sihon,' 
Jos. xiii. 21. They had cause therefore, to 
have been thankful unto Israel, who freed 
them from Sihon's tyrannical yoke, and to 
have rejoiced with the joy, and for the pro- 
sperity of their biethren. This company,] 
Or, the church; in Gr. this synagogue or 
congregation. Lick up,] That is, devour, or 
consume, as the Chald. explaineth it. So 
fire that consumeth, is said to lick up in 1 
Kings xviii. 38; but here the similitude is 
taken from oxen that lick up the grass as 
they feed. And not unfitly doth Moab 
hereby, as it were, prophesy of their own 
destruction: for the strength and beauty of 
Israel may well be likened hereto, as Joseph's 
was by Moses to his first-born bullock, Deut. 
xxxiii. 17 ; and the wicked are as grass, am! 
shall soon be cut down, and wither as the 
green herbs, Ps. xlvii. 2. And though at 
this time Israel might not meddle witb 
Moab, (for they had other enemies to prey 
upon, and the ox loweth not when he hath 
fodder, Job vi. 5;) yet Balaam their prophet 
foretold of a star and sceptre that should rise 
out of Israel, ' and smite the corners of Moab,' 
Num. xxiv. 17; which was fulfilled in p;n t 



compaaiy lick up all that are round about us, as the ox licketh up 
the green grass of the field : and Balak the son of Zippor, was 
king of Moab at that time. * And he sent messengers luito Ba- 
laam the son of Beor, to Pethor, which is by tlie river of the land 
of the sons of his people, to call him, saying. Behold a people is 

by David, who smote Moab, and they 
became his servants, 1 Chron. xviii. 2. And 
God further prophesieth their destruction 
afterward, ' I have broken Moab like a vessel 
wherein is no pleasure, saith the Lord.' Jer, 
xlviii. 38. 

Ver. 5. — Balaam,] So written after the 
Gr. and the New Tes. Rev. ii. 14 ; in Heb. 
Bilghnum, He was a diviner, or sooth- 
sayer, as is said in Jos. xiii. 22. Balaam 
' also the son of Beor, the diviner, did the sons 
of Israel slay with the sword :' where the 
name diviner, (or soothsayer) is to be under- 
stood of the son Balaam, not of the father 
Beor, as the like phrase in Isa. xxxvii. 2, 
showeth, where it is said. Unto Esaias the 
son of Amos the prophet: which another 
scripture explaineth thus. Unto Esaias the 
the prophet, the son of Amos, 2 Kings xix. 
2. And that Balaam was indeed such a 
kind of man, is after showed by Moses, in 
Num. xxiv. 1. The apostle calleth him a 
prophet, 2 Pet. ii. 16; and false prophets are 
called diviners, Jer. xxvii. 9; and their pro- 
phesying divination, Ezek. xiii. 6, 7, 23. 
What a diviner was, is showed on Deut. 
xviii. Son of beor,] So the Gr. here 
writeth that which in Heb. is Beghnor : but 
the apostle Peter writing fromBabylon, 1 Pet. 
V. 13, callelh him the son of Bosor, 2 Pet. 
ii. 15. For in the Babylonian or Chald. 
language, the Heb. letter y Ghnajn, is often 
pronounced like S, whereupon the Gr. inter- 
preters sometime put -S instead thereof; as 
Gnammiud, Num. i. 10 ; is in Gr. Semioud, 
and in Jer. xlvi. 17. Saon heghnebir. the 
interpreters (taking it for a proper name) ex- 
press it in Gr. thus, Sao necsbeic : so ' Je- 
hojadangh,' in Jer. xxix. 26, is in Gr. 
jodese ; ' Hosheangh,' in Num. xiii. 8, is 
Auscs ; and ' Jeshuangh,' Ezra ii. 2, is Jesus, 
and many the like. Pethor,] In Gr. Pka- 
thourra ; it was a city in Mesopotamia, or 
Aram, Num. xxiii. 7 ; Deut. xxiii. 4 ; the 
country where Abraham first dwelt. Acts vii. 
2; Gen. xxiv. 4, 10; and there he served 
strange gods, Jos. xxiv. 2. In this country all 
the patriarchs (except Benjamin) the heads of 
the tribes of Israel were I)orn and brought up, 
Gen. XXXV. 26; till Jacob their father lied 
the land, after he had there served for a wife, 
and for a wife had kept sheep, Hos. xii. 12; 
Gen. xxxi. 21. Jacob's posterity hereupon 
professed their father to be an Aramitc, or 
Syrian, Deut. xxvi. 5; and from Aram is 
Vol. II. 

Balaam now sent for to curse them. And as 
it was in the east country. Num. xxiii. 7 ; 
so the eastern land was infamous for divina- 
tion and such like arts : see Isa. ii. 6. Bv 
THE river,] To wit, Euphrates, called the 
river by excellency, because it was the great- 
est, Gen. XV. 18; so in Jos. xxiv. 2, 15; 
2 Sam. X. 16; 1 Kings iv. 24; 1 Chron. 
xix. 16. And thus the Chald. here explain- 
eth it, to Pethor a/ Aram, ivhich is by Eu- 
phrates. They cover,] Heb. it covereth, 
speaking of the people as of one. The scrip. 
ture useth the singular or plural number in- 
difl'erently, as is noted on Gen. xxii. 19. 
The eve,] That is, the face, or sight, (as 
the Gr. translateth) of the land (or earth.) 
See the like phrase in Exod. x. 5, 15. 
Abide,] Sit, or dwell over against me. 
These words implied reasons to persuade 
Balaam to come; for their coming out of 
Egypt, intimateth that they, being strangers, 
had no right to invade the land ; their cover- 
ing the face of the land, showed their num- 
ber to be great ; and they having subdued the 
Amorites, and filled their land, could not 
easily be resisted ; their abiding over against 
Moab, was a sign (as they thought) that Is- 
rael would next invade their country. But 
in all this the truth of Israel's case and car- 
riage was concealed, for there is no mention 
how God had of old promised them the land 
of Canaan, Gen. xv. 18; or, how the Can- 
aanites' wickedness was grown so great, that 
their land should spue them out. Lev. xviii. 
24, 25 ; neither speaketh he of their wrong- 
ful oppression and bondage in Egypt, and 
miraculous deliverance from thence, Exod. 
i. &c., nor how Israel being come, had not 
harmed either Edom or Moab, but passed by 
them in peace, Deut. ii. 4, 8, 9, 13 ; and 
warred only with the cursed Canaanites de- 
voted unto destruction. Though Moab 
could not but know these things as well as 
Edom, Num. \x. 14, 15, &c. yet would he 
mention none of them; neither was he con- 
tent that his brother Israel should do to the 
Canaanites, as Moab himself, and Edom, and 
Ammon had done before to the Emims, 
Ilorims, and Zamzummims, whom they had 
cast out of their inheritances, and dwelt in 
their steads, Deut. ii. 9, 10, 12, 20, 21. 
For this conspiracy with Balaam, and \m 
endeavour to destroy God's people, it is said, 
' Balak arose and warred against I'^rael,' 
Jos. xxiv. 9. 




come out of Egypt, beliokl they cover the eye of tlie land, and 
they abide over against me. * Now therefore come I pray thee. 

VeB. 6. Now THEREFORE COME,] Heb. 

^nd now come. His purpose being by a 
curse upon them, to bereave them of God's 
favour and protection, he would have him to 
come, that by nearness of his person, and by 
beholding them, his speech might have more 
vehemency of spirit, and better eflect, as he 
supposed. So Elisha the prophet turned 
back and looked on the children whom he 
cursed in the name of the Lord, 2 Kings ii. 
24. And on the contrary, when Isaac would 
bless his son, he called him near and kissed 
him, and smelling the savour of his garments, 
he uttered a more powerful blessing, Gen. 
xxvii. 26, 27; and so did Jacob to Joseph's 
children, Gen. xlviii. 9, 10, &c. And for 
this cause Balak led Balaam (when he was 
come) unto high mountains, from whence he 
might view them whom he vvas to curse, 
Num. xxii, 41 ; xxiii. 9, 14, 28. Curse 
ME THIS,] Or, curse for me this people. 
The curse was first laid upon the creatures 
by God himself for sin. Gen. iii. ; and heavy 
efl'ects followed thereof : the earth cursed, 
brought forth thorns and briers instead of 
wholesome fruits, Gen. iii. 17, 18; and 
cursed again for Cain's wickedness, it yielded 
no more the strength thereof. Gen, iv. 12 ; 
the fig-tree cursed by Christ, suddenly with- 
ered, Mark xi. 21. And when the curse is 
duly pronounced by prophets, and men of 
God, it wanted not effect; as the curse bring- 
ing water of jealousy, which should cause the 
belly of the polluted to swell, and her thigh 
to rot. Num. v. 21, 22, 27; and the children 
cursed by Elisha, were rent in pieces of 
bears, 2 Kings ii. 24. Wherefore the plot 
which Balak laid, was most dangerous and 
wicked, and the most likely course to obtain 
his desire. For those whom God blesseth, 
their enemies flee, and fail before them, 
Deut. xxviii. 7; but they whom he curseth, 
are exposed to all misery, and made a prey 
unto their enemies, Deut. xxviii. 25, 33. 
And if now the king could have obtained 
from God a curse upon Israel, he might soon 
have vanquished them, ' for they that are 
cursed of him shall be cut off,' Ps. xxxvii. 
22. How cuises were pronounced by the* 
prophets of God, may be seen in Gen. ix.' 
25; Ps. cix. 6,20; Jos. vi. 26; Jer. xvii. 
5, 6. They .\re mightier,] Heb. it is 
mightier than I; meaning both in number 
and strength, and so too mighty for him to 
encounter with. This was upon Israel a 
fruit of God's blessing, who liad promised 
that Abraham should be a mighty nation, 
Gen. xviii. IS; and performed it, whiles in 
the land of their affliction, ' he made them 

mighter than their enemies,' Ps. cv. 24. 
as their enemy himself acknowledged, Exod i. 
9. And Balak here confessmg himself unable 
to match them in might, seeketh therefore 
to weaken them first by magical execrations. 
Peradventure,] Or, if so be ; or, as the 
Gr. translateth it, if perhaps; which phrase 
Peter useth in Acts viii. 22; ' if perhaps the 
thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee.' 
It is a word that implietli dilficulty in a thing 
but with good hope to be attained. See the 
Notes on Exod. xxxii. 30. I shall be able 
TO SMITE them,] Or, / sJiall prevail, and 
ive shall smite them, and I shall drive tliem, 
&c. The Gr. translateth, / sImU be able to 
smite of them, and cast them out. In ver. 
11, it is repeated thus,' I shall be able to 
fight against them, (or, overcome them in 
battle ; ') and so the Chald. explaineth it here, 
/ shall be able to fight against them. Wars 
were wont to be taken in hand holily ; and 
the Lord u-setli this phrase, ' Sanctify war 
against her,' Jer. vi. 4; he commandeth 
that the camp of his people should be holy, 
and no micleanness in it, Deut. xxiii. 9, 10, 
14; he appointed priests with holy instru- 
ments, and silver trumpets, to sound an 
alarm. Num. x. 9; xxxi. 6; and they were 
to fight 'the battles of the Lord,' 1 Sam. xxv. 
28; and he was with them as their captain, 
as it is said, ' And behold, God is with us 
for our captain, and his priests with sounding 
trumpets, to carry alarm against you: O chil- 
dren of Israel, fight ye not against Jehovah 
the God of your fathers, for ye shall not 
prosper,' 2 Chron. xiii. 12. Hereupon his 
people were wont to ask counsel of him and 
to have his direction in their wars, Judg. i. 
1; XX. 18, 27, 28; I Cliron. xiv. 10, 14, 
15, 16. And after victories they used to 
praise the Lord with songs, Judg. v; Ps, 
xviii; and to honour him with the spoils 
of their enemies, consecrated to his house 
and service, Num. xxxi. SO; 1 Chron. xxvi. 
26, 27. And this the nations of the world 
after a sort practised, save that instead of 
seeking to the Lord according to his word, 
they sought by divination and unlawful arts, 
as Balak now did by Balaam the soothsayer; 
Nebuchadnezzar by divination consulting 
with teraphims, and looking in the liver 
and entrails of beasts, Ezek. xxi. 21 . Agam- 
emnon by sacrifice to Jupiter and praying to 
him for victory over the Trojans, Homer, 
Iliad ii. and other the like. Moreover, as 
Balak sought to turn the favour of God from 
Israel, and to bring his curse upon them by 
Balaam's means: so other nations are said 
to use, before they warred against any peo- 



curse me this people, for they are mightier than I, peradventure I 
sliall be able to smite them, and shall drive them out of the laud: 
for I know that he whom thou blessest is blessed, and he whom 
thou cursest is cursed. ' And the elders of Moab, and the elders 
of Midian went, and divinations in their hand, and they came 
unto Balaam, and spake unto him the words of Balak. ® And he said 

in their armies (as the Philistines did their 
gods, which David burnt with fire, 1 Chrcn. 
xiv. 12.) they foolishly imitated God's peo- 
ple, who sometimes carried the ark of bis 
covenant (the token of his presence,) before 
them ill their battles, 1 Sam. iv. 3, 4, 8; 
Num. xiv. 44. He whom thou blessest,] 
Or, whovi thou shall bless ; the Gr. translat- 
eth it plurally, they whom thou blessest, arc 
blessed y and they whom thou cursest, are 
cursed. "By this it appeareth of liow great 
reputation Balaam was among men, as Simon 
Magus ill Samaria was esteemed ' The great 
power of God,' Acts viii. 10. But the Lord 
doth curse the blessings, and bless the cur- 
ses of his own priests and people, when tliey 
do them amiss, Mai. ii. 2; Ps. cix. 28; 
how much more when they are done by 
soothsayers and profane. ' The curse 
causeless shall not come,' Prov. xxvi. 2; 
and if Balaam had cursed Israel without 
the Lord, it had no more prevailed than 
Goliah's words, who before he fought, cursed 
David by his gods, 1 Sam. xvii. 43. 

Ver. 7. — Divinations,] That is, the 
wages or reward of divinations was in their 
hand ; ' the wages of unrighteousness,' as 
the apostle calleth it, 2 Pet. ii. 15 ; being for 
a wicked art, and to an unrighteous end ; so 
Thargum Jonathan exjioundeth it, " the 
fruits of divination sealed in their hand." 
And thus, ' Besorah,' i. e. good tidings, is 
used for the reward of good tidings, in 2 Sam 
iv. 10. In Israel, when the heads judged 
for reward, the piiests taught for hire, and 
the prophets divined for money ; the Lord 
threateneth that for their sake Zion should 
be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem become 
heaps, Micah iii. 11, 12. Balaamites see 
their reward in this world in the hands of 
men, and that they follow ; but the people of 
God walk by faith, not by sight ; and tlieir 
reward is in heaven hid with God, not in the 
hands of man, 2 Cor. v. 7 ; Matt. v. 11, 12. 

Ver. 8. — I will bring you word again,] 
Or, I will return you word ; which the Gr. 
explaiiieth, / trill answer you the things xvkich 
the Lord shall speak unto me. He would 
have them lodge there that night, because he 
would ask counsel of God, who used to 
speak to the prophets by dreams and visions 
of the night, Num. xii. fi; Job iv. 13; xxxiii. 
14, 15; Jer. xxiii. 25,28. He consultcth 
with Jehovah the true God, whose proplitt 

pie, to endeavour by prayers, sacrifices and 
enchantments, to turn tlie favour of God from 
tliem. Before the heathen Romans besieged 
any city, their priests called out the god, 
under whose tutelage the city was, and pro- 
mised him more ample honour or place 
among them, Plin. Nat. Hist. 1. 28. c. 2. 
The same is also testified by others; and the 
manner of doing it is recorded to be first 
with a supplication to the gods, and that god 
specially which had taken upon him the de- 
fence of the city, that he would forsake the 
people, city, places, temples, and holy things; 
and having stricken a fear and forgetfulness 
in that people and city, would come into 
Rome to accept of them, their places, tem- 
ples, holy things, and city, and to be provost 
unto them, their people and soldiers, vowing 
if so he would do, to honour him with tem- 
ples and games. When thus they did, they 
oflered also sacrifices, and looked for divina- 
tion in the entrails of beasts. And having 
thus called out the gods, the dictator or em- 
peror devoted (or cursed) the enemy's city 
and army, that they might be filled with 
flight, fear, terror; and that whosoever of 
them carried arms against their legions or 
army, might both they, their countries, 
fields, cities, &c., be deprived of light from 
above, and reputed for devoted and conse- 
crated, as any the greatest enemies whoso- 
ever, &c. Macrob. Saturnal. lib. 3. cap. 9. 
Hereupon their poets, when countries were 
conquered, ascribed it to the departure of 
their gods from them; as in Virgil, iEneid 

" Excessere omnes, aditis, arisque relictis, 
Dii quibus imperium hoc steterat," 

In which heathenish opinions and practises, 
there may some footsteps be seen of the an- 
cient true religion: for when God would de- 
liver up Jerusalem into the hands of the 
Chaldeans, he first by a sign to his prophets, 
signified his departure from, and forsaking of 
his temple that stood herein, Ezek. x. 1,4, 
IS, 19; xi. 22. 23. When Caleb and Jo- 
slivia would encourage the people to war 
against the Canaanitcs, they used this argu- 
nient, ' They are but bread for us, their 
sliadow (meaning God their defence) is de- 
parted from them, and Jehovah is with us, 
fiar them not. Num. xiv. 9. So wlien the 
hi athens carried images and idols with them 



anto them, Lodge here this niglit, and I will bring you word again, 
as Jehovah shall speak unto me : and the princes of Moab abode 
with Balaam. ^ And God came unto Balaam, and said, What men 
are these with thee ? '" And Balaam said unto God, Balak tlie 
son of Zippor, king of Moab hath sent unto me. " Behold, a peo- 
ple is come out from Egypt, and covereth the eye of the land: 
now come, curse me them, peradventure I shall be able to fight 
against tliem, and shall drive them out. '^ And God said unto 
Balaam, Thou slialt not go with them, thou shalt not curse the 
people, for they are blessed. '^ And Balaam rose up in the morn- 
ing, and said unto the princes of Balak, Go you into your land, for 

he would seem to be, and calleth him his 
God, ver. 18; and because the business con- 
cerned the people of Jehovah, of him he was 
to inquire. But his promise to bring them 
word what Jehovah said, he performed not 
faitlifully, as appeareth by comparing ver. 13, 
with ver. 12. The princes of Moab,] And 
also of Midian, which are here to be under- 
stood from ver. 7 ; where they were called 

Ver. 9. — God came,] To wit, by night, 
as in ver. 20; which the Chald. expoundeth, 
word came from before the Lord, So ' God 
came to Abimelech in a dream by night,' 
Gen. XX. 3 ; and ' God came to Laban the 
Syrian in a dream by night,' Gen. xxxi. 24. 
Sometimes for his people's sake, and some- 
times for their own, God revealed his coun- 
sels of old unto men that were wicked, Gen. 
xli. 25; Dan. ii. 45; iv. 21, 22. So still 
he giveth gifts of knowledge and understand- 
ing in his word, to men that are none of his, 
Matt. vii. 22, 23 ; xxiv. 24 ; 2 Tim. iii. 
8. The eye,] The face, as ver. 5. Curse 
ME THEM,] The word curse here, is another 
word in the original, than that before used in 
ver. 6 ; but of the same signification, as ap- 
peareth also after in Num. xxiii. 7, 8. It 
meaneth a piercing or striking thi-ough with 
evil speeches, and so is used for cursing or 
blaspheming: see the notes on Lev. xxiv. 11. 
Be able to FIGHT,] Or, prevail in fighting 
(or warring) against them, as the word is used 
for prevailing, in Is. vii. 1 ; see before on 
ver. 6. Here Balaam having to deal with 
God that knoweth all things, would not cor- 
rupt their speech, but fully related the mes- 
sage sent unto him: but in his answer to the 
princes he dealeth otherwise, ver. 13. 

Ver. 12. — Not curse,] As the message 
had two branches, to go, aud to curse ; so 
God answereth unto, and forbiddelh both, 
adding a reason, because they were blessed. 
And as he forbade him to go to any other 
place, so he forbade him to cin-se them in 
auy place, or where now he was. So that 

Balaam here might know the whole will of 
God about this business, and needed not to 
inquire what the Lord would speak unto him 
more, as he did in ver. 19. And though 
Israel had often provoked the Lord by their 
sins in the wilderness, yet would he not suf- 
fer the wicked to curse them, but made them 
heirs of that blessedness, which belongeth to 
those ' whose iniquities are forgiven, and 
whose sins are covered,' Rom. iv. 6, 7. Are 
blessed,] And therefore may not be cursed 
of any ; ' for the gifts and calling of God are 
without repentance,' Rom. xi. 29. And 
when Jacob the father of this people had got 
the blessing of Isaac unawares, Esau could 
not get him to reverse it, but Isaac said, ' I 
have blessed him, yea, and he shall be bless- 
ed,' Gen. xxvii. 33 ; neither could Balaam, 
with all his altars and sacrifices, procure God 
to change, but was himself forced also to bless 
them three times, Num. xxiv. 10. Where- 
fore they are after put in mind of this mercy, 
' the Lord thy God would not hearken unto 
Balaam, but the Lord thy God turned the 
curse into a blessing unto thee, because the 
Lord thy God loved thee,' Deut. xxiii. 5. 

Ver. 13. — Jehovah refuseth to give 
ME,] The Chald. explaineth it, it pleaseth not 
the Lord to suffer me ; and in Gr. God per- 
mitteth me not. Here Balaam telleth them 
but the first part of God's speech, concealing 
the other, and the reason which God gave, 
wherein the weight of the answer lay. If he 
had faithfully showed them the whole counsel 
of God, it might have stayed this evil enter, 
prise, and cut oil' all occasion of further send- 
ing. But as a man loth to displease, and 
loving the proffered gain, he useth a faint and 
favourable speech, as if he should have said, 
I could be content and glad to gratify the king 
herein, but God will not suffer me at this 
time to go ; the fault is not mine, therefore 
1 pray thee have me excused. The contrary 
duty is showed in Jer. xxiii. 28. ' The pro- 
phet that hath the dream, let him tell the 
dream ; and he that hath my word, let him 



Jehovah refuseth to give me leave to go with you. " And the 
princes of Moab rose up and came unto Balak, and said, Balaam 
refuseth to come with us. '^ And Balak yet again sent princes 
more and more honourable than they. "^ And they came to Balaam, 
and said to him. Thus saith Balak, the son of Zippor, Be not thou 
letted, I pray thee, from coming unto nie. " For honouring I will 
honour thee very greatly : and wliatsoever thou shalt say unto me, 
I will do : come, therefore, I pray thee, curse me this people. 
'^ And Balaam answered, and said unto the servants of Balak, 
If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I can- 

speak my wood faithfully,' &c. ; and in the 
apostles' practice, who saith, ' I have not 
shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of 
God,' Acts XX. 27. 

Ver. 14. — Balaam refuseth to come, J 
In Gr. Balaam will not come. Obseive 
Satan's practice against God's word, seeking 
to lessen the same, and that by degrees from 
hand to hand, till either he bring it to no- 
thing, or, at least pervert it to a wrong pur- 
pose. Balaam told the princes less than God 
spake to him ; and they relate to Balak less 
than Balaam told them ; that when the an- 
swer came to the king, it was not now the 
word of God, but of man: it was only Balaam 
refuseth to come; as if God had not forbidden 
or hindered this action, but only there wanted 
a will in the prophet; there being no word 
brought either of the Lord's will touching his 
people, or of their blessed state, as was sig- 
nified in ver. 12. Hereupon grew occasion 
for this mischief to be further followed ; and 
Balaam was the second time solicited with 
stronger temptations than before, ver. 15, 16, 

Ver. 15 More and more honocr- 

ABLE,] Oi', greater and more honourable. Of 
theHebs. Sol. Jarchi gathereth from Balaam's 
words, * to go with you,' ver. 13, that he 
being haughty and of a proud spirit, insinuat- 
ed thereby, as if with them he might not go, but 
with other greater than they might: but this is 
uncertain. The Holy Spirit showeth ratliei-, 
how Balaam's word (as it was related) was 
so far from causing the king to leave off" his 
wicked purpose, that it was as a whetstone to 
sharpen it ; and caused him to attempt it 
afresh, with stronger assaults both in persons 
and proffers. 

Ver. 16. — Be not letted,] Or, be not 
forbidden or withholden ; the Gr. translateth, 
/ pray thee delay not (or slack not) to come 
nnlo me : which phrase is used in Acts ix. 
38, where the disciples send to ' Peter, de- 
siring him that he would not delay to come 
to them.' It meaneth here, that Balaam 
neither of his own will, nor by any other 

means would Oe stayed or hindered from com- 

Ver. 17. — Honouring I will honour 
thee,] That is, 1 will surely and highly hon- 
our thee, which the Gr. explaineth, / will 
honourably honour thee. This offer, as it 
agreed with the majesty of the king, so wifli 
the ambition and covetousness of the prophet: 
and Satan so carried the matter between them, 
as made most for his advantage. By this 
bait he allured the woman to eat of the for- 
bidden fruit, promising unto her opening of 
eyes, and likeness unto God, Gen. iii. ; and 
by it he hoped to have taken Christ himself, 
when he promised to give him ' all the king- 
doms of the world, and the glory of them,' 
Matt. iv. 8, 9 ; and now with it he prevaileth 
over Balaam, and still doth over prophets of 
Balaam's spirit. I will do,] In Gr. / rvill 
do unto thee. The kings of the earth, if 
they may have their desires fulfilled, will 
honour their prophets, and do all that they 
say. Thus the prophets of Baal were fed at 
Jezebel's table, when the prophets of the 
Lord were fed in caves ' with bread and 
water/ 1 Kings xviii. 13, 19 ; and the wit- 
nesses of Christ prophesy in sackcloth, Rev. 
xi. 3. 

V^er. 18. — I cannot go beyond,] Or, / 
may not transgress. The word signifieth 
sometimes inability, whereby a man cannot ; 
somes unlawfulness, whereby one may not, 
and consequently will not do a thing; as in 
Gen. xxxiv. 14; xliii. 32; xliv. 26. Ba- 
laam's speech here, seemeth to imply all ; 
for as he might not lawfully, being forbidden 
of God ; so neither could he, being restrained 
of God, who would not sutler him to curse 
Israel. But for Balaam's will, it was cor- 
rupt, being in love with ' the wages of un- 
righteousness,' 1 Pet. ii. 15; therefore he 
sought of God tliat he might have done it, Num. 
xxiii. 1, 14 ; but the Lord would not hear 
him, Deut. xxiii. 5. The mouth,] That is, 
as the Gr. openeth it, the word, in Chald. 
the decree of the word of the Lord. Jeho- 
vah MY GoD,j By this it appearelh, that 



not go beyond the mouth of Jehovah my God, to do less or more. 
'" And now, I pray you, tarry you also here this night, tliat I may 
know what Jehovali will speak unto me more. ^^ And God came 
unto Balaam by night., and said unto him. If the men be come to 
call thee, rise up, go with them -. but yet the word which I shall 
speak unto thee, that slialt thou do. -' And Balaam rose up 
in the morning, and saddled his ass, and went with the princes of 

Balaam tlie Syrian (and so the people to 
whom he was a prophet,) did know and wor- 
sliip tlie true God, though corruptly, and it 
may be other gods also with him. And that 
olher peoples, as the Temanites, Shuhites, 
Naamathites, and Buzites, kept the know- 
ledge and service of the true God, is manifest 
l)y Job's history. Job ii. 11 ; xxxii. 2; xlii. 
7 — 9. Also the name of God, Jehovah, was 
both known and pronounced by Balaam, and 
other people, together with the Hebrews, who 
now many ages since have abstained from 
pronouncing of it, as is noted on Num. vi. 
24. Less or more,] Or, little or great : 
understand little thing or great, (as the phrase 
is more fully expressed in 1 Sam. xx. 2 ; 
xxii. 15; xxv. 36;) meaning any thing at 
all ; to which the Gr. addeth, of mine ovni 
mind. In Balaam here is a picture of cove- 
tous hypocrites, which pretend they would 
not do against the word of God for an house 
full of gold, when they will do it for an hand- 
ful: as this piophet laboured with all his 
might to do the thing which God had for- 
bidden liim. 

Ver. 19.— That I may know,] Or, and 
I will knoiv, (that is, inquire,) what Jehovah 
lui'l add to speak with me, that is, will speak 
more unto me. Here he beginneth to disco- 
ver himself and his love to Balak's wages, in 
that he rested not in God's will, plainly re- 
vealed to him before: and that he tempteth 
God by this second consultation, as if he were 
changeable like himself, and would respect 
the person of the king or prophet, to' speak 
otherwise than he had done. For where he 
pretended to know more, he intended and de- 
sired to hear otherwise, and contrary to that 
which he knew to be the mind of God. But 
God's people should rest in that which they 
know to be his word and will : and if any 
teach otherwise, let him be accursed, Gal. 
i. S, 9. 

Ver. 20 — If the men be come,] That 
is, forasmuch as, or seeing the men are come. 
So the word if, meaneth also in Song i. 8. 
Go WITH them,] God's permitting of Balaam 
to go with these second ambassadors, when 
he liad forbidden him to go with the first, 
was in wrath against the prophet, who stood 
not in the Lord's first counsel; and therefore 
he was in danger to have died by the swoid 

of the angel, ver. 33 ; and was indeed slain 
by the sword of Israel, Josh. xiii. 22. In the 
meantime, both he and the king had hope 
that they might effect their evil purpose, see- 
ing that God himself seemed to change his 
mind: so being hardened, they went on with 
altars and sacrifices, to procure leave from 
God to curse his people, Num. xxiii. 1. For 
when men will not hearken to the voice of 
the Lord, he withdraweth his grace, and giv- 
eth them up to the perverse intentions of 
their own heart, and suffers them to walk 
* in their own counsels,' Ps. Ixxxi. 12, 13. 
But YET,] Or, but surely the word, &c. By 
this restraint, God signifieth the contiiuiance 
of his good will towards Israel, though in 
such words, as Balaam might still conceive 
hope to obtain his desire : for the first answer 
was plain, ' thou shalt not curse the people ' 
ver. 12 ; in which he not resting, hath now 
a darker oracle, ' thou shalt do the word that 
I shall speak unto thee,' when he knew not 
what God would speak. Thus, when the 
will of God is known and not regarded, he 
taketh fiom men the certainty of their know- 
ledge, and causeth his word to be dark and 
doubtful unto them, so that ' they stumble at 
it,' 1 Pet. ii. S ; the sun goeth down over 
the prophets, and the day is dark over them, 
Mic. iii. C. Balaam thought he should have 
heard more from God, but heareth less, and 
losetli that which he had learned before. 
That shalt thou do,] This both taught 
Balaam his duty, that he ought to do it wil- 
lingly, and closely signified that that he should 
do, though against his will. For, ' the Lord 
bringeth to nought the counsel of the heathen, 
he maketh of none effect the devices of the 
people : but the counsel of the Lord standeth 
for ever,' Ps. xxxiii. 10, 11. And he re- 
straineth the wicked of their will, putting his 
hook in their nose, and his bridle in their 
lips. Is. xxxvii. 29 ; even Satan himself is 
limited, (as in Job's case. Job i, 12 ; ii. 6;) 
and cannot hurt the very swine, without 
leave from the Lord, Matt. viii. 31, 32. 

Ver. 21. — In the morning,] As Abra- 
ham being spoken to of God to sacrifice his 
son, ' rose early in the morning and saddled 
his ass, and took two of his young men with 
him,' &c.. Gen. xxii. 3; showing his readi- 
ness to obey the will of the Lord, though with 



Moab. ^ And God's anger was kindled because he went, and tlie 
angel of Jehovali set liimself in tlie way for an adversary against 
Iiim : and he was riding upon his ass, and two of his young men 
were with liini. ^^ And the ass saw the angel of Jehovali standing 
in the way, and his sword drawn in liis hand, and the ass turned 
aside out of the way and went into the field: and Balaam smote the 

the loss of his only son whom he loved: so 
Balaam here ' riseth early in the morning, 
saddleth his ass, and taketh two of his young 
men with him,' ver. 22 ; showing his greedi- 
ness to get preferment, and the wages of ini- 
quity which he loved, tiiough with the loss 
of the favour of God. and (in the end) of his 
own life, God's children run not so fast in 
' the way of his commandments,' when he 
enlargeth their heart, Ps. cxix. 32 ; but the 
children of Satan run as fast ' to evil, and 
malce haste to shed innocent blood,' Is. lix. 
7. ' They turn and prepare themselves 
without iniquity in God's people,' Ps, lix. 4, 
5: 'So are the ways of e\'Qry one that is 
greedy of gain, which taketh away the life of 
the owners thereof,' Prov. i. IG, 19. 

Ver. 22. — God's anuee w.^s kindled,] 
In Gr. God was angry in wrath. The judg- 
ments of God are ' a great depth,' Ps. xxxvi. 
7; he is often ofltjnded, and that justly, when 
men do that which he saith do, because they 
do it not with that mind, and to that end 
which he requireth, Is. x. 6, 7; and his word 
or leave, is in displeasure against sinners 
that have no love to the truth. The young 
prophets of Jericho would have leave to send 
fifty men to seek Elijah's body, but Elisha 
forbade them : after by their importunacy he 
said. Send. They sent, and sought, but 
found him not: then Elisha gave them this 
reproof, ' did not I say unto you, Go not, 2 
Kings ii. 16 — 18. As they ought to have 
rested in the prophet's first word, so should 
Balaam have done here in the first answer of 
God ; and for not doing it wrath from the 
Lord was upon him. The angel of Jeho- 
vah,] This angel speaketh as the Lord him- 
self, ' only the woid that I shall speak unto 
thee, that shalt thou speak,' ver. 35. Where- 
fore this seemeth to be Christ, ' the angel 
which redeemed Jacob from all evil,' Gen. 
xlviii. 16; and now cometh to redeem Jacob's 
children from the curse intended against them, 
the angel that was sent before Israel, to keep 
them in their way, in whom Jehovah's name 
was, Exod. xxiii. 20, 21 ; even Michael the 
great prince, which standcth for his people, 
Dan. X. 21 ; xii. 1. An adversary,] In 
Heb. Hatan, which name when it is used for 
an adversary to God's people, usually mean- 
eth the devil. Job i. 6; Matt. iv. 10; Rev. 
3 ii. 9 ; XX. 2; but here being spoken of an 

adversaiy to the wicked, and defender of the 
church, is applied to an holy angel, or to the 
prince of angels and men. And here the 
love of God unto Israel appeareth, that when 
he giveth a wicked man leave to go out 
against them, forthwith he sendeth his angel 
to resist him, and to stand for the help of 
his chosen; as ' all the angels are minister- 
ing spirits, sent forth to minister for them 
who shall be heirs of salvation,' Heb. i. 14. 
Two of his young men,] That is, of his ser- 
vants: see the notes on Exod. xxxiii. 11. So 
Abraham went with two of his young men.' 
Gen. xxii. 3. 

Ver. 23. — The ass saw the angel,] It 
pleaseth God to confound the wisdom of the 
wise and arrogant, by base and contemptible 
means, ' for the foolishness of God is wiser 
than (the wisdom of) men,' 1 Cor. i. 25. 
Balaam was a great prophet, accustomed to 
visions and revelations, yet saw not with 
his eyes, neither knew with all his skill (ver. 
34,) that the angel stood against him, whom 
his ass, a rude and silly beast, did see and 
avoid to the safety of his master: and he that 
could advertise others of things that should 
befal them, Num. xxiv. 14, could not adver- 
tise himself of the danger of death which was 
before him. So God ' destroyeth the wisdom 
of the wise, and bringeth to nought the un- 
derstanding of the prudent,' 1 Cor. i. 19. 
When visions appeared, the prophets were 
wont to see them, and others in their com- 
pany saw them not, as in Dan. x. 7 ; Acts 
ix. 7 ; here the prophet seeth nothing, but 
the beast under him hath the eyes opened to 
see the appearance. His sword drawn,] 
A sign of wrath and vengeance; so David 
saw the angel that plagued Israel with ' a 
drawn sword in his hand,' 1 Chron. xxi. 16; 
and Joshua the like in that angel's hand, who, 
as captain of the Loid's host, was to destroy 
the Canaanites, Josh. v. 13, 14. Balaam 
went with a purpose to curse Israel, and after 
to have them killed with the sword : his curses 
would have been ' like the piercings of a 
sword,' Prov. xii. IS ; he had whetted his 
' tongue as a sword, and bent liis arrow, even 
a bitter word,' Ps. Ixiv. 4; the Lord to re- 
ward him according to his works, sendeth out 
a sword against him. The ass turned 
aside,] The beasts, and fowls, and other bru- 
tish creatures, are often taken to teach and 



ass to turn licr into the way. " And the angel of Jehovah stood 
in a patli of the vineyards, a wall being on this side, and a wall on 
that side. ^* And the ass saw the angel of Jehovah, and she 
thrust herself unto the wall, and thrust Balaam's foot against 
the wall : and he smote her again. ^^ And the angel of Jeho- 
vah went further and stood in a narrow place, where was no 
way to turn aside, to the right hand or to the left. ^' And the 
ass saw the angel of Jehovah, and she fell down under Balaam ; and 
Balaam's anger was kindled, and he smote the ass with a staff. 
*® And Jehovah opened the mouth of the ass, and she said unto 
Balaam, What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me 

made him to suspect at least, that this jour- 
ney should be unfortunate: see 1 Sam. vi. 2, 
3, 9. But God ' taketh the wise in their 
own craftiness, and the counsel of the fro- 
ward is carried headlong: they meet with 
darkness in the day time, and grope in the 
noon day, as in the night. But he saveth 
the poor from the sword, from their mouth, 
and from the hand of the mighty,' Job v. 13 
— 15. The children of God have the angels 
to keep them in all their ways, and to bear 
them up, lest they dash their foot against a 
stone, Ps. xci. 11, 12. But Balaam tempt- 
ing the Lord, hath his angel to withstand 
him, whereby his foot is crushed against the 
wall; yet maketh he no good use thereof. 


this carriage of the angel, the Lord would 
have us see the proceeding of his judgments 
against sinners ; first more mildly, shaking 
his rod at them, but letting them go untouch- 
ed ; then coming nearer, he toucheth them 
with an easy correction, as it were wringing 
their foot against a wall ; but bringing them 
at last to such a strait, as they can no way 
escape his hand, but must fall before him. 

Ver. 27. — Balaam's anger was kin- 
dled,] 'The wrath of man worketh not 
the righteousness of God,' James i. 20; ' but 
a furious man aboundeth in transgression,' 
Prov. xxix. 22. Balaam learned no good 
by this strange carriage of his beast, but is 
more enraged and smiteth it, not knowing 
that by means of it his own life was saved, 
ver. 33. This foolishness of the prophet the 
dumb beast reproveth, ver. 28, &c. and in 
him God would let us see the nature of 
wicked men, which make no good use of his 
works, neither see his providence in the 
creatures, the service whereof he lendeth 
unto them. 

Ver. 28. — Opened the mouth of the 
ass,] That ' the dumb ass spake with man's 
voice,' 2 Pet. ii. 16, by which miracle the 
prophet had not only a rebuke, but a cause of 
fear and astonishment, yet hardened he him- 
self against it also, and pleaded for to main- 
tain his folly, ver. 29, so no works, signs or 

convince men, Job xii. 7, 8 ; Is. i. 3 ; Jer. 
viii. 7 ; and Balaam's folly was reproved here 
by the action of this dumb beast, as after it 
was by words. Num. xxii. 28, 30 ; 2 Pet. 
li. 16. Balaam's way was perverse before 
the Lord, ver. 32; he had forsaken the right 
way, and went astray, 2 Pet. ii. 15 ; the ass 
turning aside out of the way, might have 
taught him to have desisted from his evil 
course. The ass avoideth the danger and 
evil before his eyes ; the master being blind- 
ed with ambition and covetousness, seeth it 
not, but would go on to destruction, ver. 33. 
SxMOte the ass,] The Gr. here addeth, with 
his rod (or staff,) which is taken from ver. 
27. As he that judgeth another, condemneth 
himself doing the same things, Rom. ii. 1 ; 
so the prophet in smiting his beast, showed 
himself to be worthy of more stripes, doing 
much worse than it. ' A whip for the horse, 
a bridle for the ass, and a rod for the fool's 
back,' Prov. xxvi. 3. 

Ver. 24. — And a wall,] In Chald. and 
another wall. The angel needed not have 
chosen such places ; but these things happen- 
ed unto Balaam for ensamples, and are writ- 
ten for our admonition ; for when men goon 
in a way not good, if they escape one peril, 
they fall into another greater, and at last into 
inevitable danger; as the prophet signifieth 
by ' fear, and pit, and snare ; he that fleeth 
from the fear shall fall into the pit ; and he 
that getteth up out of the pit shall be taken 
in the snare,' Jer. xlviii. 43, 44. 

Ver. 25. — And thrust Balaam's foot,] 
Or pressed, crushed his foot. This word is 
used in 2 Kings vi. 32, where the king's 
messenger, who was sent to take away Eli- 
sha's head, was ' pressed (or crushed) in the 
door.' God by this second sign came nearer 
unto Balaam, who went on in his perverse 
way, and withal discovereth the vanity of his 
art, who, being a diviner, could not presage 
the evil that should befal him, though such 
things as tliese happened in his way, which, 
in the opinion of vain men, are signs of ill 
luck: and therefore by the grounds of his 
own craft, should have turned him back, or 



thcse lliree times? " And Balaam said unto the ass, Because tliou 
liast mocked me ; I would tliere were a sword in mine liand, for 
now I would kill thee. ^° And the ass said unto Balaam, Am not 
I tliine ass whicli tliou hast ridden upon ever since / was thine unto 
tliis day, was I ever wont to do so unto thee ? ^' And he said, Nay. 
And Jehovah uncovered the e3'es of Balaam, and he saw the 
angel of Jehovah standing in the way, and his sword drawn in his 
hand, and he bended down the liead, and bowed himself down on 
his face. ^' And the angel of Jehovah said unto him. Wherefore 
liast thou smitten thine ass these three times ? Behold, I came out 

niiraole?, are able to change the hardness of 
man's heart, but grace from God only, John 
xii. 37, 38. And here we may observe how 
the devil, to draw into sin, chose the serpent 
fur his instrument, the most subtile beast of 
the field, Gen. iii. 1, hut God to rebuke and 
convince the wicked, useth tlie ass, the most 
silly of all beasts: showing as in a figure, 
how Satan's continual practice is to corrupt 
men's minds from the simplicity that is in 
Christ, ' by deceitful woikeis, by the sleight 
of men, and cunning craftiness, whereb)" 
they lie in wait to deceive,' 2 Cor. xi. 3, 13; 
Eph. iv. 14, while Christ sendeth men to 
preach the gospel, ' not with wisdom of 
words,' but with the plain demonstration of 
the truth, and chooseth • the foolish things of 
the world to confound the wise, the weak 
things of the world to confound the mighty, 
and liase things of the world, and things des- 
pised, yea and things which are not, to bring 
to nought things that are,' 1 Cor. i. 17, 27, 
28. ' For the children of this world are in 
their generation wiser than the children of 
light,' Luke xvi. 8. 

VeR. 29. — I H'OULD KILL THEE,] The 

prophet is neither dismayed with the speak- 
ing of his dumb beast, nor abated from his 
wrath, but increaseth in evil, who before he 
knew or inquired of the cause, would pre- 
sently kill the ass that saved his life. ' A 
righteous man regardeth the life of his beast, 
but th« bowels of the wicked are cruel,' 
Prov. xii. 10. If Balaam looked for such 
good service of the brute beast, and would 
not be mocked or abused thereby, he being a 
reasonable creature, and wiser than many, 
should much less have mocked with GoH, 
and resisted his counsel: but by his own 
words against his ass, he condemneth him- 
self, being guilty of death for his sin against 
God, as the angel showetli in ver. 32, 33. 

Vek. 30. — Ever since I was thine,] 
Or, since thou hast had me: the Gr. Irans- 
lateth it, frotn thy youth : the Chald. since 
thou hast been: and the Heb. phrase some- 
time so meaneth, as in Gen. xlviii. 15, 
* since I was;' where Uie Gr. also oxpourjdeth 


it, from my youth. Was I ever wont,] 
Or, have I accustoming been accustomed? 
By this demand, the beast conviuceth the 
prophet's foolishness, who should have ga- 
thered that some extraordinary cause moved 
it thus to do, seeing it had never done so be- 
fore: and teacheth us, that when the crea- 
tures depart from their kind and customed 
obedience unto us, we should look for the 
cause thereof in ourselves: for our sins against 
God occasion the creatures to rebel against 
us. Lev. xxvi. 20 — 22. 

Ver. 31. — Uncovered the eyes,] Open- 
ed them to see the angel as the ass did before 
him, ver. 23, signifying, that as men cannot 
see the marvellous things of his law, unless 
he uncover their eyes, Ps. cxix. 18, so nei- 
ther can they behold the deaths and dangers 
that are to come on them for the transgres- 
sion of his law, unle.^s he reveal them, Is. 
xlvii. 11. 'The way of the wicked is as 
darkness, they know not at what they stum- 
ble,' Prov. iv. 19. Bowed himself down 
ON his face,] Or. to his face; as the Gr. 
translateth, he bowed down to his face, that 
is, worshipped the face or person of the angel. 
Ver. 32. — Wherefore hast thou smit- 
ten, &c.] The angel rebuketh the misusage 
of his beast, which ought not to be smitten 
without cause ; how much less then might he 
smite innocent men with the curse of his 
tongue? And God, who ' saveth man and 
beast,' Ps. xxxvi. 7, and commanded that 
the beasts also should rest from their toil on 
the Sabbath day, Deut. v. 14, and defendelh 
their innocency against their cruel masters, 
will much more defend the cause of his people 
against their wrongful oppressors, Exod. xxii. 
23. Thy way is perverse,] Or, the way 
which thou goest is perverse, that is, tliy 
pur[iose and intent in going this journey, is 
contrary to my will which I firs-t revealed 
unto thee, ver. 12. The Chald. paraphias- 
eth thus, " because it is manifest before me, 
that thou wouldest go in a way against me." 
The apostle openeth and applieth it against 
the Balaamites of iiis time, in tliese words; 
' an heart they have exercised with covetous 



to be ail adversary, because thy way is perverse before me. ^^ And 
the ass saw me, and turned aside before me these three times: un- 
less she had turned aside from me, surely now also I had slain thee 
and saved her alive. " And Balaam said unto the angel of Jeho- 
vah, I have sinned, for I knew not that thou stoodst against me in 
the way : and now if it be evil in thine eyes, I will get me back 
again. ^' And the angel of Jeliovah said unto Balaam, Go with 
the men, but only the word that I shall speak unto thee, that shalt 
thou speak : and Balaam went with the princes of Balak. ^® And 
Balak heard that Balaam was come, and he went out to meet him, 
unto a city of Moab Avhich is by the border of Anion, which is in 
the utmost of the border. ^' And Balak said unto Balaam, Did 
not I sending send unto thee to call thee ? Wherefore earnest thou 

practices, children of the curse, which have 
forsaken the right way, and are gone astray, 
following the way of Balaam (the son) of 
Bo'or, who loved the wages of unrighteous- 
ness,' 2 Pet. ii. 14, 15. The apostle Jude 
(in ver. 11,) calleth it 'the error of Balaam.' 

Ver. 33. — Turned aside before me,] 
Or, at my face or presence: so after, turned 
aside from me, or, from my face or pre- 
sence. 1 HAD SLAIN THEE,] Or, killed thee'. 
in the angel's former words the justice of his 
judgment is implied ; for if Balaam did 
smite his ass, for turning aside out of the 
way, ver. 23, and would have killed her for 
falling down under him, though thereby his 
life was saved, ver. 29, how much more de- 
served he himself to be smitten and killed, 
for departing out of the Lord's way, and fol- 
lowing his own crooked ways, with a purpose 
to destroy the lives of his people Israel. 
Therefore a wo is pronounced on those that 
run greedily after Balaam's error for reward, 
Jude ver. 11. Saved her alive,] As we 
have an example in the prophet, who being 
disobedient unto the mouth of the Lord, 'a 
lion met him by the way and slew him, but 
the ass whereon he rode was not torn,' 1 
Kings xiii. 23, 24, 26, 28. 

Ver. 34 — I have sinned,] This seemeth 
to be acknowledged, for his smiting of the 
ass, and his reason following so showeth: but 
the sin that lay hid in his heart, his wicked 
purpose and covetonsness, he dissembleth, 
and prosecuteth still unto the end. If it be 
evil in thine eyes,] That is, as the Gr. 
translateth, if it please thee not; meaning, 
that he should go on his journey. He could 
not be ignorant, that his evil intent to curse 
God's pi'ople for his own promotion, was 
most evil ill the Lord's eyes, and the cause 
why the angt;l came out against him; but 
concealing that, he speaketh of his outward 
actions, and faintly ofi'ereth to turn back, 
with an 'if it were evil.' His love to the 

wages of unrighteousness caused him thus to 
speak, together with the leave which God 
had given him, in ver. 20, fain he would go, 
but if necessity constrain him he will turn 

Ver. 35. — Go with the men,] When 
neither the first words of God who foibade him, 
ver. 12, nor the signs and dangers which met 
him by the way, could turn his heart, or de- 
liver him from his error, the Lord again bid- 
deth him go on, so giving him up to his own 
lusts ; which he followed to his destruction. 
See the notes on ver. 20. So Jarchi ex- 
plaineth these words, " Go with the men, for 
thy portion is with them, and thine end to 
perish out of the world." 

Ver. 36. — He went out to meet him, | 
For to welcome him, and entertain him with 
honour; as Moses to like end, went out to 
meet his father-in-law, Exod. xviii. 7, and 
Joseph went out to meet Israel his father, 
Gen. xlvi. 29, and the kings of Sodom and 
of Salem, to meet Abraham, Gen. xiv. 17, 
IS; Heb. vii. I. It showeth how greatly 
Balaam was respected of the king, as false 
prophets have always been of wicked rulers, 
because they serve their lusts. It had been 
Moab's duty to have met their brother Israel 
with bread and water in the way when they 
came out of Egypt: hut lo the king of Moab 
goeth out (even to the utmost border of his 
land) to meet this soothsayer, whom he had 
hiied to curse Israel ; therefore God com- 
mandeth his people not to seek their peace or 
good for ever, Deut. xxiii. 3 — 6. Arnon,] 
The border between Moab and the Amorites, 
Num. xxi. 13, 26. 

Ver. 37. — Did not I sending send,] 
That is, earnestly send unto thee. Am I 
not able indeed,] a vain boast, and such 
as had no e<i'ect; for he was not able indeed 
to honour Balaam in the end, but sent him 
away in wrath, and with disgrace, confessing 
that the Lord had kept him back from hoii- 



not unto me ? Am I not able indeed to honour thee ? '' And Ba- 
laam said unto Balak, Lo I am come unto thee ; now am I able at 
all to speak any tiling ? the word that God shall put in my mouth, 
that shall I speak. '* And Balaam went with Balak, and they 
came unto Kirjath-huzoth. ^" And Balak slew oxen and sheep, and 
sent to Balaam, and the princes that were with him. ^' And it was 
in the morning that Balak took Balaam, and brought him up into 
the high places of Baal, that he might see from thence the utmost 
part of the people. 

our, Num. xxiv. 10, 11. But as sataci liim- 
selt' proudly oflereth the kingdoms and glory 
of the woild to those that will worship him. 
Matt. iv. 8, 9, so wicked princes do oiler 
promotion to false prophets and flatterers, 
which oftentimes God suliereth them not to 
perform: and they turn the edge of their 
Bword against the Israel of God, which they 
are often forced to put up empty into tlie 
sheath, tlie Lord turning tlieir intended curse 
into a blessing. 

Veb. 3S. — Aim I able at all,] The 
word is doubled for more vehemency, can- 
ning can 1 speak; that is, surely I cannot in 
any wise. He speaketh to excuse himself, 
signifying his willingness to gratify the king, 
as ap|ieared by his coming to him, but show- 
ing withal his inability to do ought against 
God or his people. For the Lord their re- 
deemer, he ' frustrateth the tokens of the 
liars, and maketli diviners mad; he turneth 
wise men backward, and maketh their know- 
ledge foolish, Is. xliv. 25. 

Ver. 39. — KiRjATH-HDZoTH,] Which is 
by interpretation, the city of the outmost 
parts, or the city of streets. It is the name 
of a city, of the situation in the utmost part 
of the land ; as the Chald. interpreteth it, 
the city of his borders; and the old Lat. ver- 
sion calleth it, "the city which was in the 
utmost borders of his kingdom:" which some 
think to be Ar, forementioned in Num. xxi. 
2S, called ' the corner of Moab,' in Jer. 
xlviii. 45. Sol. Jarchi in his annot. on this 
l)lace expoundeth it, "a city full of streets, 
men, and children in the outer parts of it." 

Ver. 40. — Balak slew oxen,] Either for 
sacrifice, (as the word is often used for sacri- 
ficing) or for a feast to welcome Balaam, or 
for both ; as the Moabites used such idolatrous 
feasts whereof the people did eat, Num. xxv. 
1, 2. Thus Balak rejoiced at the coming ot 
his friend, and received him with all royal 
solemnity. Wherein as we see the enter- 
tainment tiiat this wicked prophet had, that 
his honour and good cheer might make him 
to forget the perils which he had passed, and 
might again fall into by the hand of God: so 
may we observe the contrary dealing of the 

Lord, and of this king. The angel of the 
L<ird came out as an adversary to withstand 
him; the king as a friend to welcome him. 
The king blameth him for coming no sooner; 
the angel for going so soon. Tlie angel met 
him with a sword, to signify that tliat should 
be his end if he went on in his wickedness; 
the king receiveth him with a banquet, and 
all hono\irable entertainment, that by it, and 
hope of more gain and (iieferment, he might 
be encouraged to go on with his wicked en- 
terprise. Between these two, Balaam choos- 
eth the worse part for the honour of this 
world, though even that also was taken away 
from him. ' As the partridge sitteth on 
eggs, and hatcheth them not: so he that 
getteth riches and not by right, shall leave 
them in the midst of his days, and at his 
end shall be a fool,' Jer. xvii. II. 

Ver. 41. — In the morning,] That is, the 
next day early after the feast. Thus Balak 
delayeth no time to accomplish his evil pur- 
pose, begiiniing the day with mischief. David 
was diligent in the mornings to destroy all tho 
wicked of the land, Ps. ci. 8. Balak riseth 
early to destroy the people of God, and is of 
them whose ' feet run to evil, and they make 
haste to shed blood,' Prov. i. 16. The high 
PLACES OF Baal,] In Gr. the pillar of 
Baal; the Chald. expoundeth it, the high 
place of his fear, meaning of his god or idol 
whom he feared, (as God is called 'the feai,' 
in Ps. Ixxvi. 12,) and Thargum Jonathan 
nameth it "the fear (or idol) of Peor;" 
whereof see Num. xxv. 3. Baal (by inter- 
pretation, a lord, master or patro^i) is a 
name given to the idols of many nations, 
which they used to worship on high places, 
hills or mountains, Deut. xii. 2. And here 
do Balak and Balaam build altars and ofier 
sacrifices. Num. xxiii. I, that they might 
curse Israel; for as God sendeth his people 
help from his sanctuary, and supporteth them 
out of Zion, Ps. XX. 2, and cometh unto 
them to bless them, in all places where ho 
putteth the memorial of his name, Exod. xx. 
24, so the idolators Uiought of thi^ir high 
places, that they were the fittest to obtain 
their requests in, from the hand of God, 



though it were to curse his people. That 
HE MIGHT SEE,] Or, and he saw, meaning 
Balaam: the Gr. translatefli, and he (to wit, 
Balali) shoiced him a part of the people, to 

wit, of Israel: whom he would have him to 
behold, tiiat liis curse might be the more 
powerful and eiiectual. See Num. xxiii. 13. 


1. Balaam and Bakik offer sacrifices. 4. God meeteth Balaam, and 
putteth in his mouth a hlessing, which offendeth Balak. 13. They come 
to another place to curse the people of tlie Lord, and there again they 
offer sacrifices. 16. God meeteth Balaam, and putteth in his mouth a 
more ample hlessing. 26. Balak being more offended, hringeth Balaam 
to a third place, where also they sacrifice. 

' And Balaam said unto Balak, Build me here seven altars, and 
prepare me here seven bullocks, and seven rams. ^ And Balak did 

Ver. 1. — Build me here,] Or, build for 
me in this place seven altars. Balaam here 
bevvrayeth his impiety, when instead of dis- 
suading tlie king from his evil enterprise, by 
the word of God, who had forbidden him to 
curse Israel, Num. xxii. 12, he attempteth 
together with him, to effect his wicked pur- 
pose ; and that (which is worst of all) under 
the colour of religious actions, building altars, 
and offering sacrifices to God, hereby to in- 
treat and obtain leave of him to curse his 
people. For it was the manner in those days 
to seek the Lord, and obtain his favour by sa- 
crifice, Gen. xlvi. 1, 2, &c.; 1 Sam. xiii. 9, 
12; Hos. V. 6. Thus Balaam had soon for- 
gotten the oracle of God, the sword of the 
angel, and dangers that he so hardly escaped 
by the way, and greedily runneth after the 
error of his evil heart, fulfilling the saying of 
the prophet, ' Let favour be shewed to the 
wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness,' 
Is. xxvi. 10. Prepare me,] Or, prepare 
for me. As Balak said, ' Curse me Jacoh, 
and defy Israel;' so Balaam saith, ' Build me 
altars, and prepare me sacrifices;' his intent 
beiug not to honour God, but to curse his 
people. Thus religion is made a cloak of 
wickedness. 'The sacrifice of the wicked is 
abomination: how much more when he bring- 
elh it with a wicked mind,' Prov. xxi. 27. 
God desireth ' mercy and not sacrifice,' Hos. 
vi. 6. But Balaam was of their religion 
which ' think that gain is godliness,' 1 Tim. 
vi. 5, and for the wages of iniquity, abuseth 
the ordinances of the blessed God, unto cui-s- 
ing and cruelty. Seven bullocks,] As 
bullocks and rams were sacrifices which God 
himself required in the law. Lev. i., and 
which the patriarchs had learned from God 
of old. Gen. xv. 9, so seven was a number 

sanctified of God for many mysteries, (as is 
noted on Lev. iv. 6,) and particularly in sa- 
crifices, as he said to Job's friends, ' Take 
unto you now seven bullocks and seven rams, 
and gc to my servant Job, and offer up for 
yourselves a burnt-oflering,' Job xlii. 8. So 
at the bringing up of the ark, David and the 
elders of Israel ' offered seven bullocks and 
seven rams,' 1 Chron. xv. 26, and Ezekias 
with the rulers ' brought seven bullocks, and 
seven rams, and seven lambs, and seven he- 
goats for a sin-offering for the kingdom,' &c. 
2 Chron. xxix. 21. Wherefore the Aramites, 
Moabites, and other nations, having learned 
from their ancestors the manner of sacrificing 
unto God, retained it till Moses' time, and 
long after, though corrupted with their own 
superstitions, and abused to much impiety. 
Heieupon Balaam sacrificeth to the Lord in 
this sort, to purchase favour of him, and 
vainly boasteth unto God himself of his good 
work, ver. 4. And according to this number, 
it is seven times said of Balaam, that ' he 
took up his parable,' Num. xxiii. 7, 18; xxi v. 
3, 15, 20, 21, 23. 

Ver. 2 — Balak did,] Though Chemosh 
was Balak's god, Num. xxi. 29, yet now by 
Balaam's counsel he sacrificeth to Jehovah, 
the God of Israel, ver. 3, 17, as unstable men 
in hope to obtain their purposes are easily 
drawn to communicate with all religions true 
or false, and to make a sinful mixture of them, 
2 Kings xvii. 28, 29—33; Ezra iv. 1, 2; 
Acts xvii. 23. On an altar,] That is, as 
the Chald. explaineth it, on every altar. The 
altar being an holy ordinance, which sancti- 
fieth the oflering, Matt, xxiii. 19, and a 
figure of Christ, Heb. xiii. 10 : Job xvii. 19, 
they, for the more sanctification, offer their 
gifts on several altars. Wherein they add 



as Balaam had spoken, and Balak and Balaam offered a bullock 
and a ram on an altar. ^ And Balaam said unto Balak ; Stand 
by thy burnt- offering, and I will go, peradventure Jehovah will 
come to meet me, and what word soever he showeth me, I will 
tell thee : and he went to an higli place. * And God met Balaam, 
and he said unto liim, I have prepared seven altars, and I have 
offered a bullock and a ram on an altar. ^ And Jehovah put a 
word in Balaam's mouth, and said. Return unto Balak, and tJnis 
thou shalt speak. ® And he returned unto him, and lo he stood by 
his burnt offering ; lie, and all the princes of Moab. ' And he took 
up his parable, and said, Balak tlie king of Moab hath brought 

superstition to the religion received from the 
fathers: for holy men used one altar in a 
place, though many sacrifices. Gen. viii. 20; 
uii. 7; xiii. 4, 18; xxvi. 25; xxxiii. 20; 
XXXV. 3; Exod. xvii. 15; xxiv. 4, but 
idolaters accustomed themselves to many 
altars, 2 Kings xviii. 22 ; Jer. xi. 13 ; Hos. 
X. 1 ; xii. 11 ; Amos iii. 14; Isa. xvii. 8, 
such many altars were multiplied to sin, Hos. 
viii. 11. 

Ver. 3. — Stand,] Or, present thyself, to 
wit, unto (iod, here by iky burnt offering , 
and go not with me, as they were wont to 
stand by their sacrifices whilst they burned, 
and present themselves there the Lord, 
who first had respect unto the offerer, and 
then unto the gift, Gen. iv. 4, 5. So Balak 
and his princes were to stay there, if perhaps 
God would respect their persons. Perad- 
venture JEHOVAH WILL COME,] Or, as the 
Gr. translateth, if perhaps the Lord will 
appear. Balaam went now to meet with 
enchantments, or signs of good luck, Num. 
xxiv. 1, which after the manner of false pro- 
phets he coloureth with the name of the 
Lord. VVhat word,] Or, tvhat thing soever. 
To AN HIGH place,] To « cHft of the rock: 
or solitary, to a solitary place ; and thus tlie 
Chald. expounds \t., he went alone. He went 
as soothsayers were wont, to an high and 
solitary place, to make his prayers, and to 
observe signs if any should appear. 

Ver. 4 — God met balaam,] In Gr. God 
appeared to Balaam; in Chald. the word 
from, before the Lord met (or came unto) 
Biilaam : and so again in ver. IG. Though 
he sought the Lord both by an un'.awtul 
means of enchantment, Num. xxiv. 1 ; Dent, 
xviii. 10, and to a wicked end that he might 
curse Israel, Dont. xxiii. 4, 5, yet the Lord 
meeteth with him, and putteth his word in 
his mouth, for the good of his people. So 
when Nebuchadnezzar used divinations, and 
consulted with idols being unresolved whether 
he should first war against the Jews or tlie 
Ammonites, the Ldrd so dispuscd of it, that 

he first fell upon the Jews, and signified the 
same to his prophet, Ezek. xxi. 19 — 23. 
He said,] That is, as the Gr. explainetii it, 
Bala/im said. I have prepared,] Or, / 
have ordered. He vainly glorieth of his re- 
ligious works before God, supposing that he 
would be pleased with his many altars and 
sacrifices wherewith he honoured him, and 
withal implying his request that he might 
have leave to curse Israel: but the Lord 
'would not hear Balaam,' Deut. xxiii. 5, 
for he hath not so great delight in burnt- 
oflerings and sacrifices, as in obedience to his 
voice, 1 Sam. xv. 22. ' To do justice and 
judgment is more acceptable to the Lord, 
than sacrifice,' Prov. xxi. 3. 

Ver. 5. — Pot a word in Balaam's 
MOUTH,] The Lord giveth no answer to 
Balaam's boasting speech, nor showeth any 
regard of his altars and sacrifices, which 
were an abomination unto him, Prov. xv. 8, 
but sendeth him back with a blessing upon 
his people, contrary to his own and the king's 
desire and expectation. ' The preparations of 
the heart in man, and the answer of the 
tongue, is from the Lord,' Prov. xvi. 1. 

Ver. 7. — He took up his parable,] 
" The parable of ins prophecy," saith Thar- 
gum Jonathan. By taking up, is meant a 
pronouncing with an high voice ; so God 
would have them all take knowledge of his 
word against them, and for his people. By 
a parable or proverb, is meant a grave speech, 
which groweth into common use among nnin. 
And it is used both in the good part, for ex- 
cellent matter of doctrine and comfort, as 
Job xxxvii. 1 ; xxix. 1; Prov. i. 1, and in the 
evil part, for proverbs of reproach and repre- 
hension, as iu Deut. xxviii. 37; Isa. xiv. 4. 
Parables also are opposed to plain and fami- 
liar speeches easy to be understood, Ezek. 
XX. 49 ; Job xvi. 25, so now God speaketh by 
Balaam to the wicked Moabites, but ia 
parables ; ' that seeing they might not see ; and 
liearing they might not understand, 'as in Luke 
viii. 10. Brought mk kuom araM,] To 



me from Aram from the mountains of the east, (saying,^ Come 
curse me Jacob, and come defy Israel. ^ How shall I curse whom 
God hath not cursed, and liow shall I defy whom Jehovah hath 
not defied ? ^ For from the top of the rocks I see him, and from 
the hills I behold him ; lo the people shaU dwell alone, and shall 
not be reckoned among the nations. '" Who can count the dust 

wit, from Aram rather Aj:tm, or Mesopo- 
tamia, as Moses slioweth in Deut. xxiii. 4, 
and so tlie Gr. here translateth, sent for me 
out of Mesopotamia, and Thargum Jonathan 
explaiiieth it, " Aram which is by Euphrates." 
See the notes on Gen. xxiv. 10 ; Num. xxii. 

5. Of the east,] Situate eastward from 
Moab's and Israel's land, that country was 
infamous for sorcery and divination, Isa. ii. 

6. Defy,] Or, detest with angry threats, 
and hateful indignation, as tlie word signi- 
fieth in Dan. xi. 30. The Gr. translatetli 
it, Accurse. 

Ver. 8. — Whom god hath not cursed,] 
Thus the Gr. also readeth, adding the word 
whom, such wants the scripture sometimes 
supplietli ; as this house is high, 1 Kings ix. 
8, for this house which is high, 2 Chron. vii. 
21. Otherwise it maybe translated, Howshall 
I curse ? God hath not cursed. Thargum 
Jonathan explaineth it, " How shall I curse, 
when the word of the Lord blessed them ?" 
Here God by Balaam's own mouth reproveth 
the error of the king, who had sent so far 
twice to fetch him, that of himself was able 
to do nothing in this business ; and taxeth 
the vanity of this art of magic or divination, 
which is not able either to help or hurt any 
without leave from God. So the Babylonian 
is convinced by the prophet, saying, ' Stand 
now with thine enchantments, and with the 
multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast 
laboured from thy youth, if so be thou shalt be 
able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail. 
Tliou art wearied in the multitude of thy 
counsels, let now the astrologers, the star- 
gazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand 
up, and save thee from these things that shall 
come upon thee. Behold, they shall be as 
stubble, the fire shall burn them,' &c, Isa. 
xlvii. 12—14. 

Ver. 9. — For from the top,] Or, when 
from the top, (Heb. the head) of the rocks, I 
see him, meaning the people, spoken of as 
one body. I behold him,] In Gr. / con- 
sider him, speaking again of the people: as 
Thaigum Jonathan explaineth it, " I con- 
sider tills people." Balak brought him to the 
mountains, that seeing the people from thence, 
he might the more easily curse them: but 
the sight of them did so amaze him, as he 
blessed them. Thus, all occasions and cir- 
cumstances which the wicked cho.e for their 

advantage, God turneth against them, and 
for the accomplishment of his own will. 
Shall dwell alone,] Separated from other 
people. And this further signifieth, how 
they should be sufficiently provided for of 
God ; having neither need nor fear of other 
people ; for so dwelling alone, implieth a 
security from evil; as in Jer. xlix. ?>{, 
And thus Moses blessing them said, ' Israel 
shall dwell in confident safety alone,' Deut. 
xxxiii. 28. Shall not be reckoned,] Or, 
shall 7iot reckon themselves : this respecteth 
their faith in God and service of lum, where- 
by they were his peculiar, and separated from 
other people, asExod.xix. 6; Lev. xx. 24,26; 
Ezra ix. 2. So Christ hath chusen his 
church out of the world, John xv. 19; 1 Pet. 
ii. 9, and this grace the faithful apply unto 
themselves, as it is said, ' We know that we 
are of God, and the whole world lieth in 
wickedness,' 1 John v. 19. 

Ver. 10. — Who can count,] That is, 
none can count, they are so many, Heb. 
IVho counteth ; which the Chald. expoundeth, 
who am (or, is able to) count. And thus the 
scripture sometime explaineth itself; as, ' Not 
that which goeth into the mouth, defileth a 
man,' Matt. xv. 11, that is, ' can defile him,' 
Mark vii. 15. See the annot. on Gen. xiii. 
ii. So after in ver. 20. The dust of 
JACOB,] That is, the children of Jacob ; as 
the Gr. translateth it, the seed of Jacob. 
Here Balaam's mouth confirmeth the promise 
which God made of old unto Jacob, saying, 
' Thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth,' 
Gen. xxviii. 14, and the like was before 
unto Abraham, ' I will multiply thy seed as 
the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is 
upon the sea-shore,' Gen. ii. 17. And thus 
the Chald. here expoundeth it, '' Who can 
count the little ones of the house of Jacob, of 
whom it was said, they shall be multiplied as 
the dust of the earth." Of the fookth 
part,] Or, of a quarter, as the Chald. ex- 
plaineth it, of one of the four camps of 
Israel : for they camped about the tabernacle 
in four quarters, Num. ii. Whereas, the 
promise of the blessing to Abraham consisted 
ot two branches ; 1. That God would give 
the land of Canaan to him and to his seed 
for ever : 2. And that he would make hfs 
seed as the dust of the earth, Gen. xili. 16, 
16, under which, spiritual graces in Christ 



of Jacob, and the number of tlie fourth part of Israel ? Let my 
soul die tlie death of tlie righteous men, and let my last end be like his. 

" And Balak said unto Balaam, What hast thou done unto me ? 
I took thee to curse mine enemies; and behold, blessing thou hast 
blessed them. '^ And he answered, and said, Must I not take heed 
to speak that which Jehovah hath put in my mouth ? 

'^ And Balak said unto him. Come, I pray thee witli me unlo 

were also comprehended : the Lord causeth 
Balaam here to ratify them, both for their 
dwelling alone in tlie laud, and for their in- 
numerable increase. And whereas Balak 
envied their multitude, and would therefore 
have them cursed that they might be dimin- 
islied, Num. xxii. 3, 5, 6. Balaam is here 
forced to utter a blessing for their further in- 
crease. Thus God resistelh him in all his 
counsels and enterprises. Let my soul die,] 
That is, Let me die : an Heb. phrase, where- 
by the soul is put for the person, I, thou, or 
he : and death is the departure of the soul 
from the body, Gen. xxxv. 18. 'Then dust 
returiieth unto the earth as it was, and the 
soul returns to God who gave it,' Eccl. xii. 7. 
So Samson said, ' Let my soul die with the 
Philistines,' Judg. xvi. 30. The death of 
THE RIGHTEOUS MEN,] The Gr. traijslateth, 
with the souls of the jit^t men; meaning the 
righteous of Israel, as the Chald. explaineth 
it, the death of the just men thereof, that is, 
of that people. Balaam, who lived the life 
of the wicked, desireth (as many do) to die 
the death of the righteous : but as he lived, 
so he died among the enemies of God, by the 
sword of Israel, Num. xxxi. 8. Howbeit, he 
pronoimceth here a greater blessing upon 
Israel, as they that were happy not only in life, 
but in death, For, ' righteousness which is 
by faith in Christ,' Phil. iii. 9; ' delivereth 
from death: but when a wicked man dieth, 
his expectation perislieth,' Prov. xi. 4, 7. 
Here also Balaam testifieth of the soul's im- 
mortality ; and dilTerent case of good and bad: 
for otherwise what were the death of the righ- 
teous better than of the wicked ? Let my 
LAST END,] Or, let my posterity. The ori- 
ginal word sometimes signifieth the end, op- 
])osed to the beginning, as in Dent. xi. \2 ; 
Prov. xix. 20, and so the Chald. trans- 
lateth it here, let my end be like theirs : some- 
times it is, the posterity, or children which 
come after, as in Pan. xi. 4 ; Amos v. 2; 
Psal. cix. 13, and in this sense the Gr. in- 
terpreters uiidersfoud it here, saying, and let 
my seed be like their seed : thus Balaam pro- 
pliesieth a blessing also to the seed of every 
righteous Israelite according to the promise 
made unto Abraham and his seed after him, 
Gen. xvii. 7. And farther, this word c7id 
is often used tVr reward, which is after 

labours, Prov. xxiii. 15 ; xxiv. 20; 1 Pet. i. 
19, which also may be implied here, of a 
blessed reward which the righteous have after 
this life in heaven. Matt. v. 12. But Ba- 
laam being a minister of satan, though trans- 
formed as a minister of righteousness, his 
end was according to his works, as the apostle 
telleth us of all such, 2 Cor. xi. 15. 


ENEMIES,] Balak who liad before builded 
altars and ofltired sacrifices, as to serve the 
Lord with great devotion, being now croS5td 
in his purpose, manifesteth his hypocrisy, 
pride, malice, and notorious profanation of 
religious exercises; in that he regarded not, 
nor rested in the answer of God by Balaam, 
but opposed his own will, as that which the 
prophet should have fulfilled ; unjustly call- 
eth the Israelites his enemies, who passed 
by him in peace; repineth against their bless- 
ing, and blameth the prophet for pronounc- 
ing it. 

Ver. 12. — Must i not take heed to 
SPEAK.] Or, Shall I not observe to speak. 
Thougn Balaam's will was bent to curse Is- 
rael for Balak's wages, yet could he not, be- 
cause God restrained him: wherefore he hare 
his blame at the king's hand. And now to 
excuse himself, he signifieth not only the ne- 
cessity laid upon him by the Lord, but a pre- 
tended care and observance in himself to 
speak his word only: thus the hypocrites 
mocked one with another; and he that sitteth 
in the heavens, laughed; the Lord had them 
both in derision, Ps. ii. 4. 

Ver. 13. — See but the utmost part 
OF them,] Or, but a part of him, and shall 
not see him all: speaking of Israel, as one 
body. The king gathered from Balaam's 
words, in ver. 9, that by seeing the whole 
multitude, he was dismayed ; (so looking to 
tlie secondary cause, not to God the princi- 
pal :) wherefore though he failed of his pur- 
pose at the first he secondeth it in another 
place, wilh hope to prevail ; as the Syiians 
being foiled hy Israel in the mountains, 
would ' fight against them in the plain, hop- 
ing there to be stronger than they,' 1 Kings 
XX. 20 — 23. And when he could not have 
the whole pco]ile cursed, he bringeth Balaam 
to see a part of them: as when the dragon 
could not hui t the woman (the church) that 



another place, that thou mayest see them from tlience ; tliou shalt 
see but the utmost part of them, and shalt not see tliem all, and 
curse me them from thence. 

'* And he took him to the field of Zophim, to the top of Pisgali, 
and he built seven altars, and offered a bullock and a ram on an 
altar. " And he said unto Balak, Stand here by thy burnt-offer- 
ing, and I will meet yonder. '^ And Jehovah met Balaam, and put 
a word in his mouth, and said. Return unto Balak, and thus thou 
slialt speak. '' And he came unto him, and lo, he stood by his 
burnt-offering, and the princes of Moab with him, and Balak said 
unto him. What hath Jehovah spoken ? ^^ And he took up his 
parable, and said. Rise up Balak, and hear, hearken unto me, thou 
son of Zippor. '^ God is not a man tliat he should lie, or the son 
of Adam that he sliould repent -. hath he said, and shall he not do ? 
and hath he spoken, and shall lie not confirm it ? ^^ Behold I have 
received to bless, and lie hath blessed, and I can not reverse it. 

escaped his persecution with her eagles' 
wings; he being wroth, 'went to make war 
with the remnant of her seed,' Rev. xii. 13 — 
17 ; and as Amalek, ' who smote the hind- 
most of Israel, even all that were feeble be- 
hind them,' Deut. xxv. 17, 18. 

Ver. 14. — Field of zophim,] That is, 
by interpretation, of the spies, (ov scnut-tvatch- 
€s :) and the Gr. interpreteth it, the scout- 
watch of the field ; it seemeth to be a place 
where they kept the watch of the country 
against enemies; as Sol. Jarchi here saith, 
' It was an high place, where the spy stood 
to watch whether any forces came against the 
city. Of Pisgah,] Or of the hill, which the 
Chald. expoundeth of the high place. Such 
hills and high places idolaters used to sacri- 
fice upon, Deut. xii. 2. And Balak thought 
them lucky to achieve his purposes, but all 
in vain ; as it is written, ' truly in vain is 
salvation hoped for from the hills, and from 
the multitude of mountains: truly in Jeho- 
vah our God is the salvation of Israel,' Jer. 
iii. 23. Seven altars,] So prosecuting 
their wickedness still, under colour of religion : 
see the notes on ver. 1, 2. 

Ver. 15. — I will meet yonder,] To 
wit, with Jehovah; and so the Greek ex- 
plaineth it, / will go to enquire of God. See 
before in ver. 3, 4, &c. 

Ver. is.— Rise up Balak,] To hear the 
word of God with reverence ; for at it even 
kings were wont to rise up, when it was 
spoken: as afterward Eglon king of Moab 
also did, in Judg. iii. 20. Hearken unto 
me,] That is, as the Chald. explaintth it, 
unto my word. 

Ver. 19. — God is not a man, &c.,] The 
Chald. paraphiaseth thus, " the word of God 

is not like the speeches of the sons of man ; 
for the sons of man do say and lie." By ly- 
ing, is failing in the performance of that 
which is spoken, as in Hab. ii. 3 ; Ps. Ixxxix. 
35, 36 ; 2 Kings iv. 16. That he should 
repent,] The like testimony Samuel beareth 
of God before king Saul, ' the strength of 
of Israel will not lie nor repent ; for he is not 
a man that he should repent,' 1 Sam. xv. 
25. Though the scripture speaketh some- 
time of God, that he repenteth, as in Amos 
vii. 3, 6 ; Jer. xviii. 8 ; yet that is spoken 
of him, according to our capacity, because his 
work is changed, when he himself continueth 
unchangeable, for with him is ' no variable- 
ness, neither shadow of turning,' James i. 
17. See the notes on Gen. vi. 6. In this 
speech of Balaam there is a reproof of Balak's 
error, who thought by his endeavours to turn 
God's affection from Israel, and therefore 
rested not in the word before revealed, but 
struggled against it still, as if God were false 
or variable. Shall he not confirm it ?] 
Meaning, he will doubtless confirm and sta- 
blish it ; as the Chald. expoundeth it, '* he 
confirmethall his words." TheGr. translateth 
" shall he speak, and shall he not continue ?" 
that is, constantly perform it ? So to con- 
firm a thing, is by the Holy Spirit expound- 
ed, ' to continue to do it,' Gal. iii. 10 ; from 
Deut. xxvii. 26. 

Ver. 20. — I have received to bless,] 
Understand, received a commandment to bless. 
See the annot. on Gen. xxiv. 33. And I 
cannot reverse it,] Or, shall not turn it 
aivay ; which the Chald. explaineth, ' and I 
shall not turn ray blessing from them.' The 
Gr. translateth, ' I shall bless, and shall not 
reverse." Here Bulaam pretcheth the sta- 



'^' He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen per- 
verseness in Israel; Jehovah liis God is with him, and the shout of 
a king is among them. ^^ God brought them forth out of Egypt ; 

lileness of God's love tmto his people; and 
how all powers and potentates, all magical 
enchautments and divinations, and what things 
else soever, are not able to separate God's 
people from his love and blessing in Christ. 

Ver. 21. — He hath not beheld,] Or, 
he (that is, God) beholdcth not iniquity. 
Here Balaam blesseth Israel the second time, 
pronouncing first their justification in the 
sight of God, even that blessedness which 
they have, ' whose iniquities are forgiven, 
and whose sins are covered,' Rom. iv. 7. 
For not to behold, or see iniquity in sinful 
men, is (as David speaketh) to hide his face 
from their sins, and to blot out all their ini- 
quities, Ps. li. li, the contrary whereof is, 
when God setteth men's iniquities before 
him, and to the light of his face, Ps. xc. 8; 
cix. 14, 15, And this is opened by the pro- 
phet, when the Lord saith, ' The iniquity of 
Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be 
none ; and the sins of Judah, and they shall 
not be found : for I will pardon them whom I 
reserve, Jer. 1. 20. Iniquity,] This word, 
in Heb. aven, is of large signification, applied 
to all kind of sin, which causeth pain, sor- 
row, and misery; and in particular to idola- 
try, 1 Sam. XV. 22, and Aven is an idol, in 
Is. Ixvi. 3, and to this the Chald. here re- 
ferreth it, saying, " no servers of idols in the 
house of Jacob ;" so doth Thargum Jonathan 
likewise; and the old Lat. version saith; 
" There is no idol in Jacob," meaning among 
the Israelites, the posterity of Jacob. But 
the word being more general, implieth this 
and all other iniquity, original or actual, all 
which God in mercy pardoned to his people, 
that it was no more seen of him, to be im- 
puted unto them. And as iniquity is often 
used for the punishment of the same, so is 
this word Aven in Ps. xc. 10; Hab. i. 3, in 
which meaning the Gr, interpreters translate 
it here, there shall he no painftdness (or 
viisery) in Jacob. Perverseness,] Or, 7mo- 
lestation: a word which signifieth both sin 
and affliction for sin, Ps. xciv. 20; xxv. IS; 
Ixxiii. 5. The Chald. takelh it in the first 
sense, for them that do falsehood ; and this 
is most fit: but the Gr. translateth it pain. 
Ills God is with him,] This the Chald. ex- 
poundeth, " the word of the Lord their God 
is for their help." Hereby is signified the 
cause and author of their former blessedness, 
to be God himself in the midst of them; as 
Moses said, ' Let the Lord now go amongst us ; 
for it is a still-necked people ; and pardon thou 
our iniquity and our sin,' &c, Exod. xxxiv. 9. 

• Vol.. 11. r 

And his presence with them was a sign of 
their estate in grace, otherwise they could 
have had no communion with him, 1 John 
i. 6, 7, as himself said, whilst they were in 
their sins, ' I will not go up in the midst of 
thee, for thou art a stifl'-necked people, lest I 
consume thee in the way,' Exod. xxxiii. 3, 
and by his being with them, they were se- 
cured both from Balaam's curse, and from all 
fear of evil, Ps. xxiii. 4; xci. 15. '1'he 
shout of a king,] Or, the alarm {the 
soimding shoid) of a king, that is, of God. 
He hath reference to the silver trumpets 
which Israel used in their wars, by the ordi- 
nance of God, who also promised, that they 
should be remembered before the Lord their 
God, and saved from their enemies. Num. x. 
9, Whereupon Abijah said, ' Behold, God 
is with us for a captain, and his priests with 
sounding trumpets to cry alarm against you: 
O sons of Israel, fight ye not against the Lord 
the God of your fathers, for ye shall not pros- 
per,' 2 Chron. xiii. 12. So by the shout or 
alarm of this king among his peo|)le, they 
now were saved from the evils that Balak 
and Balaam conspired against them. Here- 
with also may be compared the sounding of 
trumpets, and shout at the seige of Jericho, 
Josh. vi. ]6, 20, and in the battle of Gideon, 
Judg. vii. 20. And thus Jesus Christ, the 
king and defender of the church, causeth con- 
tinual joy and triumph in the hearts of his 
people, justifying, sanctifying, and preserving 
them in peace with God, who always causeth 
them to triumph in Christ, 2 Cor. ii. 14, 
and giveth them salvation from the hands of 
their enemies. Wherein they rejoice and 
say, ' Who shall lay any thing to the charge 
of God's elect? It is God that justifieth: 
who is he that condemneth.^' Rom. viii. 33, 
34. Among them,] Heb. in him, that is, 
in Jacob: which phrase may also signify the 
faith that his people have in God their king. 
The Chald. expoundeth it, the presence (or 
habitation) of their king is atiiong them. 

Ver. 22. — God brought them,] Or, 
God the bringer of them. This answerelh 
Balak's comjilaint, there is 'a people come 
out of Egypt,' Num. xxii. 5. Balaam tell- 
eth him, they came not of themselves, (as he 
imputed unto them for evil,) but they were 
brought up of God. So again in Num. xxiv. 
8. He hath,] Or, to him is. It may be 
understood first of God, and then of Israel, 
unto whom God giveth strength, Ps. Ixviii. 
oG. The strengths of an unicorn,] Or, 
as the Gr. translateth it, the glory of an 



he hath as the strengths of an unicorn, ^^ Sm-ely there is no en- 
chantment agamst Jacob, nor divination against Israel ; according 
to this time, it shall be said of Jacob, and of Israel, What hath God 
wrought ? ^* Behold, the people sliall rise up as a courageous 

unicorn. The unicorn is a beast commended 
in the scripture for the excellency of his 
honi: whereupon the prophet saith, 'My 
horn shall be exalted as the unicorn's,' Ps. 
xcii. 11, and for his strength; as it is said, 
* Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is 
great?' Job xxxix. 11. Therefore the prowess 
of a people against their enemies is set forth 
by this similitude ; as Moses saith of Joseph 
' His honis, the horns of an unicorn, with 
them he shall push the peoples together,' 
Deut. xxxiii. 17. And in this sense Ba- 
laam speaketh here of Israel, as in his third 
blessing he explaineth it, ' He hath as the 
strengths of an uniconi, he shall eat up the 
nations his enemies, and shall break their 
bones,' &c. Num. xxiv. 8. And Christ 
being delivered from the power of his ene- 
mies, saith, ' Thou hast answered me from 
the horns of unicorns,' Ps. xxii. 21. And 
God himself showeth the nature of this beast 
to be such, as he will not be tamed, or made 
serviceable to man, nor bide by the crib, nor 
plough, or harrow, or bring home the seed into 
the barn. Job xxxix. 9, 10, 12. The ori- 
ginal word of strengths here used, (which the 
Gr. translateth glory, the Chald. strength;) 
is properly such lustiness, courage and prow- 
ess, as whereby one endureth labour without 
weariness or fainting. Hereby then is sig- 
nified, that as God himself is Almighty, so 
of his grace he communicateth to his people 
such strength, as whereby they shall van- 
quish their enemies, but shall be vanquished 
of none, for being strong in faith, and the 
word of God abiding in them, they overcome 
the world, and the wicked one (satan,) 1 John 
V. 4; ii. 14, sin shall not have dominion over 
them, Rom. vi. 14, neither are they ' the 
servants of men,' 1 Cor. vii. 23, they renew 
their strength, they run and are not weary, 
they walk and faint not, Is. xl. 31. 

Ver. 23.. — Sorely there is,] Or, as the 
Gr. and Chald. interpret it, for there is • so 
making this that followeth a reason of the 
former comparison. And whereas human 
writers report a special virtue to be in the 
unicorn's horn against poison, some apply 
that to the poison of enchantment and divina- 
tion next spoken of, which could not prevail 
against Israel, because of the virtue of God's 
grace given to his people. No enchant- 
ment,] Or, no observing of fortunes; a sin- 
ful art, when by observing the events of 
things, they gathered signs of good or evil 
luck to themselves or others ; see the annot. 

on Lev. xix. 26 ; Deut. xviii. 10. Against 
Jacob,] Or, in Jacob: but in is often used 
for against, as in Num. xii. 1. In this sense 
he teacheth that no devilish arts could hurt 
God's people, for the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against the church of Christ, Matt. 
xvi. 18. Although therefore Balak had led 
him from place to place, to try if one were 
more lucky for him than another, that Israel 
might be cursed ; and Balaam had now twice 
gone to meet with enchantments, that he 
might have cursed them, Num. xxiv. 1, yet 
all was in vain, for God would uot suffer it. 
But the Chald. giveth the latter sense, as if 
no such enchantments were pleasing unto, or 
in use among this people, being forbidden 
them of God, Lev. xix. Deut. xviii. Di- 
vinations,] That is, presaging or foretel- 
ling of things to come: see the notes on 
Deut. xviii. 10. According to this time,] 
Or, even at this time it shall be said: that 
is, not hereafter only, but even now, it shall 
be said by me, who am to prophesy of this 
people, what great things God hath wrought 
and will work for them. It may also be re- 
ferred unto time to come, as Chazkuni ex- 
poundeth it, " The next year, after they are 
gone over Jordan, about this time, it shall be 
said concerning Jacob and Israel, how many 
(great) works the holy blessed (God) hath 
wrought for them." See the like phrase in 
the annot. on Gen. xviii. 10; xxv. 31. What 
HATH God wrought!] That is, how woti- 
derful things God hath wrought for them. 
The Gr. translateth it, what God shall per- 
form. He teacheth that all the valiant acts 
of Israel should not be done by themselves, 
but by God for them, as it is showed in Ps. 
xliv. 1, 2, &c. Wherefore it is written, 
' Lord, thou wilt ordain peace for us: for thou 
also hast wrought all our works in us,' Is. 
xxvi. 12. And so the apostle saith, ' It is 
God which worketh in you both to will, and 
to do, of his good pleasure,' Phil, ii. 13; 
and, ' he which hath begun a good work ia 
you, will perform it, until the day of Jesus 
Christ,' Phil. i. 6. 

Ver. 24. — As a courageous lion,] Of 
these names of lions, see the annot. on Gen. 
xlix. 9. Of the lion's nature, Solomon 
saith, ' it is strongest among beasts, and 
tumeth not away for any,' Prov. xxx. 30. 
Here, the blessing which was specially given 
to the tribe of Judah, Gen, xlix., is applied 
to all Israel, which were in Christ, 'the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah,' Rev. v. 5; for, 



lion, and lift up himself as a renting lion : he shall not lie 
down until he eat the prey, and drink tlie blood of the slain. 
" And Balak said unto Balaam, Neither cursing cnrse him, nor 
blessing bless him. ^'^ And Balaam answered and said unto Balak; 
Spake I not unto thee, saying. All that Jehovah speaketh that I 
must do ? "^ And Balak said unto Balaam, Come I pray thee, I 
will take thee unto another place ; peradventure it will be right in 
the eyes of God that thou shalt curse me them from thence. 
^ And Balak took Balaam wito the top of Peor that looketh toward 
Jeshimon. ^^ And Balaam said unto Balak, Build me here seven 
altars, and prepare me liere seven bullocks and seven rams. '" And 

'just men are bold as a lion,' Prov. xxviii. 
1. Lift up himself,] A sign of stoutness, 
courage, and majesty. By this, and the 
former rising up, is meant the valiant onset 
which they should make upon their enemies 
the Canaanites, whereof the book of Joshua 
is a testimony: and under them were figured 
the spiritual enemies of the salvation of 
Israel ; satan, sin, the world, &c, w hich the 
church of Christ should resist and overcome 
by faith, 1 Pet. v. 9; ii. 11; 1 John v. 4. 
Until he eat the prey,] That is, as the 
Chald. and Thargum Jonathan expound it, 
" until he have killed his enemies." Signi- 
fying hereby Israel's constant fighting of the 
Lord's battles not lying down, or giving 
themselves rest, till they have gotten a full 
victory. This was in part fulfilled in the 
conquest of Canaan, at the end whereof the 
two tribes and an half returned with much 
riches, cattle, silver, gold, &c. to divide the 
spoil of their enemies, with their brethren. 
Josh. xxii. 3, 4, 8. And when David hav- 
ing fought the battles of the Loid, sang unto 
his praise, ' I have pursued mine enemies, 
and destroyed them, and turned not again, 
until I had consumed them,' 2 Sam. xxii. 
38. But chiefly it is performed by the grace 
of God in Christ, against the enemies of our 
souls; whereof it is thus prophesied, ' And 
the remnant of Jacob shall be among the na- 
tions, in the midst of many peoples, as a 
renting lion among the beasts of the forest, 
as a young lion among the flocks of sheep ; 
who if he go through, both treadeth down, 
and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver. 
Thine hand shall be lifted up upon thine ad- 
versaries, and all thine enemies shall be cut 
oil',' Mic. V. 8, 9. And this spiritual war- 
fare is not like the battles of the world, ' with 
confused noise, and garments rolled in blood,' 
Is. ix. 5, but with the ' sword of the Sjiirit, 
which is the word of God,' Eph. vi. 17, 'in 
much patience, and atllictions, in necessities, 
in distresses, in stripes, in imprisonments, in 
tossings to and fro, in labours, in watchings, 
in fastings, by pureness, by knowledge, by 

long-suflering, by kindness, by the Holy 
Spirit, by love unfeigned, by the word of 
truth, by the power of God, by the armour of 
righteousness on the right hand, and on the 
left,' &c. 2 Cor. vi. 4—7. For even Christ 
himself, when he was called ' the Lion of the 
tribe of Judah,' appeared like ' a lamb as it 
had been slain,' Rev. v. 5, 6 ; and his people 
for his fake ' are killed all the day long,' are 
counted 'as sheep for the slaughter;' and yet 
in all these things, ' are more than conquerors, 
through him that loved them,' Rom. viii. 36, 

Ver. 25. — Neither cursing curse him,] 
In Gr. neither curse me him with curses, 
neither blessing bless him: that is, neither 
curse Israel at all, nor bless him at all. Here 
Balak's indignation against Balaam, and sin 
against God, is increased: rejecting his own 
prophet, resisting the woid of the Lord now 
the second time: and when he could do no 
evil to Israel, he would hinder them from 

Ver. 27. — Per.vdventure it will be 
right in the kyes of God,] That is, it 
will please God, as the Chald. expoundeth it; 
and so tlie Gr. saith, if it may please God. 
This is Balak's third and last attempt against 
the church of Christ in another place; as 
satan tempted Christ himself thrice in three 
several places, which not succeeding, he then 
left him. Matt. iv. 1 — 11. And whereas 
before, the king supposed that Balaam's see- 
ing of the whole multitude, was the let why 
he did not curse them ; he now perceiveth 
God to be the cause, and therefore by sacri- 
fices in a place idolatrous, he seeketh to ob- 
tain his favour. 

Ver. 28. — The top of peor,] The name 
of a mountaiu, called in Gr. Phogor; and 
in Chald. the lop of the high place of Peor, 
where the Moabites used to sacrifice unto 
their idol, called Baal-ptor, Num. xxv. 2, 3, 
18; and there they had a temple called Beth- 
peor, or 'the house of Peor,' Deut. iii. 29 
and near it was a city called Bcth.-peor 
which the Israelites had taken from king 



Balak did as Balaam had said, and he offered a bullock and a ram 
on an altar. 

Sihon, and it was after given for a possession 
to the Reubenites, Josh. xiii. 15, 20. In 
this idolatrous mountain, the king hoping to 
be heard of God, maketh supplication with 

new altars and sacrifices: so continuing the 
abuse of his religion, bent against the will ol 
God, and to the destruction of his people. 


1. Balaam leaving enchantments, prophesieth hy the Spirit of God 
the happiness of Israel. 10. BalaJc in anger dismisseth him ; 14. hut 
hefoi'e his departure he prophesieth of the star of Jacob, and the des- 
truction of some nations. 

' And Balaam saw that it was good in the eyes of Jehovah to 
bless Israel ; and he went not as at other times, to meet with en- 
chantments, but he set his face toward the wilderness. ^ And Ba- 
laam lifted up Iiis eyes, and lie saw Israel abiding in tents, accord- 
ing to their tribes, and the Spirit of God was upon him. ^ And he 

Ver. 1. — He went not as at other 
TiiMES,] Or, not at this time, as the time be- 
fore, (which the Gr. translateth, according 
to his custom^ to meet with enchantments. 
This showeth, that all his former altars, and 
sacrifices, and consultations with the Lord, 
were by that wicked art of enchantment, or 
observing of fortunes, such as the prophets 
and diviners of the nations used, Deut. xviii. 
10, 14. Which thing he now left, as seeing 
it not available for his purpose ; but that his 
evil heart was not changed, appeareth by his 
going with the king to mount Peor, to see if 
from thence he might curse Israel, by his 
commanding of altars and sacrifices as before, 
Num. xxiii. 27 — 30, and by his pestilent 
counsel which he gave the king after this, for 
the destruction of God's people. Num. xxxi. 
16; Rev. ii. 14. Set his face toward 
THE WILDERNESS,] Where Israel lay encamp- 
ing, that he might as it were prevent God, 
and suddenly utter a curse against his people. 
The Chald. paraphraseth, "he set his face 
towards the calf that Israel had made in the 
wilderness," (Exod. xxxii.) as if, looking 
upon their sins, he thought for them he might 
have cursed Israel: and so in Thargum Je- 
rusalemy it is explained, " He set his face 
toward the wilderness, and remembered con- 
cerning them the work of the calf, and would 
have cursed Israel." 

Ver. 2. — Abiding in tents,] Or, dwel- 
ling; which the Gr. translateth, camping, or 
having their army, or leaguer. The order 
wherein God had placed the armies of Israel 

about his sanctuary, Num. ii. they always 
kept, when they pitched in the wilderness: 
the sight whereof astonished the enemy, so 
that he could not curse them as he desired, 
but blessed them the third time. The Spirit 
OF God was upon him,] That is, as the 
Chald. explaineth it, the spirit of prophecy 
froin before the Lord rested upon him : and 
as Sol. Jarchi liere noteth, " it came into his 
heart that he should not curse them." The 
like phrase was before in Num. xi. 26, 
' the Spirit rested upon them, and they pro- 
phesied:' and again in ver. 29, 'would God 
that all the Lord's people were prophets, and 
that the Lord would put his Spirit upon 
them.' This was God's powerful work, 
changing Balaam's heart when he intended 
evil ; as when Saul and his messengers went 
with an evil purpose to have taken David in 
Naioth, ' the Spirit of God was upon them, 
and they also prophesied,' 1 Sam. xix. 19 — 
23. And when wicked men, being thus 
overruled, uttered divine oracles, as now Ba- 
laam did, they spake not of themselves, as it 
is said of the holy prophets, ' For prophecy 
came not at any time by the will of man ; 
but holy men of God spake, being moved (or 
carried) by the Holy Spirit,' 2 Pet. i. 21. 

Ver. 3. — He took up his parable,] 
That is, prophesied; see Num. xxiii. 7. As- 
sdredly saith,] Or, affirmeth, averreth: a 
word appropriate to the oracle of God, which 
is 'a faithful saying,' 1 Tim. i. 15. See the 
annot. on Gen. xxii. 16. Here Balaam be- 
ginneth his third blessing with a solemn pre- 



took lip his parable and said, Balaam llie son of Beer assuredly 
saith, and the man whose eye is open, assuredly saith. * He as- 
suredly saith, ivhich heard the oracles of God, which saw the vision 
of the Almighty, falling and having his eyes uncovered. * How 
goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, thy tabernacles, O Israel 1 ^ As the 

face, avouching the truth and constancy of it 
from God; against whose will the more he 
struggleth, the stronger he is resisted. The 
MAN WHOSE EYE IS OPEN,] Which the Chald. 
expoundeth, the man that is far-sighted, that 
seeth u'cll; the Gr. translatetli, t/ie true 
tnan : he seemeth hereby to signify that he 
was a prophet, who iu old time was called a 
seer, I Sam. ix. 9. Shethjim the original 
word, used only here, and in ver. 15, is of 
contrary signification to sethum, that i?, 
closed, or shut np: howbeit some take it to 
be of the same meaning, which may then be 
explained thus, " The man who had his eye 
shut, but row open." And eye is put for 
eyes, understanding the eyes of his mind 
opened by the spiiit of prophecy: though 
some of the Hebs. (as Jarchi here observeth) 
have from hence conjectured, that Balaam 
was blind of one eye. 

Ver. 4. — The oracles of God,] Or, the 
sayings of God, as the Chald saith, the word 
from before God: but the Gr. translateth, 
strong oracles, because God (in Heb. El) is 
so named of being strong or mighty. Vi- 
sion of the Almighty,] Or, of the All- 
siifjUcient, that is, as the Gr. translateth, of 
God. Falling,] Understand, into a trance, 
or deep sleep, or falling on my face to the 
ground: for even the holy men of God, when 
they saw divine visions, used to fall down on 
their faces, and into deep sleeps, as dead men. 
So 'a deep sleep (or trance) fell upon Abra- 
ham,' Gen. XV. 12, and Daniel was afraid, 
and fell on his face, and ' was in a deep sleep' 
on his face toward the ground, Dan. viii. 17, 
18; and John ' fell at his feet as dead,' Rev. 
i. 17; and Ezekiel fell on his face, Ezek. 
). 28; iii. 23; xliii. 3; xliv. 4. Likewise 
when the spirit of prophecy came upon men, 
they are said to fall, or lie down, as did Saul, 
1 Sam. xix. 24. And in this place of Ba- 
laam, the Chald. translateth it, lying down; 
the Gr. in a sleep; so after, in ver. IG. 
Eyes tJNcovEREo,] Or, unvailed, to wit, to 
see the vision, as the Chald. saith, " and it 
was revealed unto him." 

Ver. 5. — How goodly,] Or, how good ! 
which word implieth profit, pleasure, beauty, 
joy, delight, &c. See the notes on Gen. i. 
4. Thy tents,] In Gr. thy houses, or 
dwellings; but tents are a movable habita- 
tion, fitting the people of God in this world, 
Heb. xi. 9, and a warlike life, Jer. vi. 3. 
Afterward the Church is called • the tents of 

Jacob,' Mai. ii. 12, and 'the tents of Judah, 
Zech. xii. 7. And Jacob their father is 
noted to have dwelled in tents, Gen. xxv. 
27. Moreover, when this people were seated 
in Canaan, their dwelling-places were called 
their tents, 2 Chron. x. 16; vii. 10. So 
this is meant of the state of the church, not 
only then present, but throughout all ages. 
Thy tabernacles,] Or, thy habitacles, 
dwelling-places; which have their name of 
vicinity, or nearness altogether. This thei'e- 
fore jioteth the communion of the church 
with Christ, and one with another; and is by 
Thargum Jonathan expounded, " the taber- 
nacle of the congregation which is set among 
you, and your tabernacles which are round 
about it, O house of Israel." O Israel,] 
That is, Israelites. The church is named 
after their father Jacob and Israel ; Jacob is 
their name in respect of their own infirmi- 
ties, (whereupon it is said, ' Fear not, thou 
worm Jacob,' Is. xli. 14, and, ' by whom 
shall Jacob arise? for he is small,' Amos vii. 
2, 5,) but Israel is the name of their power 
and prevailing with God and men. See the 
annot. on Gen. xxxii. 28. 

Ver. 6. — Spread forth,] Or stretched 
out, implying both length and breadth, and 
large extent of Israel's habitations; compared 
therefore to valleys or bourns, which are long, 
large, pleasant to behold, and watered with 
rivers, whereby they aie fruitful, as Song vi. 
11. As GARDENS,] Which are enclosed, set 
with pleasant and wholesome plants, and by 
rivers are made always fresh, green, and 
fruitful. Wherefore the Scriptures likeneth 
the church to a gai'den full of pleasant fruits. 
Song iv. 12 — 16; Is. Ixi. 11. By the 
RIVER,] In Gr. by rivers ; whereby the gar- 
dens are made green and fruitful, without 
which they wither. Therefore, when God 
threateneth judgment to Israel, he saith, ye 
shall be ' as a garden that hath no water,' Is. 
i. 30 ; and promising mercy, he saith, ' thou 
shalt be like a watered garden,' Is. Iviii. 11. 
Hereby was signified that ' river of God full 
of water,' Ps. Ixv. 9 ; ' the river, the streams 
whereof make glad the city of God,' Ps. xlvi. 
4 ; even the word and Spirit of the Lord, 
which refresheth and comforteth his people, 
as it is written, ' their soul shall be as a 
watered garden, and they shall not sorrow any 
more at all,' Jer. xxxi. 12. Lign-aloes- 
TiiEES,] Or, as some think, Santall-trees, in 
Heb. Ahalim, which hath affinity with the 



valleys are they spread forth as gardens by the river side : as lign- 
aloestrees, tvhich Jehovah hath planted, as cedar trees beside the 
waters. ^ He shall poui* waters out of his buckets, and his seed 
shall he in many waters, and his king shall be higher than Agag, 
and his kingdom shall be exalted. ^ God brought him forth out of 
Egypt ; he hath as the strength of an unicorn -. he shall eat up the 
nations his distressers, and shall break their bones, and pierce them 

name of Aloes derived of it. The Gr. trajis- 
lateth it Tents ; but the Chald. Spices. The 
Lign-aloes is a tree growing in Arabia and 
India, which giveth a sweet odour, and is 
like the thyine-wood mentioned in Rev. xv'ii. 
12 ; and is here used to signify the good 
fame of the church, and report of her graces 
which is as a sweet smell. Jehovah hath 
PLANTED,] This signifieth the excellency of 
this tree above others, and the growth in the 
natural place where it best prospereth: so the 
cedars are said to be planted by him, in Ps. 
civ. 16 ; and he is the planter of his church, 
Jer. ii. 21. Cedars by the waters,] The 
cedar is one of the goodliest trees, for tall- 
ness, bigness, strength, and durance ; with 
the timber of it the temple was built, 1 Kings 
vi. 9, 10, &c. ; and by the waters it best 
flourisheth, and signifieth the glory of the 
kingdom of Israel ; as it is written of the 
kingdom of Assyria, ' behold the Assyrian 
was a cedar in Lebanon, with fair branches, 
and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high 
stature, &c. The waters made him great, 
the deep set him up on high, with her rivers 
running round about his plants,' &c. Ezek. 
xxxi. 3, 4. See also Ps. i. 3. 

Ver. 7. — He shall pour waters,] Or, 
wafer shall Jioiv out of his buckets : speaking 
of Israel. This parable is translated by the 
Gr. interpreters thus ; " there shall come 
forth a man out of his seed, and shall have 
dominion over many nations, and his king- 
dom shall be higher than Gog, and his king- 
dom shall be increased." And by the Chald. 
paraphrast thus ; " there shall grow up a 
king, which shall be anointed of his sons, 
and shall have dominion over many people ; 
and his king shall be mightier than Agag, 
and his kingdom shall be exalted." And 
Thargum Jonathan expoundeth it to the like 
effect ; and the exposition accordeth with 
other scriptures which speak of the propaga- 
tion of children, by the similitude of waters, 
fountains, cisterns, and the like; as "hear 
ye this, O house of Jacob, &c. which are 
come forth out of the waters of Judah,' Is. 
xlviii. 1 ; ' and ye of the fountain of Israel,' 
Ps. Ixviii. 27. And Solomon speaking of 
wife and children in the lawful state of mar- 
riage, saith, « drink waters out of thine own 
cistern, and running waters out of thine own 

well. Let thy fountains be dispersed abroad, 
and rivers of waters in the streets ; let them 
be only thine own,' &c. Prov. v. 15 — 18. 
And again, speaking of the harlot, he saith, 
' stolen waters are sweet,' Prov. ix. 17. 
Thus Balaam prophesieth here of Israel's 
great increase, and of the glory of their king- 
dom in David and Solomon, but chiefly in 
Christ. Otherwise, by waters may be un- 
derstood the word and Spirit of God, as 
John iii. 5; iv. 10; vii. 38, 39; which 
should plentifully be poured out in the church, 
that they might ' with joy draw water out 
of the well of salvation, as Is. xii. 3. Ills 
SEED IN many waters,] This seed may be 
understood as before, of children ; and many 
waters, of many people^ as in Rev. xvii. 15; 
Is. Ivii. 19; Ps. cxliv. 7. Or seed may 
mean corn, sown in watery, moist, and fruit- 
ful places, to bring forth much increase ; as, 
' blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that 
send forth thither the feet of the ox and the ass, 
Is. xxxii. 20. Higher than Agag,] The 
king of the Amalekites, whom Saul the king 
of Israel subdued, 1 Sam. xv. 8 ; and it 
seemeth this was a common name to all the 
kings of Amalek, as Pharaoh was to all the 
kings of Egypt. Spiritually the king of Is- 
rael is Christ, John i. 49 ; xii. 13, 15; who 
is • higher than the kings of the earth, Ps. 
Ixxxix. 28 ; amongst whom Agag sometime 
excelled. His kingdom,] The kingdom of 
Israel, exalted by David and Solomon, but 
above all by Christ, whose church and king- 
dom is above all kingdoms, in grace, glory, 
and incorrnption. Is. ii. 2: Dan. ii. 44; 
Rev. xi. 15. 

Ver. 8. — Of an unicorn,] This simili- 
tude is here repeated and enlarged from the 
former blessing, in Num. xxiii. 22. Eat 
UP,] i. e. consume the nations, as the seven 
nations in Canaan, Deut. vii. 1 ; and all 
other subdued by faith, as it is said, ' the 
nation and kingdom that will not serve thee, 
shall perish ; yea, those nations shall be utter- 
ly wasted,' Is. Ix. 12. See also Num. xiv. 
9. Break their bones,] In Gr. unmarrow 
(or eat out the marroiv of) their /at bones. It 
signifieth an utter weakening of them, that 
they should never recover their strength. 
Pierce them,] In Gr. shoot through the 
enemy xi4th his arrows. Arrows are often 



tiuoiigh ivith his arrows. He couched, lie lay down as a renting 
lion, and as a courageous lion, who sliall stir him up ? Blessed be 
every one of them that bless thee ; and cursed be every one of them 
that curse thee. 

'" And Balak's anger was kindled against Balaam, and he smote 
his hands together ; and Balak said unto Balaam, I called thee to 
curse mine enemies; and, behold, blessing thou hast blessed them 
these three times. " And now riee thou unto thy place : I said, 
honouring, I will honour thee ; but lo, Jehovah hath kept thee 
back from honour. '' And Balaam said unto Balak, Spake I not 
also to thy messengers wliich thou sentest unto me, saying, '^ If 
Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go 
beyond the mouth of Jehovah, to do good or evil out of mine own 
heart -. what Jehovah shall speak, that will I speak. " And now. 

mentioned among other instruments of war, 
Jer. 1. 9, 14; li. 11 ; Zech. ix. 14. These 
pierce inwardly, and are figuratively applied 
to piercing words, Ps. Ixiv. 4; and spiritually 
to the words of Christ, whose ' arrows are 
sharp in the heart of the king's enemies,' 
Ps. xlv. 6. 

Ver. 9. — He couched,] Here Balaam 
applieth unto Israel that blessing wliich Jacob 
gave mito his son Judah, the father of our 
Lord Christ, the lion of that tribe, Gen. xlix. 
9 ; and it signifieth the victory of the church 
over their enemies: see also Num. xxiii.24. 
Who shall stir him up.] Who dare provoke 
him ? meaning, none. So the victory gotten 
shall quietly be held ; and the peace of the 
church after her warfare, is here foretold, but 
accomplished in Christ. Blessed be every 
ONE OF THEM,] The conclusion of this bles- 
sing, is the same wherewith Isaac ended the 
blessing upon Jacob the father of this people. 
Gen. xxvii. 29; and like that which God 
gave unto Abraham, Gen. xii. 3. Thus 
God continueth his grace to the faithful and 
their seed for ever ; and here, by Balaam's 
own mouth, curseth all this wicked plot and 
practice of the king and prophet, who had 
endeavoured with their utmost craft to curse 
the people whom God had blessed, and Ba- 
laam is condemned of himself. 

Ver. 10. — He smote his hands,] Or, 
clapped the palms of his hands; a sign of 
indignation and grief in the king, with a 
contempt of the prophet; as elsewhere it is 
said, ' men shall clap their hands at him, 
and shall hiss him out of his place,' Job 
xxvii. 23; and, ' all that pass by the way 
clapped their hands at thee, they hissed and 
wag their head,' &c. Lam. ii. 15. 

Ver. 11. — Flee thou,] Or, flee for thy- 
self, that is, get thee gone speedily: so flee- 
ing is used for speedy departing, in Is. xlviii. 

20 ; Zech. ii. 6 ; Job ix. 25; xiv. 2 ; Amos 
vii. 12. Here Balak being out of hope to 
eflect his purpose, leadetli not Balaam to 
another place as lie had done before, b\it 
turneth him oli" with ignominy. Unto thy 
PLACE,] Thy country Mesopotamia, as the 
place of the Canaanites, &c. in Exod. iii. 8, 
is their country, and in Exod. xxiii. 20; the 
place, is in Gr. the land. Or, unto the city 
Pethor, as, ' unto tlie place of Sichem,' Gen. 
xii. 6 ; is the city of Sichem: see Amos iv. 
G. Kept thee back,] In Gr. deprived then 
of honour. Here Balaam, who ambitiously 
sought after honour and riches, is sent away 
with shame, and misseth of the wages of un- 
righteousness which he loved: for, ' the 
wicked worketh a deceitful work ; but to him 
that soweth righteousness, shall be a sure re- 
ward,' Prov. xi. IS. 

Ver. 13. — Go beyond the modth,] In 
Gr. transgress the ivord : see Num. xxii. 18. 
Out of mine own heart,] In Gr. of my- 

Ver. 14. — I will counsel thee what 
THIS people shall DO,] This seemeth to be 
an imperfect speech, which the Chald. paia- 
phrast well explaineth thus ; " I will counsel 
thee what thou shalt do, and I will show thee 
what this people shall do." For the scrip- 
tuies have many like brief speeches, as is 
noted on Exod. iv. 5 ; xiii. 8 ; and Moses 
after showeth, that Balaam gave Balak wick- 
ed counsel against Israel, to draw them into 
idolatry and fornication, Num. xxxi. It) ; 
and our Saviour calleth it the doctrine of 
Balaam, who taught Balak ' to cast a stum- 
bling-block before the children of Israel, to 
eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to com- 
mit fornication,' Rev. ii. 14 ; the history 
whereof followeth in Num. xxv. And thus 
the Hebs. also expound this place: Chazkuni 
in tliese words, " I will counsel thee; Moses 



behold I go uiito my people : come, I will counsel thee what this 
people sliall do to thy people in the latter days. 

'' And he took np his parable, and said, Balaam the son of Beor 
assuredly saith, and the man ivhose eye is open assuredly saith. 
'^ He assuredly saith, which heard tlie oracles of God, and knew the 
knowledge of the most High, which saw the vision of the Almighty, 
falling, and having his eyes uncovered. '' I shall see him, but not 

our teacher concealeth the counsel, because 
Balaam said it to Balak in secret:" but in 
Num. xxxi. 16, 'it is revealed.' To like 
efl'ect writeth Sol. Jarchi, saying, " This 
scripture is brief, I will counsel thee to cause 
them to stumble (or fall) and I will tell 
thee what evil they shall do to Moab in the 
latter days;" and Thargum Jonathan openeth 
it by Num. xxv. 1, 2, &c. In the latter 
DAYS,] That is, the days after following; see 
the like in Gen xlix. 1. For the time pre- 
sent, Israel might not meddle with the people 
of Moab, eut. ii. 9 ; but after in David's 
days, ' he smote Moab and measured them 
with a line, casting them down to the ground: 
even with two lines measured he to put to 
death, and with one full line to keep alive ;' 
and so the Moabites became David's ser- 
vants' 2 Sam. viii. 2. Again in Jer. xlviii. 
there is a large prophecy of Moab's destruc- 
tion with a promise of the returning of their 
captivity in the latter days. 

Ver. 15. — Took up his parable,] That 
is, prophesied, but darkly and in parables: 
see ver. 3. Whose eye is open,] In Gr. 
the true man : see the notes on ver. 3. 

Ver. 16. — The knowledge of the most 
high,] In Cliald. knowledge from before the 
Most High, that is, made known to liim of 
God. This sentence is hero added more than 
in ver. 4. Baal-hatturim here noteth, that 
" he saith this, because he would reveal the 
days of Christ." Falling,] Into a trance; 
the Gr. translateth it, in a sleep : see this 
opened on ver. 4. 

Ver. 17. — I shall see him,] Or, shall 
see it; meaning the person or thing that now 
he is to speak of; namely, David, and his 
kingdom, the accomplishment whereof should 
be in Christ and his church. Sol. Jarchi ex- 
plaineth it thus; " I see the praise of Jacob, 
and their greatness: but it is not now, but 
after a time." Chazkuni here saith, " He 
prophesieth of David." But not nigh,] 
That is, as the Chald. explaineth it, his com- 
ing is not nigh. Tin's may be understood of 
Christ, for of him he after prophesieth ; whom 
Balaam saith, he shall behold, (for 'every eye 
shall see him, and they also which pierced 
him,' Rev. i. 17,) but he had not Job's faith, 
to behold him his ' Redeemer,' Job xix. 25, 
27. Shall proceed a star,] Or, a star 

hath proceeded, speaking after the manner of 
prophecy of a thing to come, as already done. 
The Gr. translateth, a star shall arise: 
which the Chald. expoundeth, " A king shall 
arise out of the house of Jacob." This is to 
be understood in part of David, and chiefly 
of Christ our Lord, who thus testifieth of 
himself, ' I am the root and the ofi-spring of 
David, the bright and morning star.' Thus 
also the Hebs. understood it of old ; for the 
false Christ that arose unto the Jews in the 
days of Trajan the emperor, was called (in 
allusion to this prophecy) Bar Chochab, that 
is, the son of the star: but being after slain 
in battle, the Jews seeing themselves de- 
ceived, called him Bar Coziba, that is, the 
son of falsehood. Of him there is mention 
in Thalmud Bab. in Saiihedrin, cap. Che- 
lek: and Maim, in treat, of Kings, chap. ii. 
sect. 3, saith of R. Akiba, " who was the 
armour-bearer of Ben Coziba the king, that 
he said of him, he was the king Christ. And 
he and all the wise men of his age thought 
he was the king Christ, until he was killed 
for iniquity : when he was killed, they knew 
he was not." A sceptre,] Or, a rod, a 
staffs, a sign of kingdom and government: 
see the notes on Gen. xlix. 10. The Gr. 
translateth it, a man shall rise out of Israel; 
the Chald. sailh, " Messias (or Christ) shall 
be anointed of the house of Israel." As 
David and other kings had sceptres, so Christ 
is said to have rod or sceptre, as, ' The scep- 
tre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of righteous- 
ness,' Ps. xlv. 7; Heb. i. 8; and, 'Thou 
shall rule them with a rod (or sceptre) of 
iron,' Ps. ii. 9. The corners,] Or, the 
sides, (the quarters) of Moab; meaning a 
conquest of the whole conitry, in Q\QYy 
quarter and corner of it. The Gr. interpre- 
ters understood it figuratively, the dukes of 
Moab; likewise the Chald. paraphiast, say- 
ing, "he shall kill the princes of Moab." 
This was literally fulfilled by David, who 
' smote Moab, and cast them down to the 
ground,' &c. 2 Sam. viii. 2, spiritually by 
Christ, destroying idolaters and antichris- 
tians, in religion like Moabites. Shall un- 
WA ll,] Shall cast down the walls, that is, 
conquer and subdue, which the Gr. expoimd- 
eth, shall captive (or make a prey;) the 
Chald. shall rule or have dominion. The 



HOW; I shall behold him, but not nigli. There shall proceed a star 
out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel ; and shall smite 
through the corners of Moab, and shall unwall all the sons of Seth. 
'® And Edom sliall be a possession, and Seir shall be a possession 
for his enemies, and Israel shall do valiantly. '^ And lie shall have 
dominion out of Jacob, and shall destroy him that remaineth, out 

SONS OF Seth,] Who was the son of Adam, Ver. 18. — Edom,] The Edomites the pos- 

set in Abel's room, whom Cain killed, Gen. terity of Esau ; these became a possession to 

25, and all Cain's race being drowned 
the flood, only Seth's posterity in Noah re- 
mained: so that all the world now are the 
sons of Seth, as of Adam: wherefore the 
Chald. explaineth it, "he shall have do- 
minion over all the sons of men." So it is 
a prophtcy of Christ, whom all kings should 
worship, all nations should serve, Ps. Ixxii. 
11, and tiie ends of the earth should be his 
possession, Ps. ii. 8 ; ' That at the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow,' Phil. ii. 10. 
And this conquest is gotten by the preaching 
of the gospel, as it is written, ' The weapons 
of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty 
through God, to the pulling down of strong 
holds, casting down imaginations, and every 
high thing that exalteth itself against the 
knowledge of God, and bringing into captivi- 
ty every thought to the obedience of Christ, 
and having in a readiness to revenge all dis- 
obedience,' 2 Cor. X. 4 — 6. Some take Seth 
here to be meant not of a man's name, but to 
signify the hinder part^ and to mean the 
people then behind Balaam, as the Ammon- 
ites, Midianites, and the like: but besides 
the Chald. foie-mentioned, the Gr. alsotrans- 
lateth it, all the sons of Seth: and the Hebs. 
do most so expound it; as Sol. Jarchi saitli, 
''all the sons of Seth, i. e. all peoples, which 
do all come of Seth the son of Adam the 
first." Maim, in Misn. tom. iv. treat, of 
kings, chap. xi. sect. 1, explaineth Balaam's 
prophecy thus; "I shall see him, but not 
now: this is David: I shall behold him, but 
not nigh; this is the king Christ. There 
shall proceed a star out of Jacob; this is 
David : and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel ; 
this is the king Chiist: and shall smite 
through the corners of Moab; this is David, 
as it is written (in 2 Sam. viii. 2,) ' And he 
smote Moab,' &c. And he shall unwall all 
the sons of Seth ; this is the king Christ, of 
whom it is written (in Ps. Ixxii. 8,) ' He 
shall have dominion from sea to sea.' And 
Edom shall be a possession to David, as it is 
said, ' And all they of Edom became David's 
servants,' 2 Sam. viii. 11. And Seir shall 
be a possession ; this is unto the king Christ: 
as it is said, ' And saviours shall come up on 
mount Sion, to judge the mount of Esau, and 
the kingdom ?iiall be the Lord's,' Obad. ver. 

Vol. TI. * 

David, 1 Chron. xviii. 13, after that unto 
Ciiri-.t; as it is written, 'Who is this that 
rometh from Edom?' &c. Is. Ixiii. 1 — 6. 
Seir,] The mountain where Esau dwelt, 
Gen. xxxvi. 7, 8, wherefore the Gr. instead 
of Seir, nameth Esau. Shall no valiant- 
ly,] Or, do valiantly, valiant acts: which 
phrase is sometimes understood of wars and 
victories, as in 1 Sam. xiv. 48, sometimes of 
getting wealth and riches, as in Ezek. xxviii. 
4. Both may be here meant, and the Chald. 
oxpoundetli it ot the latter. And as this 
was answerable to the name of Israel, which 
signified his power and prevailing ' with God 
and with men,' Gen. xxxii. 20, so David, 
after he had vanquished the Edomites, cele- 
brated the truth of this promise, saying, 
' Through God we shall do valiantly, and 
he will tread down our enemies,' Ps. Ix. 

Ver. 19. — And he shall have do- 
minion,] He, that is, one of the house of 
Jacob, as the Chald. expresseth it. SoThar- 
gum Jonathan saith, " And a ruler shall rise 
up out of the house of Jacob." And it may 
be understood of David first, then and chiefly 
of Christ, Sol. Jarchi openeth it thus, " And 
yet there shall be another ruler out of Jacob, 
and he shall destroy him that remaineth out 
of the city. Of the king Christ he speaketh 
thus, of whom it is said, (in Ps. Ixxii.) 'he 
shall have dominion from sea to sea." Out 
OF THE CITY,] That is, of every city, to wit, 
of the Edomites, as ver. 18, or moie gene- 
rally, of all cities; as the Chald. cxpoundeth 
it, the city of the people. Cliazkuni refer- 
reth it to Joab, David's captain, of whom it 
is said, ' Six months did Joab remain there 
with all Israel, until he had cut ofl' every 
male in Edom,' 1 Kings xi. 15, IG. But it 
hath reference also to further victories, as is 
said, ' The house of Jacob shall be a fire, and 
the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of 
Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle in 
them, and devour them, and there shall not 
be any remaining vi the house of Esau, for 
the Lord hath spoken it,' Obad. v. 18. Tlie 
Thargum calkd Jonathan's, nameth it Con- 
stantinople: by which it is evident, that the 
author of that work was not Jonathan ben 
Uzzicl, who paraphrased on the prophets, and 
was of the apostles' age, but some lati i Jew, 



of the city. ^^ And he looked on Amalek ; and he took up liis 
parable, and said, Amalek was the first of the nations ; but his lat- 
ter end shall he, that he perisli for ever. 

^^ And lie looked on tlie Kenite, and took up his parable, and 
said, Strong is thy dwelling-place, and thou puttest thy nest in a 

^^ Nevertheless, Kain shall be wasted, until Asliur shall carry 
thee away captive, 

^^ And he took up his parable, and said, Alas, who shall live 
when God doth this. 

^^ And ships (shall come) from the coasts of Kitim, and shall af- 

who put forth his work in tiiat Jonathan's 

Ver. 20. — He looked on Amalek,] On 
the country or people of the Amalekites, the 
posterity of Esau, Gen. xxxvi. 12. As tiie 
sight of Israel occasioned Balaam to bless 
them, ver. 2, &c. so the beholding of the 
wicked occasioned the utterance of their 
judgment and curse. The first,] Or, the 
beginning of the nations; meaning either 
the chiefest of them, or, as the Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, " the first of them that warred 
against Israel;" for which God tlireatened 
their ruin before, in Exod. xvii. as now he 
foretelleth it again by Balaam, as Israel was 
the Lord's 'first-fruits,' Jer. ii. 3, and there- 
fore by him preserved : so Amalek being the 
first-fruits of the wicked nations, is devoted 
to destruction, fulfilled in part by Saul, 1 
Sam. XV. and after in Mordecai's time, Es. 
vii., but spiritually accomplished by Christ. 
Thus Jericho the first-fruits of the Canaan 
cities, was also devoted and destroyed, Josh. 
vi. His latter end,] Or, his posterity; as 
the Gr. translateth, his seed: see Ps. xxxvii. 
38. That he perish for ever,] Or, 2mto 
perdition; which the Gr. translateth, shall 
perish; the Chald. shall perish for ever: so 
in ver. 24. 

Ver. 21. —The Kenite,] That is, the 
Kenites, or Kenaans; these the Chald. call- 
eth Salmeans; so that he took them for 
those Kenites mentioned in Gen. xv. 19. 
But Thargum Jonathan expoundeth it of 

• Jethro, that became a proselyte,' Exod. 
xviii. And so in Judg. i. 16, it is said, 

* the children of the Kenite, Moses' father- 
in-law, went up,' &c. And these are men- 
tioned here next Amalek, because they dwelt 
with them; as is written, 'And Saul said 
unto the Kenites; Go, depart, get you down 
from among the Amalekites,' &c. 1 Sam. xv. 
6. Thou puttest thy nest,] Heb. to put 
thy nest, of which phrase see the annot. on 
Gen. vi. 19. And here the Heb. Ken, 
which is a nest, hath allusion to the Kenites' 

name: by nest, meaning an habitation, as iu 
Job xxix. 18, a similitude taken from eagle-, 
which build their nests on high rocks; see 
Obad. ver. 4; Hab. ii. 9. So hereby was 
signified the secure dwellings of the Kenites 
by Israel, without disturbance, till the As- 
syrian wasted all. 

Ver. 22.— Kain,] That is, the Kenite, 
who came, as it seemeth, of a man named 
Kain, and so is by the Chald. expounded as 
before, the Salmaan. Some think it to be 
the name of a place where they dwelt. 
Wasted,] Or, eaten up, to wit, by enemies. 
Until Ashur,] Or, tvhiles Assitr; the As- 
syrians, and Babylonians, who carried away 
captive the ten tribes of Israel, 2 Kings 
xvii. 6, and the Jews into Babylon, 2 Kings 
XXV., and so the Kenites with them, as ap- 
peareth by this prophesy; and after the re- 
turn of the people out of Babylon, there is 
mention of these Kenites also, in 1 Chron. 
ii. 55. 

Ver. 23. — Alas, who shall live,] The 
Chald. explaineth it, wo to the sinners that 
shall live, &c. He signifietli hereby extra- 
ordinary and grievous calamities. Doth 
this,] Heb. putteth, or disposeth this, to 
wit, this that lolloweth. Thargum Jonathan 
explaineth it, " When the vrord of the Lord 
shall be revealed, to give a good reward unto 
the just, and to take vengeance on the 
wicked," &c. 

Ver. 24. — From the coast of Kitim,] 
Heb. from the hand of Kitim, vvhich the 
Chald. expoundeth, /row the Ronians ; the 
old Latin version, yro?« Italy; the Gr. keep- 
eth the Heb. phrase, from the hand of the 
Kitcpans. Kitim (or Chittim) was one of 
the sons of Javan, the son of Japhet, the son 
of Noah, Gen. x. 4. His posterity seated in 
Cilicia, Macedonia, Cypru?, and Italy also, 
as Josephus observeth in Antiq. lib. iv. cap. 
22. Wherefore Kitim is taken sometime 
for the one, and sometimes for the other. 
Here it may imply both the troubles that be- 
fel the Assyrians and Jews, by the Greeks 



flict Ashur, and shall afflict Hebcr, and he also shall perish for 

^ And Balaam rose up, and went and returned to his place ; and 
Balak also went to his way. 

and Selucidffi in the troublous days of Aiitio- 
chus, according to that in Dan. xi. 30. ' For 
the ships of Kitim shall come against him:' 
and after calamities that befel the Hebrews, 
from the Romans. Shall afflict Assur.] 
They, the ships, that is, the armies of Kitim 
shall afllict the Assyrians, which come of 
Assur, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, 
Gen. X. 22. Heber,] Or, Ebe^-, that is, 
Ueier's children, as the Gr. translateth it, 
the Hebrews, of Heber: see Gen. x. 22, 24. 
All Israel were his posterity, afflicted by 
Greeks and Romans. Christ was the chief- 
est of Eber, Luke iii. 23, 35, he was killed 
by Pilate the Roman deputy. Since that 
time, Rome by Antichrist there reigning, 
hath afHicted Christ in his members. He 
ALSO,] That is, Kiihn shall perish for ever ; 
or, shall go zmto perdition. Thus Balaam, 
as he began with the blessing of Israel, end- 
eth with the destruction of their enemies: 
God by his mouth confirming the promises 
made unto Abraham, and to his seed for 

ever; the accomplishment of all which, is in 

Ver. 25. — Returned to his place,] 
That is, went away with a purpose to return 
home, but was stayed by the Midiaiiitcs, and 
among them was killed by the sword of Is- 
rael, Num. xxxi. 8, But this is here so sig- 
nified, to show how God disappointed their 
plots and practices, that Balaam returned as 
he came, and could not curse Israel, but de- 
nounced woes against their enemies. Things 
which men purpose and endeavour to do, are 
said to be done by them, though perhaps not 
ell'ected; as is noted on Exod. viii. 18; Num. 
xiv. 40. It might also be, that Balaam in- 
deed returned to his place, and afterward 
came again to the Midianites. So Chazkuni 
(on Num. xxxi.) saith, "After that he had 
returned to his place, to Mesopotamia, he 
came again to Midian, to receive money of 
the elders of Midian, when he heard say of 
the plague which had been in Israel by his 
counsel. " 


1. Israel at Shitthn commit whoredom with the daughters of Moah, 
and idolatry with Baal-Peor. 4. The idolaters are commanded to he 
slain. 6. Phinehas killeth Zimri and Cozhi. 10. God therefore giveth 
hi?n an everlasting 2>riesthood. 16. The Midianites are to he vexed for 
their wiles against Israel. 

' And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit 
whoredom with the daughters of Moab. ^ And they called the peo- 

Ver. 1. — Abode in shittim,] A place in 
the wilderness, in the plains of Moab, near 
Jordan, called Abel-Shittim, in Num. xxxiii. 
48, 49. In this place Israel did sit, or abide, 
until after Moses' death ; and from thence 
Joshua removed them to Joidan, where they 
passed over to Gilgal, Josh. ii. 1; iii. 1. 
Wherefore God after willed the people to re- 
member the things that befel unto them, from 
Shittim to Gilgal, that they might ' know the 
righteousi'.ess of the Lord,' Mic. vi. 5. And 
the history now following showeth, how when 
Balak, the princes of Moab and Midian, and 
Balaam their prophet, had plotted and prac- 
tised with all their art and might, to with- 

draw God's favour and blessing from his peo- 
ple, but prevailed nothing; the prophet gave 
Balak and the Midianites counsel to put a 
stumbling-block before the Israelites, to see 
if they could withdraw the people from the 
love, fear, and obedience of the Lord their 
Godj that Israel sinning, might fall and 
bring themselves into the curse, (which Ba- 
laam could not bring upon tliem) and so 
perish. By this wicked counsel they pre- 
vailed against many, to the death of twenty - 
four thousand Israelites: but the state and 
body of the church was by God's grace still 
preserved, the wicked being taken away by 
his judgment. The people,] Some of the 



pie unto the sacrifices of tlieir gods -. and the people did eat, and 
bowed themselves down to their gods. ^ And Israel was joined to 

people of Israel; for they that fell to this 
wickedness, did all perish; but they that 
cleaved to the Lord, remained alive, Deut. 

iv. 3, 4. To COMMIT WHOREDOM,] Or, to 

commit fornication; which the Chald. ex- 
poundetli, to err (or go astray) after the 
daughters of Moab; understanding also, the 
daughters of Midian, as appeareth by ver. 6, 
17, 18. This evil they fell into, by the 
wicked counsel and doctrine of Balaam, who 
taught Balak ' to cast a stumbling-block 
before the sons of Israel, to eat things 
sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornica- 
tion,' Rev. ii. 14. So Moses likewise saith, 
'Behold these (women) caused the sons of 
Israel, through the word of Balaam, to com- 
mit trespass against Jehovah in the matter of 
Peor,' Num. xxxi. 16. That hypocrite who 
had so often blessed Israel, and pronounced 
those accursed which cursed them, who had 
heard and uttered the oracles of God, had his 
eyes opened, had escaped the sword of the 
angel, &c. to the end that he should not speak 
or do any thing but what the Lord commanded : 
yet after all this, he was the author of this 
mischief; that it might appear how ' evil men 
and seducers wax worse and worse, deceiv- 
ing, and being deceived,' 2 Tim. iii. 13, and 
that men might beware of false prophets, 
which come in sheep's clothing, but inwardly 
are ravening wolves, Matt. vii. 15. 

Ver. 2. — Thev called,] That is, the 
daughters of Moab called, or itivited. Thus 
the intended war, of Moab against Israel, was 
turned to a pretended peace, and feigned 
amity, alluring people by fleshly baits, to de- 
tile the bodies and souls with whoredom and 
idolatry. By the women of Moab, and of 
other strange peoples, Solomon the wise was 
also drawn into sin, 1 Kings xi. 1, 4. Sa- 
crifices OF THEIR GODS,] Or, of their god; 
in Gr. and Chald. of their idols: meaning of 
Baal-Peor: whereof David speaketh thus, 
' They were joined unto Baal-Peor, and ate 
the sacrifices of the dead,' Ps. cvi. 28. By 
the dead, meaning idols, unto which the 
scriptures do oppose ' the living and true 
God,' 1 Thes. i. 9; Jer. x. 9, 10. Did 
EAT,] And so communicated with their ido- 
latry; for they who eat of the sacrifices, are 
partakers of the altar, 1 Cor. x. 18. This 
sin God in special manner had forewarned 
them of, in Exod. xxxiv. 14, 15. Bowed 
TO THEIR GODS,] In Gr. aud Chald. to their 
idols. This people whom God had guided 
through the wilderness forty years, who had 
seen God's works, and felt his punishments 
for their own and their fathers' sins, were de- 
livered from many enemies round about, and 

now abiding in Shittim, were ready to enter 
into the promised land, are here prevented, 
and overthrowu tlirough their own corrup. 

Ver. 3. — Was joined,] Or, was coupled, 
ivas yoked: unto which word the apostle 
seemeth to have respect, when he saith, ' Be 
ye not unequally yoked together with unbe- 
lievers,' 2 Cor. vi. 14. To Baal-Peor,] 
Whi('h the Chald. expoundeth, to thetn that 
served Baal-Peor, that was the idol of the 
Muabites and Midianitts, called in Gr. Bel- 
phegor. Baal is by interpretation a lord or 
patron: by which name it is probable that 
the heathens called the sun, or some star, as 
is noted on Lev. xviii. 21. Peor or Phegor, 
was the name of a mountain. Num. xxiii. 
28, and of the idol there worshipped, Num. 
XXV. 17: Josh. xxii. 17. And because Baal 
was a common name to many idols, aud 
much reverenced of the people, through cor- 
ruption the Israelites called also the Lord, 
Baal: but he blameth them for it, saying, 
' Thou shalt call me no more Baali,' Hos. ii. 
16, and in detestation of the name, the pro- 
phets put Bosheth, that is, shame, instead of 
Baal, that is. Lord: as it is written, ' They 
went to Baal-Peor, and separated themselves 
unto that shame,' Hos. ix. 10, and the Gr. 
interpreters in 1 Kings xviii. 25, translate 
Baal, Shame: yea and the Heb. prophets 
sometimes put one for another, as Jerub-Baal 
(who was Gideon) Judg. viii. 35; ix. 1, is 
called Jerub-Besheth, 2 Sam. xi. 21; Esh. 
Baal, 1 Chron. viii. 33; is called Ish-Bo- 
sheth, 2 Sam. ii. 10; and Merib-Baal, 1 
Chron. viii. 34; is Mephi-Bosheth, 2 Sam. 
ii. 10. Hereupon it is said, ' Ye set up 
altars to that shame, even altars to burn in- 
cense unto Baal,' Jer. xi. 13. Peor halh the 
signification of opening the mouth, and was 
the name of this idol, as some think, of filthi- 
ness and fornication committed together with 
idolatry, (as this history showeth) and to he 
that which in other language was called Pria- 
pus. But as Nebo the god of Babylon hath 
his name of prophesying, so Peor might like- 
wise be so called of opening the mouth in 
speech and prophecy; as the scripture men- 
tioneth ' the prophets of Baal,' 1 Kings 
xviii. 22, and of the prophets that prophesied 
by Baal, Jer. ii. 8; xxiii. 13. The anger 
OF Jehovah,] «They provoked him to in- 
dignation by their actions, and the plague 
brake in upon them,' Ps. cvi. 29. Thus Ba- 
laam by his counsel brought them into sin, 
and so under wrath and curse through their 
own default ; which he could not obtain of 
God otherwise against them by any means. 



Paal-Peor, and the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel. 
* And Jehovali spake unto Moses, Take all the lieads of the people, 
and hang tliem up before Jehovali, against the sun, that the fierce 
anger of Jehovah may be turned away from Israel. * And Moses 
said unto the judges of Israel, Slay ye every man his men that were 
joined unto Baal-Peor. ^ And behold, a man of the sons of Israel 
came, and brought near unto his brethren a Midianitess, in the eyes 
of Moses, and in the eyes of all the congregation of the sons of 
Israel -. and they were weeping at the door of the tent of the con- 
gregation. ' And Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron 
tlie priest, saw it ; and he rose up from amongst tlie congregation, 
and took a javelin in his hand. * And he went in after the man of 
Israel, into the tent, and thrust both of them througli, tlie man of 
Israel, and the woman, through her belly; and the plague was 
stayed from the sons of Israel. ' And those that died in tlie plague, 
were four and twenty thousand. 

Ver. 4. — Thk heads,] That i^, as the 
Gr. translateth, the captains of the people, 
such as were chief in the transgression. 
Hang them up,] The Gr. translateth it, 
make them a pnhlic eaumple: the Cliald. 
Judge and kill him that is worthy to be 
killed : but Thargum Jonathan expoundeth 
it, "crucify them." The law after saith, 
' he that is hanged is the curse of God, that 
is, accin-sed of God,' Deut. xxi. 23, so the 
sinners brought the curse upon themselves. 
Before Jehovah,] Or, /or, or unto Jeho- 
vah; to his honour, in doing vengeance on his 
enemies. Both these phrases are used as one, 
in 2 Sam. xxi., ' we will hang them up unto 
Jehovah,' ver. 6, ' and they hanged them be- 
fore Jehovah,' ver. 9. That the fierce 
ANGER,] Or, as the Gr. translateth, a7id the 
fierce anger (or heat of the anger) of the 
Lord shall be turned away. Signifying 
that the rooting out of sinners turneth away 
Gorl's anger from a people: for, 'to do justice 
and judgment, is more acceptable to the Lord 
than sacrifice,' Prov. xxi. 3. 

Ver. 5. — His men,] The men under his 
government, as they were distributed in 
Exod. xviii. 25. Although the Midianites 
were the beginners of this mischief, yet God 
first punisheth and piu-geth his church, and 
after he giveth order to destroy the Midian- 
ites, ver. 17; Num. xxxi. 2, for 'judgment 
must begin at the liouse of God,' 1 I'et. iv. 
17; Ezek. ix. 6. Compare herewith the 
judgment inflicted for tiie golden calf, Exod. 
xxxii. 27, &c. 

Ver. 6 Brought near,] This word 

signifieth a bringing to commit fornication, 
as in Gen. xx. 4, ' Abimelech had not come 
near unto her:' see the notes on Lev. xviii. 

6. They were weeping,] These circum- 
stances show the sin to be done with an liigh 
hand, in contempt of Moses, of the congre- 
gation, of God himself and his judgments 
(for which the people now wept:) and so of 
all religion ; and with a purpose to stir up 
the people unto open rebellion. 

Ver. 8. — Into the tent,] The original 
word used here for a tent, is not the ordinary 
name, but such as signifieth a cave or hollow 
place; and is thought to mean such a tent as 
was made for fornication : and so it more 
showeth the height of his impiety, that erected 
such a place of wickedness. Her belly,] 
In Chald. fier boivels; in Gr. her womi (or 
niatrice.) The plague was stayed,] Or, 
urns restrained : this plague, which the Chald. 
calleth death, seemeth to a be pestilence 
which God sent among the people, as the like 
si)cech elsewhere showeth. Num. xvi. 50 , 1 
Chron. xxi. 22, as also in that David saith, 
' the plague brake in upoji them,' Ps. cvi. 
29. Howbeit the word is sometime used for 
slaughter by the sword, as in 1 Sam. iv. 

Ver. 9. — Twenty-four thous.vnd,] All 
the men that had followed Baal-Peor, the Lord 
destroyed them from among his people, Deut. 
iv. 3. The apostle speaktiig hereof, saith, 
' Neither let us commit fornication, as some 
of them committed, and fell in one day three 
and twenty thousand,' 1 Cor, x. 8. it 
seemeth that one thousand were slain by the 
judges, ver. 5, and twenty-three thousand by 
the hand of God, of which latter number the 
apostle speaketh : or, one thousand of the 
chief were hanged, and the rest slaiii by the 



B2 B 

'" And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, " Phinehas the son 
of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath 
away from the sons of Israel, while he was zealous with my zeal 
among them, that I consumed not tlie sons of Israel in my zeal, 
'' Therefore say, Behold I give unto him my covenant of peace. 
'^ And tliere shall be to him, and to his seed after him, the covenant 
of an everlasting priesthood, because he was zealous for his God, 

ess Here the Hebs. begin the forty-first 
section or lecture of the law, which they call 

Ver. 1 1. — Hath tdrned away,] In Gr. 
ka(/i caused my wrath to cease. The fact 
of Phinehas, who was but a priest's son, no 
ordinary magistrate, and who proceeded not 
with the malefactors judicially, but carried 
with zeal of God, thrust them through sud- 
denly, might seem blame-worthy in the eyes 
of men, and might procure him much ill-will 
considering the persons whom he killed, the 
man being a prince in Israel, and the woman 
a prince's daughter of Midian: therefore 
God here justifieth and rewardeth his work 
done by the motion of his Spirit. He was 
ZEALO0S WITH MY ZEAL,] Or,he was jeul- 
ous tvith my jealousy; for God's cause, not 
his own. The apostle hath a like speech, ' I 
am jealous over you with jealousy of God, 
that is, with godly jealousy.' Zeal or jeal- 
ousy, (both which are signified by one word 
in the Heb.) meaneth both a fervent indigna- 
tion against the sinners, and a fervent love 
unto the Lord, showed in his former [act, as 
Thargum Jonathan addeth for explanation, 
"and he killed the guilty among them." 
In my zeal,] Or, in my jealousy; it is the 
word before used, and applied here to God, as 
in Exod. xx. 5, and often. 

Ver. 12 I give,] In Chald. /. decree. 

Of peace,] Understand, my covenant., (the 
covenant of) peace: so God saith of Levi, 
' my covenant was with him, (the covenant 
of) life and peace; and I gave them unto 
him, for the fear wherewith he feared me,' 
&c. Mai. ii. 5. So in this place Thargum 
Jonathan paraphraseth, " Behold I decree 
unto him my covenant of peace, and I will 
make him the messenger of my covenant, 
and he shall live for ever, to preach the gos- 
pel of redemption in the end of days." By 
which words Phinehas in his covenant was a 
figure of Christ, who is called ' the messenger 
of the covenant,' Mai. iii. 1, and hath an 
everlasting priesthood, * after the power of an 
endless life.' Heb. vii. 16, 17, and hath both 

wrought and preached redemption in these 
latter days, Heb. i. 1 — 3. 

Ver. 13. — Of an everlasting priest- 
hood,] Meaning until Christ's coming, to 
whom the priesthood of Aaron was to give 
place, Heb. vii. 11, &c. Phinehas himself 
lived to a great old age, as appeareth by Judg. 
XX. 28, his sons successively were high priests 
till the captivity of Babylon, 1 Chron. vi. 4, 
15, and at the return out of captivity, Ezra 
the great priest and scribe was of his line, 
Ezra vii. 1, 5. And God by his prophet 
promiseth, that ' David shall never want a 
man to sit upon the throne of tlie house of 
Israel: neither shall the priests the Levites 
want a man before me, to ofler bnnit-offer- 
ings, and to kindle meat-oflerings, and to 
do sacrifice continually,' Jer. xxxiii. 17, 
IS, 21, 22. Both which are accom- 
plished in Christ, Luke i. 32, 33; Hei). 
iii. 1; v. 1 — 5; viii. 1 — 3, &c. Zealous 
FOR HIS God,] Or, jealous for his 6-'orf, that 
is, for the dishonour done unto his God; as 
God himself is said to be jealous for Jerusa- 
lem, when he was sore displeased with the 
heathens that afflicted it, Zach. i. 14, 15. 
' It is good to be zealously aflected always in 
a good thing,' Gal. iv. 18, that God showeth 
here in rewarding Phinehas' zeal, who 'stood 
up and executed judgment, and the plague 
was stayed: and it was counted to him for 
justice, to generation and generation for ever,* 
Ps. cvi. 30, 31. The Hebs. in ages follow- 
ing mentioned his glory ; as Ben Sirach 
saith, ' Because he had zeal in the fear of the 
Lord, and stood up with good courage of 
heart, when the people were turned back, 
and made atonement for Israel ; therefore 
was there a covenant of peace made with 
him, that he should be the chief of the sanc- 
tuary, and of his people ; and that he and his 
posterity should have the dignity of the priest- 
hood for ever,' Eccl. xlv. 23, 24. The 
scripture noteth the contrary of Eli (who 
came of Ithamar the brother of EUeazar) for 
when his own sons committed whoredom 
with the women of Israel, that assembled at 
the door of the tabernacle of the coiisresa- 



and made atonement for the sons of Israel. " And the name of the 
man of Israel, that icas smitten, that was smitten witli the Midiani- 
tess, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of a father's house, of 
the Simeonites. '" And the name of the woman, the Midianitess 
that was smitten, was Cozbi the daughter of Zur, he icas an head 
of nations, of a father's house of Midian. 

tion, and made themselves vile, ' he res- 
trained tliem not,' but honoured his sons 
abuve the Lord: therefore God threatened to 
cut ofl' his arm, and the arm of his father's 
house, that there should not be an old man in 
his house fur ever. And he ' sware unto the 
house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house 
should not be purged with sacrifice, nor ofl'er- 
ing for ever,' I Sam. ii. 22, 29, 31; iii. 13, 
14. Made atone.ment,] Or, made recon- 
ciliation, pacified God's wrath through faith: 
this word used for atonement by sacrifice, is 
here applied to the executing of judgment 
upon the malefactors ; whereupon God stayed 
the plague which had begun upon the con- 
gregation. As oftentimes for the sin of 
some, God is wroth with the whole congre- 
gation. Josh. vii. ], 12; xxii. 17, 18, so 
here for the just fact of Phinehas his wrath 
was turned away, ver. 11, and atonement is 
made. So the proverb was fulfilled, ' The 
king's wrath is as messengers of death ; but 
a wise man will pacify it,' Prov. xvi. 14. 
Tlius David also made atonement by doing 
justice on Saul's house, 2 Sam. xxi. 3, &c. 

Ver. 14. — Smitten,] That is, killed, as 
the Chald. explaineth it: so in ver. 15, and 
17. Zimri,] In Gr. Zambri son of Salo; 
the notation of this name agreeth with his 
end ; for Zimri signifieth cutting off", as su- 
perfluous boughs are pruned, or cut oH' from 
the vine : Salo signifieth treading under 
foot; so as a fruitless branch he was cut oH" 
from the vine of Israel, and trodden down of 
God and men; as it is written, 'Thou hast 
trodden down all them that go astray from 
thy statutes; for their deceit is falsehood,' 
Ps. cxix. lis. Among the Simeonites,] 
In Chald. of the tribe of Simeon. And 
being a prince, and bringing that harlot ' un- 
to his brethren,' ver. 6, it is likely that many 
of that tribe took part with him, and perished 
in the plague aforesaid. For whereas tliat tribe 
at the former muster, had fifty-nine thou- 
sand and three hundred men of war among 
them, Num. i. 22, 23, they were diminished 
now after this plague thirty-seven thousand 
and one hundred, that there remained at 
the next muster, but twenty-two thousand 
and two hundred men, Num. xxvi. I, II. 

Ver. 15. — Cozui,] In Gv. Chasbi daugh- 
ter of Sour. Cozbi signifieth l^ing or false- 
hood, Zur is a 7-ock. An head of nations,] 

That is, a governor of people; for he was a 
prince of Midian, ver. 17, and afterward he 
is said to be one of the five kings of Midian, 
Num. xxxi. 8. And as Balaam with his 
wicked counsel and doctrine, is named as a 
figure of antichristian seducers, corrupting 
the Christian church with fornication and 
idolatry. Rev. ii. 14, so in this prince of Mi- 
dian, and the harlot his daughter, we may 
behold the type of antichrist, who by the 
spirit and doctrine of Balaam hath drawn 
Ihe church unto fornication and idolatiy with 
false gods and heresies. His false prophets, 
like the daughters of Moab, allure men unto 
those abominations: for as the wisdom of God 
(in Christ) sendeth forth her maidens to in- 
vite the simple to come and eat of her bread, 
and drink of the wine that she hath mingled, 
Prov. ix. 1 — 5, so 'the foolish woman,' (or 
whore of Babylon, Rev. xvii. 1, 5,) hath 
also her toll-guests, ' the spirits of devils, 
working miracles, which go forth unto the 
kings of the earth,' &c. Rev. xvi. 13, 14, 
and she calleth * passengers, who go right on 
their ways to partake of her stolen waters 
which are sweet, and bread in secret, which 
is pleasant, and many do follow her pernicious 
ways, yea, many strong men have been slain 
by her,' Prov. ix. 13—18; vii. 26; 2 Pet. 
ii. 1, 2. The kings also of the earth have 
committed fornication with her. Rev. xviii. 
3, and brought her by their laws unto the 
brethren and subjects. And as the harlot's 
name was Cozbi, that is, a lie or falsehood, 
the daughter of Zur, that is, a rock, a prince 
of Midian of Abraham's degenerate children. 
Gen. XXV. 1, 2 ; so is the church of anti- 
christ, false and deceitful, yet the pretended 
daughter of the Rock, which Clirist hath pro- 
mised to build his church upon, Matt. xvi. 
IS, though being departed from the true 
faith of Christ, as the Midianites were from 
the faith of their father Abraham. For those 
antichristian idolatries, God sendeth forth his 
plagues. Rev. xvi. But when with the sword 
of the Spirit, (which is tiie word of God, Eph. 
vi. 17,) those abominations are cut olli and 
the authors of them thrust through, as in 
Zach. xiii. 2, 3, the wrath of God which now 
is kindled against the sinners, shall be turned 
away. Of a father's house,] Sol. Jarchi 
here noteth from Gen. xxv. 4, that " Midian 
had five father's houses, Ephah, and Epher, 



"^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saymg, " V^ex thou the Mi- 
dianites, and smite ye them. '^ For they vex you witli their wiles, 
wherewith tliey have beguiled you in the matter of Peor, and in 
tJie matter of Cozbi, the daugliter of a prince of Midian their sis- 
ter, which was smitten in the day of the plague, for Peor's sake. 

and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah: and 
tliis man was king of one of them." 

Ver. 17.' — Vex the Midianites,] Or, 
distress, that is, war against the Midianites; 
as the Gr. translateth, use enmity against 
them : Ileb. to vex, or to distress, of which 
phrase see the notes on Exod. xiii. 3, God 
who had first punished liis own people for 
their sins, doth now decree vengeance against 
their enemies, which was done by Moses be- 
fore his death, Num. xxxi. 2. For as God 
saitli to the nations, ' Lo I begin to bring 
evil on the city, upon which my name is 
called; and should ye be utterly unpunished? 
ye shall not be unpunished,' Jer. xxv. 29. 
He speaketh this against the Midianites, ra- 
ther than against the Moabites (whom he had 
forbidden Israel to vex or distress, Dent. ii. 
9,) because they were Chief in the mischief. 
For though Balaam gave the counsel to the 
king of Moab, Rev. ii. 14, and the Moabit- 
ish women «'ere prostitutes also unto whore- 
dom, Num. xxv. ], yet Balak at first did not 
much regard that counsel, but turned Balaam 
away with shame. Num. xxiv. 11, 25; but 
the Midianites retained him, and amongst 
them he was slain, Num. xxxi. 8. And 
Cozbi a king's daughter of Midian was a 

principal instrument of evil unto Israel, as 
God showeth in ver. 18, therefore the Mi- 
dianites were first in the punishment. Smite 
YE THEM,] That is, as the Chald. expound- 
eth it, kill ye them. 

Ver. 18. — For they vex you,] Or, dis- 
tress you, not with war, but with wiles and 
deceits. So God saith of Babylon, ' Reward 
her even as she hath rewarded you,' Rev. 
xviii. 6. The reward of unrighteous works, 
is righteous judgment. Their wiles,] Or, 
their guiles, deceits, crafts. Beguiled 
YOU,] Or, dealt wilily and craftily with 
you; as the Egyptians when they thought to 
deal wisely for the suppressing of Israel, 
Exod. i. 10, are said to 'deal craftily,' Ps. 
cv. 25, and Joseph's brethren, when they 
craftily conspired his death, Gen. xxxvii. IS. 
By this it appeareth, that the amity of the 
Midianites was but feigned, and that they 
plotted the destruction of Israel. Matter,] 
Heb. tvord of Peor; the idolatry with Baal- 
Peor, which Israel was drawn unto, ver. 2, 
3. So ' the matter (or word) of Cozbi,' is 
meant the fornication with her, ver. 6. For 
Peor's sake,] Heb. for the word of Peor, 
that is, which plague came on Israel fur 
Peor's sake or cause. 


1. The sum of all the men of Israel, fron twenty years old and up. 
ward, is taken in the plains of Moab. 5. The families and numbers of 
Reuben. \2. S'mieon. 15. Gad. \9. Judah. 23. Issachar. 26. Za- 
hulon. 29. Manasseh. 35. Ephraim. 38. Benjamin. 42. Dati. 44. 
Aser. 48. Naphtali. 51. The sum of them all. 52. The law of divid- 
ing among them the inlieritance of the land. 57. The families and num- 
ber of the Levites. 62. The cause why they were not numhered among 
the Israelites. 63. None were left of them which were numhered at 
Sina, but Caleb and Joshua. 

And it v/as after the plague that Jehovah said unto Moses, 

Ver. 1. — After the plague,] After the 
death of the twenty-four thousand that perish- 
ed for the sin of Peor, (Num. xxv. 9 ;) the 
Lord conimandeth the people to be number- 
ed, wbidi should have inheritance in his 

land; to signify his love and care of those 
that cleaved unto him, Deut. iv. 3, 4. The 
Hebs. explain it by " the similitude of a 
shepherd, who, when wolves have gottm 
among his flock, and worried some of them. 



and unto Eleazar, tlie son of Aaron the priest, saying, ^ Take ye 
the sum of all the congregation of the sons of Israel, from twenty 
years old and upward, according to the liouse of their fatliers, every 
one that goeth forth with the army in Israel. ^ And Moses and 
Eleazar the priest spake with them in the plains of Moab, by Jor- 
dan near Jericho, saying, * From twenty years old and upward, 
as Jehovah commanded Moses, and the sons of Israel which went 
forth out of the land of Egypt. 

^ Reuben the first-born of Israel ; the sons of Reuben, o/" Enoch, 
tlie family of tlie Enocliites ,- of Phallu, the family of tlie Phallu- 
ites. ® Of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites ; of Carmi, the 
family of the Carmitcs. ^ These are the families of the Reuben - 
ites, and they that were mustered of them were tliree and forty 
thousand, and seven Imndred and tliirty. ^ And the sons of Phallu, 
Eliab. * And the sons of P^liab, Nemuel, and Dathan and Abiram : 
this is that Dathan and Abiram, the called of the congregation, 
who strove against Moses and against iVaron, in the congregation 
of Korah, when tliey strove against Jehovah. '" xVnd the earth 

he counteth them, to know the number of 
those that are left." Again, " as wlien they 
came out of Egypt, and were delivered to 
Moses, they were delivered him by tale, 
(Exod. xxxviii. 26,) so now when Moses 
was I'eady to die, and to deliver his flock 
again, he delivered them by tale." Sol. Jar- 
chi on Num. xxvi. Eleazar,] Who now 
was high priest after the death of Aaron his 
father, who had before numbered them with 
Moses, Num. i. 3. And this Eleazar was 
he, who after with Joshua divided the land 
of Canaan to this people, Josh. xiv. ], &c. 

Ver. 2. — The sum,] Heb. the head; 
whicli the Chald. expoundeth, the count or 
sum: see Exod. xxx. 12. This was the 
third time that Israel was numbered for to 
fight the Lord's battle against the Canaan- 
ites, and to receive their land for an inheri- 
tance. See the annot. on Num. i. 2. Twen- 
ty YEARS OLD,] Heb. son of twenfi/ years. 
See Num. i. .3. House,] That is, as the Gr. 
explaineth it, houses of their fathers. Jarchi 
saith, " they were reckoned by the tribe of the 
father, and not after the mother:" so in Num. 
i. 2. Goeth forth with the army,] Able 
to go out to war the warfare of the Lord: 
see the notes on Num. i. 3. 

Ver. 3. — Spake with them,] In Cliald. 
spake, and said to number them : but Thar- 
gum Jonathan addeth, " spake with the 
princes, and said to number them." So it 
accordeth with Num. i. 4. Plai.ns.] Or, 
campaign country of Moab : see Num. xxii. 

Ver. 4. — From twenty years old,] 
Ileb.yronia son of twenty years: as ver. 

Vol. II. R 

2, and here is to be understood, the people 
are to be numbered or the like. 

Ver. 5.' — The first-born,] Reuben for 
this cause is here first numbered, as also in 
Num. i. 5, 20, though he lost his dignity 
by his sin, 1 Chron. v. 1 ; and was put down 
to the second quarter, as they encamped 
about the sanctuary, and marched towards 
Canaan, Num. ii. 10 — 16. Enoch,] In 
Heb. Chanoch : see Gen. v. 18; xlvi. 9. 
Of the Enochites,] Heb. of the Enochite, {pt 
Chanochite,) the singular number for the plu- 
ral : so after throughout this chapter. See 
the annot. on Gen. x. G. And here Reuben 
hath four families according to Gen. xlvi. 
9 ; 1 Chron. v. 3. 

Ver. 7. — Mustered,] Or numbered f 
Heb. visited. Sue the notes on Num. i. 3. 
Fourty-three thousand, &c. — At the for- 
mer muster they were ' forty-six thousand 
and five hundred,' Num. i. 21 ; so they in- 
creased not, but decreased while they tra- 
velled in the wilderness. 

Ver. 9. — The called,] That is, re- 
nowned, famous : see Num. i. 16; xvi. 1, 
2, &c. Stro\e,] In Gr. mtidc insurrection; 
in Chald. gathered theinsiivcs together. This 
mutiny stirred by the chief of the tribe, seem- 
eth to be one cause of their decrease by the 
hand of God against them. 

Ver. 10. — And Korah,] That is, men 
and goods that pertained unto Korah, as Num. 
xvi. 32. The congregation died,] In Gr. 
his congregation, meaning l\orah\s, as Num. 


That ottered incense. Num. xvi. 35. For a 
SIGN,] Or for an ensign, a banner ; the Gr, 



opened her mouth and swallowed up them, and Korah, wlien the 
congregation died ; when the fire devoured two hundred and fifty 
men, and they were for a sign. " But the sons of Korah died not. 

'^ The sons of Simeon, according to tlieir families ; of Nemuel, 
the family of the Nemuelites ; of Jamin, the family of the Jamin- 
ites J of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites. " Of Zerah, the fa- 
mily of the Zerahites; of Saul, the family of the Saulites. " These 
are the families of the Simeonites ; two and twenty thousand and 
two hundred. 

" The sons of Gad, according to their families ; of Zephon, the 
family of the Zephonites ; of Haggi, tJie family of the Haggites ; 
of Shuni, the family of the Shunites. " Of Ozni, the family of 
the Oznites ; of Eri, the family of the Erites. '' Of Arod, the 
family of the Arodites ; of Areli, the family of the Arelites. 
^^ These are the families of the sons of Gad, according to those that 
were mustered of them, forty thousand and five hundred. *' The 
sons of Judah were Er and Onan : and Er and Onan died in the 
land of Canaan. ^° And the sons of Judah, according to their fami- 

and Chald. translate it, a sign : whereby 
God signified his anger to be displayed against 
all that should rebel in like manner. In 
Num. xvi. 40, it is called, • a memorial un- 
to the sons of Israel, that no stranger, &c., 
come near to offer incense before Jehovah ; 
that he be not as Korah,' &c. Of such things 
the apostle saith, ' they were our example?,' 
1 Cor. X. 6. 

Ver. 11. — Died not,] To wit, either by 
that fire, or by the swallowing up of the earth. 
Num. xvi. 32, 35. It seemeth they con- 
sented not to their father's rebellion, or at 
least repented at the warning given by Moses, 
Num. xvi. 5, &c. The sons of Korah, were 
Assir, and Eikauah, and Abjasaph, Exod. vi. 
24 ; these and their posterity lived, and kept 
their office in Israel ; for their genealogy is 
reckoned in 1 Chron. vi. 22 — 38 ; and they 
were appointed by David to be singers ' in 
the house of the Lord,' 1 Chron. vi. 31, 32; 
and of them came Samuel the prophet, 1 
Chron. vi. 33, 34, compared with 1 Sam. i. 
20; and Heman, who, with his offspring 
were singers, 1 Chron. vi. 33 ; xxv. 4 — 6. 
And many psalms have in their titles, ' to 
the sons of Korah,' as Ps. xlii. : xliv. ; xv. ; 
xlvi. ; xlvii. ; xlviii. ; xlix. ; Ixxxiv. ; Ixxxv. 
Ixxxvii. ; Ixxxviii. 

Ver. 12. — Nemuel,] Called also Jemnel, 
in Gen. xlvi. 10; and Exod. vi. 15; in Gr. 
here, Namovel. So in 1 Chron. iv. 24. 
Jachin,] In Gr. Achein : he is called Jarib, 
in 1 Chron. iv. 24. 

Ver. 13. — Zerah,] In Gr. Zara ; so in 

1 Chron. iv. 24 ; elsewhere called Zophar, 
Gen. xlvi. 10; Exod. vi. 15. Saul,] 'the 
son of a Canaanitess,' Gen. xlvi. 10. 

Ver. 14.— These are the families] 
'J'p wit, which remained : for there was one 
family more of Obad, Gen. xlvi. 10 ; Exod, 
vi. 15 ; but that was extinct in the wilder- 
ness, and therefore omitted here and in I 
Chron. iv. 24. Twenty-two thousand 
AND TWO HUNDRED,] Their number was 
greatly diminished ; for at the former muster 
they were fifty-nine thousand and tliree hun- 
dred, Num. i. 23. Among other sins that 
forementioned in Num. xxv. 14, seemeth to 
be a special cause hereof. And Moses bless- 
ing all the other tribes before his death, mak- 
eth no express mention of Simeon's, in Deut. 

Ver. 15. — Gad,] Though he was not the 
next born to Simeon, nor of that mother, yet 
is he mustered in the third place, because he 
was joined with Reuben and Simeon in the 
south quarter, as they encamped about the 
sanctuary. Num. ii. 10, 14. Zephon,] In 
Gr. Saphon, he was called also Zaphion, in 
Gen. xlvi. 16. 

Ver. 16. — Ozni,] In Gr. Azeni : in Gen. 
xlvi. 16, he is named Ezbon. 

Ver. 17. — Arod,] In Gr. Aroadi, and in 
Gen. xlvii. 16, Arodi. 

Ver. 18. — And five hundred,] So this 
tribe had fewer now by five thousand one 
hundred and fifty men, than at the former 
muster. Num. ii. 15. 

V^ER. 19.' — And Oman died,] Both of 



lies, were, of Shelali, the family of the Shelanites ; of Pharcz, the 
family of the PJiarzites ; of Zarah, the family of the Zarhites. 
^' And the sons of Pharez were of Hezron, the family of the Hez- 
ronites ; of Hamul, the family of the Hamulites. ^' These are 
the families of Judah, according to those that were mustered of them, 
seventy and six thousand, and five hundred. 

^^ The sons of Issachar, according to their families ; of TJiola, 
the family of the Tholaites ; of Phuva, the family of the Phun- 
ites. "* Of Jasliub, the family of the Jashubites ; of Simron, the fa- 
mily of the Simronitcs. ^' Tliese are the families of Issachar, accord- 
ing to those that ivere mustered of them, sixty and four thousand, 
and three hundred. 

^® The sons of Zabulon, according to their families, of Sered, the 
family of the Sardites ; of FJon, the family of the Elonites ; of 
Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites. " These are the families of 
tlie Zabulonites, according to those that ivere mustered of them, 
sixty thousand, and five hundred. 

^^ The sons of Joseph, according to the families, were Manasses 
and Ephraim. ^^ TJie sons of Manasses ; of Machir, the family of 
the Machirites ; and Machir begat Gilead ; of Gilead, the family 

them died without issue, God did cut them 
off for their wickedness in their youth, Gen. 
xxxviii. 7, 10. 

Ver. 20. — Selah,] In Gr. Selon. 

Ver. 21. — Of Pharez,] The sons of Ju- 
dah were five in all, Gen. xxxviii.; so noted 
by the Holy Spirit in 1 Chron. ii. 4 ; they 
were all to have been heads of families, but 
two dying childless, here are taken two of 
liis son's sons (Hezron and Hamul) in their 
stead ; and these were of Pharez, (the second 
brother of the twins, Gen. xxxviii. 28, 29 ;) 
of whom our Lord Christ came according to 
the flesh, Matt. i. So Judah hath five fa- 
milies continued, according to the number of 
his five sons. 

Ver. 22. — And six thousand,] At the 
first muster he had but seventy-four thousand 
and six hundred, Num. ii. 4; now he is 
increased nineteen hundred more: and as he, 
so all the tribes under his standard were in- 
creased also ; whereas in Reuben's they were 
all diminished. For Judah prevailed above his 
brethren, for the honour of Christ, who was 
to come of his stock: sec 1 Chron. v. 2; Gen. 
xlix. 8 — 10; Heb. vii. 14. 

Ver. 23. — Issachar,] He is numbered 
next Judah, for he was next him under 
his standard, Num. ii. 6 ; next him grav- 
ed on the high priest's breast-plate, Exod. 
xxviii. ; born next of the same mother 
Leah, Gen. xxx. 17, 18. Of liim and his 
four families here reckoned: see the notes 
on Gen. xlvi. 13. Phl'vah,] Called also 

Phua in 1 Chron. vii. 1 ; and so here in Gr. 

Ver. 24. — Jashub,] He is called Job in 
Gen. xlvi. 13. 

Ver. 25. — Sixtv-four thousand,] He 
had before but fifty-four thousand and four 
hundred, Num. ii. 6 ; so that his tribe is in- 
creased nine thousand and nine hundred men 
of war. 

Vek. 26. — Zabulon,] Or, Zeoulun, he 
was next brother to Issachar, Gen. xxx. 19, 
20; next him on Aaron's breast-plate, Exod. 
xxviii. ; and next him in marching and 
camping about the tabernacle, Num. ii. His 
three families continue here, as they were in 
Gen. xlvi. 14. 

Ver. 27. — Sixty thousand, &c.,] Who 
were before fifty-seven thousand and four hun- 
dred. Num. ii. 8; so they are increased, 
three thousand and one hundred men. 

Ver. 28. — Joseph,] Of him came two 
tribes, for he had the first birth-right, a 
double portion, 1 Chron. v. 2 ; Gen. xlviii. 

Ver. 29. — Manasses,] He, though the 
elder brother, was put down to the second 
place by Jacob's prophesy. Gen. xlviii. 14, 
19, 20; and by God's disposition of the tribes, 
Num. ii. 18, 20; yet here he is mustered be- 
fore Ephraim the standard-bearer ; as his 
army was increa.sed in the wilderness, when 
Ephraim's was diminished, which after doth 
appear. Machir,] He was the son of Ma- 
nasses, by ' his concubine an Aramitcss,' 1 



of the Gileadites. ^'' These are the sons of Gilead; o/'Jeezer, the 
family of the Jeezerites; of Helek, the family of the Helekites. 
^' And of Asriel, the family of the Asrielites ; and of Shechem, 
the family of the Shechemites. ^^ And of Shemida, the family of 
the Shemidaites; and of Hepher, the family of the Hepherites. 
^^ And Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but daughters : 
and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad, were Machlah and 
Noah, Hoglali, Milcah, and Tirzah. ^* These are the families of 
Manasses, and those that were mustered of them, two and fifty thou- 
sand, and seven hundred. 

^' Tliese are the sons of Epliraim, according to their families ; of 
Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthalhites ; of Becher, the family 
of the Bachrites ; of Tahan, the family of the Tahanites. ^* And 
these are the sons of Shuthelah ; of Eran, the family of the Eran- 
ites. ^' These are the families of the sons of Ephraim, according 
to those that were mustered of them, two and thiity thousand, and 
five hundred ; these are the sons of Joseph, according to their fa- 

^^ The sons of Benjamin according to their families ; of Bela, the 
family of the Belaites ; of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites ; of 
Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites. ^^ Of Shephupham, the family 
of the Shuphamites ; of Hupham, the family of the Huphamites. 

Ver. 35. — Shuthelah,] In Gr. Southala. 
Becher,] This some tiiink to be lie which is 
called Bered, in 1 Chron. vii. 20. Tahan,] 
Or Tachan ; in Gr. Tanach, by transposition 
of letters 

Ver. 36. — Eran,] In 1 Chron. vii, 26 ; 
called Edan (or Laadan :) so the Gr. here 
writeth him Eden, for the likeness of the 
Heb. letters, whereof see the annot. on Gen. 
iv. 18 ; and Num. ii. 14. Of this Eran (or 
Edan) came Joshua the son of Nun, 1 Chron. 
vii. 26, 27. And here Ephraim's son's son 
is head of a family, as was before in Judah's 
tribe, ver. 21. 

Ver. 37. — Thirty-two thousand, &n.,] 
He had before forty thousand, Num. ii. 19 ; 
so eight thousand of this tribe are now dimi- 

Ver. 38. — Bela,] In Gr. Bale : he was 
Benjamin's first-born, 1 Chron. viii. 1. Ash- 
bel,] Called Jediael, 1 Chron. vii. 6; Ben- 
jamin's second son, 1 Chron. viii. 1. The 
Gr. here writeth him ^suber, or as some 
copies have it, Asubel. Ahiram,] OT,Achi. 
ram, in Gr. Aeheiran : elsewhere he is nam- 
ed jEchi, Gen. xlvi. 22 ; and Achrab the 
third son of Benjamin, 1 Chron. viii. 1. 

Ver. 39. — Shephupham,] In Gr. Sophan, 
in 1 Chron. vii. 12, he is called Shuppim, in 
Gen. xlvi. 22, Muppim. Hupham,] Other- 
wise, Hiippim, Gen. xlvi. 22; 1 Chron. vii. 

Chron. vii. 14. Gilead,] In Gr. Galaad. 
There was also a place called Gilead, which 
the sons of this Machir conquered, and had it 
for their possession. Num. xxxii. 39, 40; 
Josh. xvii. 1. 

Ver. 30. — Jeezer,] In Gv.jichiezer : in 
Josh. xvii. 2, Ahiezer. Here not only the 
son's sons, (as was noted before of Judah, 
ver. 21,) but the son's son's sons are made 
heads of families in the tribe of Manasses : 
the like whereof is not in any other tribe. 
This honour hath Joseph above his brethren ; 
who also while he lived, ' saw unto Ephraim 
sons of the third generation : also the sons of 
Machir, son of Manasses, were borne upon 
Joseph's knees,' Gen. 1. 23. And Manasses 
here hath eight families, when no other tribe 
hath so many. 

Ver. 33. — Zelophehad,] Or, Zelophehad, 
in Gr. Salpaad. The names,] Heb. the 
name. Machlab,] In Gr. there names are 
written, Maala, Nova, j4igla, Melcha, and 
Thersa : Of these daughters, see Num. xxvii. 
1, &c. ; Num. xxxvi. 11 ; Josh. xvii. 3. 

Ver. 34. — Fifty-two thousand, &c.] 
He had before but thirty-two thousand and 
two hundred. Num. ii. 21 ; so that now he 
was increased twenty thousand and five hun- 
dred men of war : none of all the other tribes 
had half so much increase. Thus Jacob's 
prophecy is fulfilled, ' Joseph shall be the son 
of a fruitful vine,' Gen. xlix. 22. 



^' And the sons of Bela were Ard and Naaman, the family of the 
Ardites ; of Naaman, tlic family of the Naamites. " These are 
the sons of Benjamin, according to their families, and those that 
were mustered of them, five and forty thousand, and six hundred. 

^- TJicse are the sons of Dan, according to their families ; of 
Slmham, the family of the Shuhamites : these are the families of 
Dan, according to tlieir families. ^^ All the families of the Shu- 
liamites, according to those that were mustered of them, sixty and 
four thousand and four hundred. 

"^ TJie sons of Aser, according to their families ; of Jimnali, tlie 
family of the Jimnaites; of Jisvi, the family of the Jisvites ; of 
Beriah, the family of the Beriites. "^ Of the sons of Beriah ; of 
Ciieber, the family of the Chebrites ; of Malchiel, the family of 
the Malchielites. "^ And the name of the daughter of Aser was 
Scrah. ^' These are the families of the sons of Aser, according to 
tliose that were mustered of them, tliree and fifty thousand and four 

/ Tlie sons of Naphtali, according to their families ; of Jachzeel, 
the family of the Jachzeelites ; of Guni, tlie family of the Gunites. 
^^ Of Jezer, the family of the Jezrites ; of Silem, the family of the 
Silemites. ^^ These are the families of Naphtali, according to their 
families, and they that were mustered of them, five and forty thou- 
sand, and four hundred. 

Ver. 40. — Ard,] In Gr. Ader : so in I 
Chron. viii. 3, the Heb. writeth him Adar. 
The family,] Understand (as the Gr. also 
supplietii) of Ard, the family of the Ardites. 
Here Benjamin hath but seven families, who, 
ill Gen. xlvi. 21, had ten. 

Ver. 41 Fortv-five thousand, &c.,] 

He had before hut thirty-five thousand and 
four himdred, Num. ii. 23; now his number 
is increased ten thousand and two hundred ; 
tliat though his families were diminislied, 
yet he had the greatest increase of men of 
war amongst all the tribes, save Manasseh 
and Aser. 

Ver. 42. — Shuha.m,] Or, Shuchnm, call- 
ed by transplacing of letters, Hiishim (or 
Chushim,) in Gen. xlvi. 23; in Gr. Same. 

Ver. 43. — Sixty-fodr thousand, &c.,] 
Of one family of Dan there sprang so many 
thousand men, that none of all the tribes 
save Judah have the like multitude: and he 
is increased seventeen hundred men more 
than at the former numbering, Num. ii. 26. 

Ver. 44. — Jimnah,] In Gr. Jamein. 
Jisvi,] In Gr. Jesovi. Between these there 
was another called Jisvah, Gen. xlvi. 17 ; 
whose family here omitted, seemeth to be 

Ver. 43. — Cheber,] Or, Heher ; in Gr. 
Chober : of his posterity, see 1 Cliron- vii. 

32. Here Asers son's sons are also heads of 
families, as were before in Judah and Eph- 
raim, ver. 21 and 36. 

Ver. 46.' — Serah,] Or Serarh ; in Gr. 
Sara: mentioned also in Gen. xlvi. 17; 1 
Chron. vii. 30. 

Ver. 47. — Fifty-three thousand, &c.,] 
When before he had but forty-five thousand 
and five hundred, Num. ii. 28 ; that his in- 
crease in the wilderness was eleven thousand 
and nine hundred men of war: none but 
Manasseh was before him. 

Ver. 48. — Naphtali,] In Gr. Kephtha- 
leim. Jachzeel,] In Gr. Asiel. The four 
families of Naphtali contiime, as in Gen. xlvi. 

Ver. 50. — Forty-five thousand, &c.,] 
Whereas before he had been fifty-three thou- 
sand and four hundred, Num. ii. 30; so that 
eight thousand fewer are at the last than at 
the first. 

Ver. 51. — And a thousand, &c.,] The 
number of all at the former count was six 
hundred thousand, and three thousand and 
five hundred and fifty, Num. ii. 32; so that 
now in the whole sum the host of Israel is 
decreased in the thirty-eight years' travel, 
eighteen hundred and twenty men, exempt- 
ing the Levites which were numbered apart. 
Wherein God's work ior them all in general. 



^' These were the mustered of tlie sons of Israel 
thousand, and a thousand seven hundred and thirty. 

and for the tribes and families in particular 
is to be regarded. Wiien tliey were under 
bondage and affliction in Egypt, they multi- 
plied like fish, and filled the land, Exod. i. 
(for outward persecution iucreaseth the church, 
and lesseneth it not:) but when they were 
come out from that iron furnace, and'- 
lit'd of God as on eagles' wings, through the 
wilderness in safety, they so provoked him 
by their murmurings, rebellions, and idola- 
tries, that 'he consumed their days in vanity, 
and their years in hasty terror,' Ps. Ixxviii. 
17 — S3. And though amongst other bles- 
sings, God gave them his laws to direct them, 
Exod. XX. &c., and his ' good Spirit to in- 
struct them,' Neh. ix. 20; and led them like 
a flock, ' by the hand of Moses and Aaron,' 
Ps, Ixxvii. 21 ; yet learned they not obe- 
dience, but mount Sinai gendered to bon- 
dage. Gal. iv. 24 ; and the law wrought 
wrath, Rom. iv. 15 ; and Moses their law- 
giver could not bring them into the promised 
land, but left that unto his successor, Joshua 
the son of Nun, who figured Jesus the Son 
of God, by whom cometh grace and truth, 
and the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven, 
Deut. xxxi. 2, 7, 14 ; John i. 17 ; Rom. vi. 23. 

The special hand of God touching the 
tribes, and the mothers that bare them, and 
the families and persons that proceeded of 
them, may thus be viewed 

Seven of the twelve tribes did increase in 
multitude as they travelled, besides the tribe 
of Levi, which also was a thousand at the 
last numbering more than at the first, ver. 62. 

1. Judah increased, 1900. 2. Issachar, 
9900. 3. Zabulou, 3100. 4. Manassch, 
20,500. 5. Benjami[i, 10,200. 6. Dan, 
1700. 7. Aser, 11,900. 

The sum of all increased, was nine and 
fifty thousand and two hundred, besides the 
thousand Levites. Notwithstanding the de- 
crease of the five tribes was more: for, 1. 
Reuben decreased, 2770. 2. Simeon, 
37,100. 3. Gad, 6150. 4. Ephraim, 8009. 
6. Naphtali, 8000. 

So the sum of all that were diminished, 
was one and sixty thousand and twenty men. 

Observe also the work of God in respect 
of Jacob's wives, the four mothers of the 
tribes, Leah, Rachel, Zilpah, and Bilhah, 
whom the Holy Spirit mentioneth in Gen. 
xlvi. 15, 18, 19, 25. 

1. Leah was multiplied in Judah 1900 ; 
in Issachar, 9900 ; in Zabulon, 3100. 

So the fruit of Leah's body increased in the 
wilderness fourteen thousand and nine hun- 
dred, besides the thousand of Levi. 

six liundred 

2. Rachel was multiplied in Manasseh, 
20,500 ; in Benjamin, 10,200. 

So Rachel's increase was thirty thousand 
and seven hundred 

3. Zilphah, Leah's handmaid, increased in 
her son Aser, eleven thousand and nine hun- 

4. Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid, was mul- 
tiplied in her son Dan, seventeen hundred, 
Thus God imparted his blessing amongst 
them all, but chiefly to Rachel whom Jacob 
loved, for her increase was more than of all 
the other three. 

They were likewise all of tliem partakers 
of his chastisements in their posterity: for 

1. Leah was diminished in Reuben, two 
thousand seven hundred and seventy ; iji Si- 
meon, thirty-seven thousand one hundred; so 
she lost of her increase in the wilderness, 
nine and thirty thousand eight hundred and 
seventy men. 

2. Rachel was diminished in Ephraim, 
eight thousand. 

3. Zilphah loet in Gad her son, five thou- 
sand one liundred and fifty. 

4. Bilhah lost in Naphtali, eight thousand 

So the far greatest loss was Leah's, who 
now might weep for her children, because 
they were not ; as long after befel unto Ra- 
chel, Mat. ii. 18. 

Again, as the twelve tribes camped in four 
quarters about the tabernacle. Num. ii; so 
the hand of God for the increase and dimin- 
ishing of their camps may be seen thus: 

In the first and chiefest quarter eastward, 
were Judah, Issachar, and Zabulon, all in- 
creased. Judah was the father and figure of 
Christ, under whose standard, all that camp 
and march are blessed. 

In the second quarter southward, were 
Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, who were all di- 
minished ; as Reuben for his sin lost his hon- 
our and birthright, 1 Chron. v. 1 ; so his 
sons rebelled. Num. xvi. ; and Simeon sin- 
ned with an high hand, Num. xxv. 

In the third quarter westward, were Eph- 
laim, Manasseh, and Benjamin ; of whom 
the first was diminished, the other two in- 

In the fourth quarter northward, were Dan, 
Aser, and Naphtali; of whom the two for- 
mer were multiplied, the thii'd and last dimi- 

Concerning the families of the tribes (ex- 
cepting Levi,) they are 57 in all. For liere 
are families, 

1. Of Manasseh, 8. 2. Of Benjamin, 7. 



'^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, " Unto these the 
land shall be divided for an inheritance, according to the number of 
names. " To the many tJiou shalt give them the more inheritance, 
and to the few thou shalt give them the less inheritance -. to every 
man according to tliose that were mustered of him, shall his inheri- 
tance be given. " Notwithstanding, the land shall be divided by 

3. Of Gad, 7. 4. Of Simeon, 5. 5. Of 
Judah, 5. 6. Of Aser, 5. 7. Of Reuben, 

4. 8. Of Issachar, 4. 9. Of Ephiaim, 4. 
10. Of Naphtali, 4. 11. Of Zabuloa, 3. 12. 
Of Dan, I. 

The sum of all the families is fifty-seven: 
to whom if we add the twelve tribes, and Ja- 
cob himself the father of them all, the whole 
number is seventy, which was the number of 
the souls of Jacob's house that went into 
Egypt, Gen. xlvi. 27. But comparing these 
now, with the heads of families named in 
Gen. xlvi. we shall see five families rooted 
out ; one of Simeon, Leah's son; one of Aser, 
the son of Leah's handmaid ; and three of 
Benjamin, Rachel's son , whose ten families 
are decayed unto seven. In these numbers, 
increase and decrease of the tribes and fami- 
lies of Israel, we may behold that which Job 
saith of God's works; ' Who knoweth not in 
all these, that the hand of the Lord hath 
wiought this ? in whose hand is the soul of 
every living thing, and the breath of all flesh 
of man. Behold he breaketh down, and it 
cannot be built again: he shutteth up a man 
and there can be no opening. He increaseth 
the nation?, and destroyeth them : he enlarg- 
tth the nations, and straiteneth them,' Job 
xii. 9, 10, 14. 23, 

Ver. 53. — Unto these the land shall 
BE DIVIDED,] So the natural sons of Israel 
only had inheritance; but under the gospel it 
is prophesied, that the strangers also should 
have inheritance among the tribes, Ezek. 
xlvii. 22, 23. By this also it appeareth, 
that the tribes diminished had a double pun- 
ishment, loss of men, and a lesser inheritance 
in the holy land : both which are opposed to 
the covenant and promise made to their fa- 
thers, which stood on these two branches, 
multitude of children, and inheritance of the 
land, Gen. xii. 2,7; xiii. 15, 10; xv. 5, 
8, IS ; xvii. 2, 6, 8 ; xxii. 17 ; xxvi. 3, 4; 
xxviii. 13, 14; xxxv. 11, 12. Sol. Jarchi 
here saith, "to these and not to them that 
are less than twenty years old, although they 
came to full twenty before the division of the 
land. For lo, the land was seven years in 
conquering, &c. ; yet none had portion in 
the land but these six hundred thousand, and 
one thousand : and if one of them had six 
sons, they received but their father's portion 
only.'' But Chazkuni referreth it to tho fa- 

milies, saying, " to these, the fifty-seven 
families reckoned here, shall the land be di- 
vided for inheritance by the number of names, 
fifty-seven portions according to the fifty- 
seven heads of families." So it is written 
in Num. xxxiii. 54, ' ye shall divide tlie 
land by lot, for an inheritance among your 
families.' This figured, that only such shall 
have their part in the kingdom of heaven, as 
are chosen and called of God, and have their 
names written in tlie Lamb's book of life, 
Rom. viii. 28 — 30; 1 Pet. i. 2—5; Rev. 
xxi. 27. 

Ver. 64. — To the many,] To the tribe 
and family which hath many persons in it, 
" thou shalt give them the more (Heb. thou 
shalt multiply his) inheritance." So the por- 
tions were not all equal in quantity, but pro- 
portioned to the multitude of men in the 
tribes and families. " To the tribes which 
had the greater multitudes, they gave the 
greater portion, though the portions were rot 
equal: for lo, every tribe had his portion ac- 
cording to his multitude," saith Sol. Jarchi 
on Num. xxvi. Hereupon the sons of Joseph 
complained of their small portion in respect 
of their great multitude. Josh. xvii. 14. 

Ver. 55. — By lot,] Although Eleazar 
the high priest, Joshua the governor, and 
twelve princes of the tribes, (appointed ot 
God, Num. xxxiv. 17, 18, &c were to di- 
vide the land ; yet to cut off contention, and 
to show the providence and disposition ol 
God, according to the purpose of his will, he 
commandeth lots to be cast; for, ' the lot 
causeth contention to cease, and parteth be- 
tween tlie mighty,' Prov. xviii. 18 ; and 
' the lot is cast into the lap, but the whole 
disposing thereof is of the Lord,' Prov. xvi. 
33. And the Heb. doctors say, " the por- 
tions were not made but by lot, and the lot 
was by the mouth of the Holy Spirit." Sol. 
Jarchi on Num. xxvi. The manner of doing 
it was thus; first, the land was by men di- 
vided into parts, according to the number of 
the tribes; as Joshua sent men to divide the 
land which remained into seven parts, and to 
describe it according to the inheritance of 
them, and so to bring the description unto 
him, that he might cast lots for them before 
the Lord. And they described it by cities, 
into seven parts, in a book, and brought it to 
Joshua, who cast lots for them in Shiloh be- 



Jot, according to the names of the tribes, of tlieir fathers they shall 
inherit. ^ According to the lot shall the inheritance tliereof be 
divided between many and few. 

" And tliese are they that ivere mustered of the Levites, accord- 
ing to their families ; of Gershon, the family of the Gershonites ; 
of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites ; of Merari, the family of 
the Merarites. ''^ These are tlie families of the Levites, the family 
of the Libnitcs, the family of the Hebronites, the family of tlie 
Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korachites : 
and Koliath begat Amram. ^^ And the name of Amram's wife was 
Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom she bare to Levi in Egypt: 
and she bare unto Amram, Aaron, and Moses, and Mary their 

fore the Lord ; and so every tribe received as 
their lot (.'aine up, 'according to their families, 
Josh, xviii. 4 — 11, &c. Moreover, in the 
Heb. records it is said, that " it was not di- 
vided but by Urim and Thummin, [which 
was the oracle of God in the breast-plate of 
the high priest, Exod. xxviii.; Num. xxvii. 
21 ;] as it is said, (in Num. xxvi. 56,) ac- 
cording to (or at the mouth of) the lot. When 
Eleazar was clothed with Urim and Tlium- 
mim, and Joshua, and all Israel stood before 
him, there was a kalphi, [a vessel whereinto 
the lots were put, whereof see the annot. on 
Lev. xvi. 8,] of the tribes' names, and a 
kalphi of the names of the limits (or bounds 
of the country) set before him ; and he being 
directed by the Holy Spirit, said, Naphtali 
Cometh up, the limit Genesareth cometh up: 
he took out of the kalphi of the tribes, and 
Naphtali came up in his hand ; out of the 
kalphi of the limits, and the limit Genesareth 
came up in his hand. And so for every 
tribe." Talmud Bab. in Baba bathra, chap, 
viii. in Gemara, and Sol. Jarchi in Num. 
xxvi. But observe that the land within 
Jordan was divided only to nine tribes and 
an half, because two tribes and an half had 
their portion on the outside of Jordan, Num. 
xxxiv. 13 — 15. By reason of this dividing 
the land by lot, the scripture calleth inheri- 
tances by the name of lots, as, ' come up 
with me into my lot,' Judg. i. 3. And not 
lands only, but whatsoever befalleth unto men 
from the hand of God, is called a lot; as, 
' this is the portion of them that spoil us, and 
the lot of them that rob us,' Is. xvii. 14 ; 
and ' thou hast neither part nor lot in this 
matter,' Acts viii. 21 ; and, ' that they may 
receive forgiveness of sins, and a lot (that is, 
inheritance) among them which are sanctified 
by faith,' &c. Acts xxvi. 18; and, ' the 
part of the lot (that is, of the inheritance) of 
the saints in light,' Col. i. 12. So that in 
the Gr used by the apostles, Cleros, a lot, 
and Clcronomia , a division hy lot, is the com- 

mon name of an inheritance, 1 Pet. v. 3 ; 
Eph. i. 14, 18. 

Ver. 56. — According to the lot,] Heb. 
at (or upon) the mouth of the lot : as the lot 
whereon the name of the tribe, (or of the inhe- 
ritance is written) shall speak. This lot be- 
ing of the Lord, figured the diversities of gifts 
in the Church, which the Spirit of God di- 
videth ' to every man severally as he will,' 
1 Cor. xii. 4 — 11 ; as also the dispensation 
of his graces concerning our heavenly inheri- 
tance, which the election only obtaineth, 
• that the purpose of God according to elec- 
tion might stand, not of works, but of him 
that calleth,' Rom. xi. 7 ; ix. 11. 

Ver. 57. — Of the Levites,] Who though 
they had no inheritance in the land, ver. 
62, yet were they to have forty-eight cities 
and their suburbs for their habitation, Num. 
35; which also fell unto them by lot, Josh, 
xxi. 4, &c. 

Ver. 58. — Korachites,] Or, Korhites, of 
Korah the son of Izhar, the sons ot Kohath, 
the son of Levi, Num. xvi. 1 ; Korah himself 
died in the rebellion, but his sons died not. 
Num. xxvi. 1 1 ; therefore they are reckoned 
here for a family in the fourth generation 
from Levi, which is one degree further than 
the other families. And whereas in Exod. 
vi. 16, &c. there are reckoned of Gershon 
two sons, Libni and Shemei ; here the family 
of the Libnites is mustered, but Shemei left 
out. There Kohath hath four sons, Amram, 
and Ishar, and Hebron, and Uzziel ; here 
Uzziel is omitted ; neither is Ishar named, 
but in his sons the Korhites. 

Ver. 59. — She bare to Levi,] By she 
understand Levi's wife, or Jochebed's mother: 
Sul. Jarchi expoiindeth it, " his wife bare 
her in Egypt.'' She bare to Amram,] 
That is, Jochebed Amram's wife, (who 
was also his aunt,) bare to Amram, Exod 
vi. 20. Mary,] Heb. Mirjam : she was 
a prophetess; see Exod. xv. 20; Num. 
xii. 1. 


sister. *" Aiid unto Aaron was born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar 
and Ithamar. " And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered 
strange fire before Jehovali. "^ And those that were mustered of 
them, were three and twenty thousand, all males, from a month 
old and upward, for they were not mustered among tlie sons of 
Israel, because there was no inheritance given to them among the 
sons of Israel. 

^^ These are they that were mustered by Moses and Eleazar the 
priest, who mustered the sons of Israel in the plains of Moab by 
Jordan, near Jericho. " And among these, there was not a man 
of tliose that were mustered by Moses and Aaron tlie priest, who 
mustered the sons of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. ^^ For Je- 
liovali had said of them. Dying they shall die in the wilderness ; 
and there was not left a man of them, save Caleb the son of Je- 
phunneh, and Joshua tlie son of Nun. 

Ver. 60. — Unto Aaron was born,] of God's judgment is here showed. And 

Here Moses' children, Gershon and Eliezer, Joshua,] In Gr. Jesus the son of Nun : 

are again omitted: see the notes on Num. iii. these two survived, because they faithl'uUy 

38. followed the Lord, Num. xiv. 24, 38. See 

Ver. 61. — And Abihu died,] And they the annot. there. In that all the rest were 

had no sons. Num. iii. 4. See the history dead save these two, it showeth that all the 

in Lev. X. 600 thousand men now mustered, ' which 

Ver. 62. — Twenty-three thousand,] should conquer Canaan, were a valiant com- 
Who, at the former numbering were but pany, between 20 and 60 years of age, (none 
twenty-two thousand, Num. iii. 39. So being above 60 but Caleb and Joshua,) and 
they increased in the wilderness a thousand as they were in body, so in mind, being train- 
males, ed up these 38 years in the study of the 

Ver. 65. — Dying they shall die,] i. e. law and ordinances of God, and beholding 
they shall surely die: this was threatened for his works, having Moses and Aaron for their 
their rebellion, and refusing to go into the leaders, and God's good Spirit for their in- 
promised land. Num. xiv. ; and the fulfilling structor, Neh. ix. 20. 


1. The daughters of Zelophehad sue for an inheritance. 5. Moses 
hringeth their cause before the Lord, mho granteth their request. 8. 
The law of inheritances, when a man dieth without a son. 1 2. Moses 
is bidden to go up and see tlie land, and is told of his death for his tres- 
pass. 15. lie requesteth of the Lord that a man may be set governor 
in this place. 18. The Lord appointeth Joshua to succeed him. 22. 
And Moses by iiyiposition of hands, ordainetli him to his office. 

' Then came the daughters of Zelophehad the son of Hepher, 
the son of Gilead, the son of Macliir, the son of Manasses, of the 

Ver. 1. — Then came,] Ileb. and they paad son of Opher, son of Galaad, Sic. See 
came near (or approached,) to wit, unto N\im. xxvi. 33. Of the families,] Or, 
Moses, &c. v. 2. Tliargum Jonathan saitb, ivith (among) the families of Manasseh ; as 
" they came to the place of judgment. Ze- coming before when all the other families 
loi'hehad,] Or, Zelophehad j in Gr. i>al- came to be mustered, chap, xxvi.j but the Gr, 

Vol. U. S 



families of Manasscs the son of Joseph : and these are the names 
of his daughters, Maclilah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and 
Tirzah. ^ And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the 
priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door 
of the tent of the congregation, saying, ^ Our father died in the 
wilderness, and he was not among the congregation of them that 
gathered themselves together against Jeliovah, in the congregation 
of Korah : but in his sin he died, and he had no sons. * Why 
should the name of our father be done away from among his family 
because he hath no son ? Give unto us a possession among the 

ti-anslatcth of the family of Manasses. Of 
Joseph,] What needeth he to be named here ? 
Sol. Jarchi answereth, " because Joseph 
loved the land, as it is said, (in Gen. 1. 25,) 
and ye shall carry up my bones from hence: 
and his daughters loved the land, as it is 
said, (in Num. xxvii. 4,) give unto us a 
possession," &c. Machlah,] Or, Mahlah, 
Nognah, Choglak, &c.; in Gr. Maala, Nova, 
Aigla, &c. ; the Scripture nameth them four 
times, here, and in chap, xxvii. 33; xxxvi. 
11 ; and Josh. xvii. 3. The order of their 
names is altered in Num. xxxvi. 11, Mach- 
lah, Tirzah, and Hoglah, &c. ; whereupon 
Jarchi here saitli, " they were all of like 
esteem one as another, therefore the order of 
them is changed." 

Ver. 3. — Of Korah,] Who was a rebel, 
Num. xvi. Zelophehad was not among other 
rebels, whereby he and his posterity might be 
deprived of his inheritance. In his sin,] In 
(or for) his own sin, as other men died in the 
wilderness: and he had not been a mean to 
diaw other men into sin, as did Korah, and 
other rebellious persons. 

Ver. 4. — Why should the name of 


minished ; that is, kt not his name be done 
away ; as the Gr. translateth let not our fa- 
ther's name he blotted out : see the notes on 
Exod. xxxii. 11. It was esteemed as a curse 
to have their father's name abolished ; as it 
is written, ' in the generation following let 
his name be blotted out,' Ps. cix. 13. Give 
UNTO us A possession,] These daughters, as 
they honoured their father deceased, in seek- 
ing to have his name continued, so they 
showed faith in God, believing that the land 
should be given them for inheritance, which 
the men of Israel before believed not, and 
therefore could not come into it, but it 
was promised to their children, Num. xiv. 
And though these were women, no warriors, 
not mustered among the army, Num. xxvi. ; 
yet believed they the promise to belong unto 
them ; as the inheritance was given to Abra- 
ham by promise, not by the law, Gal. iii. 18. 

Wherefore, in claiming right in the holy land, 
they figuratively claimed inheritance in the 
kingdom of heaven, which shall be given to 
them that work not, but believe in him 
' which justifieth the ungodly,' Rom. iv. 5, 
6, &c. So these five virgins may be consi- 
dered as the five wise virgins, ' which took 
oil in their vessels with their lamps,' that 
they might be ready to go in with the bride- 
groom to the marriage. Matt. xxv. 1 — 10 ; 
and they are our examples, that we should 
seek comfort and assurance (in the wilderness 
of this world, where we are weak and or- 
phans) of our inheritance with those that are 
sanctified by faith in Christ: and to claim 
this portion in the land of the living, without 
respecting either our works or weakness, by 
virtue of the covenant of grace confirmed by 
Christ, in whom there is neither Jew nor 
Gentile, bond nor fiee, male nor female ; but 
all are one: and whosoever are ' Christ's, are 
Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the 
promise,' Gal. iii. 28, 29. Their names 
also seem not to be without mystery: for 
Zelophehad by interpretation signifieth * the 
shadow of fear, or of dread :' his first daugh- 
ter Machlah, ' infirmity ;' the second, Nogh- 
nah, 'wandering ;' the third, Choglah, 'turn- 
ing about for joy, or dancing ;' the fourth 
Milcah, ' a queen ;' the fifth, Tirzah, ' well- 
pleasing, or acceptable.' By these names 
we may observe the degrees of our reviving 
by grace in Christ: for we all are born as of 
the shadow of fear, being brought forth in sin, 
and for fear of death were all our life time 
subject to bondage, Heb. ii . 15. This be- 
getteth ' infirmity, or sickness,' grief of heart 
for our estate ; alter which, * wandering 
abroad for help and comfort, we find it in 
Christ, by whom our sorrow is turned into 
joy. He commuuicateth to us of his royalty, 
making us kings and priests unto God his 
Father, Rev. i. C ; and shall be presented 
unto him glorious, and without blemish, Epli. 
V. 27. So the church is ' beautiful as Tir- 
zah,' Song vi. 3. 



brctlncn of our father. ^ And Moses brought their cause before 

^ And Jehovali said nnto Moses, saying, ' The daughters of 
Zelophehad speak right ; giving tliou shalt give them a possession 
of an inheritance among the bretlu'en of tlieir father -. and tliou 
shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass inito them. 
" And thou shalt speak unto tlie sons of Israel, saying, If a man' 
die, and he liave no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to 
pass unto his daughter. ^ And if lie liavc no daughter, then ye 
shall give his inheritance unto his brethren. '" And if he have no 
brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto the brethren ot 
liis father. " And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall 

Ier. 5. — Brought their cause,] Or, 
brought near their judgment, that is, their 
caicse to be judged of, as in diilicult cases lie 
used to do. Four principally are observed, 
of which this was one: see the anuot. on 
Num. XV. 34. 

Ver. 7. — Speak right,] Speak that which 
is just and meet to be done: so God approv- 
eth their desire and request of faith, and 
showeth himself to be ' the Father of the fa- 
therless,' Ps. Ixviii. 5. And of them Sol. 
Jarchi here observeth, " that their eyes saw 
that Mhich IMoses' eyes saw not." Giving 
THOU SHALT GIVE THEM,] That is, thou slialt 
surely give them without fail. This com- 
mandment was fulfilled in Josh. xvii. 4. 
Here the w^ord them, (as Chazkuni also not- 
eth,) is of the male or masculine gender, 
though he speaketh of females: which may 
be either iu respect of their faith and con- 
science, such as might beseem men ; or of 
God's gift (especially of his grace in Christ 
hereby figured) which he giveth without 
dili'erence of ' male and female,' Gal. iii. 
28. The Mebs. (in Talmud. Bab. in Baba 
batlu'a, chap, viii.) have recorded, that "the 
daughters of Zelophehad had three portions 
for inheritance, their father's portion, because 
he was one of them that came out of Egypt ; 
and his portion with his brethren in the goods 
of Hepher (his father) and because he was 
the first-born, he had two portions." Which 
Ramham in his aniiot. on that place, explain- 
cth tlius, " all that came out of Egypt were 
to have part in the land ; and if the father 
and his son both came out, each of them had 
a portion alike. And Zelophehad and Hipher 
were both of them that came out of Egypt: 
so Zelophehad was to have had his part, and 
to have had by inheritance of Hepher, two 
parts, because he was the first-born," &c. 

Ver. 8. — If a man,] Or, ani/ man u-hen 
he divth and have no son. Here God passeth 
from the special case of these virgins, and 
giveth a general law for inheritances, that 

they should ]iass to the female, if the father 
died without male issue: but otherwise the 
daughters had no part in the inheritance with 
the sons. 

Ver. 11. — Unto his kinsman,] Or, un- 
to his near kin; of which words, see the 
notes on Lev. xviii. G. From this word, 
and that which followeth, ' next to him,' Sol. 
Jarchi noteth he should be "of his family; 
and none is called a family but on the father's 
side." Touching the right of inheritances, 
the Heb. canons lay it down thus; " Whoso 
dieth, his children do inherit that which is 
his, and they are before all other. And the 
males are before the females. But the female 
never inheriteth with the male. If he have 
no children, his father shall be his heir; or 
if it be a mother, she is heir to her children ; 
and this thing is by tradition. And whoso- 
ever is first by inheritance, is of them that 
first come out of the thigh (that is, are be- 
gotten first.) Therefore whoso dieth, be it 
man or woman, if they leave a son, he in- 
heriteth all ; if his son be not found alive, 
they look next to the seed of that son. If 
any of his seed be found, whether males or 
females, though it be the son's daughter's 
daughter's daughter to the end of the world, 
she inheriteth all. If he have no male issue, 
they turn to the daughter. If he have a 
daughter, she inheriteth all. If his daugh- 
ter be not found in the world, they look unto 
the daughter's seed, which if any be found, 
whether males or females to the world's end, 
it inheriteth all. If the daughters have no 
seed, the inheritance returneth to his father. 
If his father be not living, they look next to 
the seed of the father, which are the bretliren 
of him that is dead. If he have a brother 
found, or brother's seed, he inherits all: if 
not, they turn to the sisters; if he have a 
sister or sister's seed, it inherits all. And if 
there be neither brother's seed nor sister's 
seed, forasmuch as the father hath no seed, 
lli(^ inheritance ACturnalh to the father's 



give liis inheritance unto his kinsmen that is next to him of his 
family, and lie shall inherit it, and it shall be unto the sons of Is- 
rael for a statute of judgment, as Jehovah commanded Moses. 

father. If the grandfather be not living, they 
look to the grandfather's seed, which are the 
brethren of his father that is deceased: and 
there the males are before the females, and 
the seed of the males before the females, as 
was the right of the seed of the dead him- 
self. If none of his father's brethren, nor of 
their seed be found, the inheritance return- 
eth to the great grandfather: and after this 
manner it proceedeth upwards. Thus the 
son is before the daughter, and all the issue 
of the son before the daughter, and the daugh- 
ter is before her grandfather, and all her issue 
are before her grandfather. And the father 
of the deceased is before the brethren of the 
deceased, and the brother before the sister, 
and all the brother's issue before the sister: 
and the sister before her grandfather, and all 
the sister's issue before her grandfather. The 
grandfather is before the brethren of the fa- 
ther of him that is deceased, and his father's 
brethren are before his father's sisters, and 
all that come out of the thigh of his father's 
brother, are before his father's sisters, and his 
father's sisters are before the father's grand- 
father of him that is deceased ; and so all 
that come out of the thigh of his father's sis- 
ter are before his father's grandfather: and 
after this manner it proceedeth and ascendeth 
until the beginning of the generations. There- 
fore there is no man of Israel that is without 
heirs. Whoso dieth and leaveth a son, and a 
son's daughter, though it be a son's daugh- 
tei's daughter's daughter, to the end of many 
generations, she is foremost and heir of all, 
and the (first man's) daughter hath nothing. 
And the same law is for the brother's daugh- 
ter with the sister, and for the daughter of 
his father's brother's son, with his father's 
sister, and so all in like sort. Whoso hath 
two sons, and they both die while he liveth, 
and the one son leave three sons, and the 
other son leave one daughter, afterward when 
the old man dieth, the three sons of his son 
shall inherit the half of his heritage, and the 
daughter of his (other) son shall inherit the 
(other) half; for each of them was to inherit 
a portion of his father: and after this manner 
do the sons of brethren divide, and the sons 
of the father's brother, unto the beginning of 
the generations. The family of the mother 
is not called a family, neither is their inheri- 
tance but to the family of the father: there- 
lore brethren by the mother are not heirs one 
of anuthur, but brethren by the father are 
heirs one of another: and this, whether it be 
his brother by bis father only, or his brother 

by his father and his mother. All that are 
near (in blood) by transgression do inherit, as 
they which are lawfully begotten; as if one 
have a bastard son, or a bastard brother, lo 
they are as other sons and as other brethren 
for inheritance. But the sons of a bond- 
woman, or of a strange woman, is not counted 
a son for any matter, neither is he an heir at 
all," Maim. tom. 4, in Nachaloth (or treat, 
of Inheritances) chap. i. sect. 1 — 7. As 
the sons had their father's inheritance divided 
among them, (the first-born having a double 
portion, Deut. xxi. 17,) so for relief of the 
widow, and of the daughters, the Hebs. had 
these laws. " A widow is to be sustained by 
the goods of the heirs all the time of her 
widowhood, until she receive her dowry; and 
after she hath received her dowry in the judg- 
ment-hall, she hath not that sustenance. As 
they sustain her (with food) after her hus- 
band's death with his goods; so they give her 
raiment, and household-stuff, and dwelling; 
or she remaineth in the dwelling which she 
had while her husband lived. If the widow 
die, her husband's heirs are bound to bury 
her. Our wise men have commanded that a 
man should give a little of his goods to his 
daughter, &c. If a father die and leave a 
daughter, they measure his purpose how much 
was in his heart to give unto her for her live- 
lihood, and they give it her: and his acquain- 
tance are they that measure his purpose. If 
they know it not, the magistrates rate it, and 
give her a tenth part of his goods for her 
livelihood. If he leave many daughters, 
{i\ery one of them when she cometh to be 
mairied, hath a tenth of his goods. And she 
which is after her, hath a tenth part of that 
which remaineth of the first: and she which 
is after her, hath a tenth of that which is left 
of the second. And if they come all to be 
married at once, the first receiveth a tenth 
part, and the second a tenth part of that 
which remaineth of the first, and the third a 
tenth part of that which remaineth of the 
second; and so (the rest) though they be ten, 
&c. and the residue of the goods are the bre- 
thren's. If the brethren have sold or mort- 
gaged their father's lands, the daughter tak- 
eth her livelihood from the purchasers, even 
as a creditor taketh his debt of the purchasers. 
Whoso commandeth at his death, that they 
should give his daughters no livelihood of his 
goods, they do hearken unto him ; for this is 
nut of the nature of a dowry," Maim. tom. 
2, treat, of tvh'ts, chap, xviii. sect. 1, &c.; 
said cha|>. xx. sect. 1, &r. 



'^ And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go thou up into this mountain 
of Abarim, and see the land wliicli I have given to tlie sons of Is- 
rael. " And thou shalt see it, and thou also shalt be gathered unto 
thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered. '^ For ye rebelled 
against my mouth in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the 
congregation, to sanctify me at the water before their eyes ; that 
is the water of Meribah of Kadesh, in tlie wilderness of Zin. 

'^ And Moses spake unto Jehovah, saying, '" Let Jehovah the 
God of tlie spirits of all tiesh, set a man over the congregation -. 
" Wliich may go out before them, and which may go in before 

Ver. 12. — This mountain of Abarim,] 
There were many 'mountains of Abarim,' 
Num. xxxiii. 47, by this mountain therefore 
is meant one special, which was called Nebo, 
' which was in the land of Moab, over against 
Jericho,' Deut. xxxii. 49. And they were 
called Abarim, of the fords or passages which 
were by them over Jordan into the land ot 
Canaan. Wiierefore tlu^ Gi\ version saith, 
" Go thou up into the mountain which is on 
this side (Jordan) of mount Naban (or this 
mount Nabau:) and Mos. Gerundens ex- 
plaineth it thus; " The mountain of Abarim 
is mount Nebo, as is expounded in Deut. 
xxxii., and is so called, because it is by the 
lords of Jordan, where they pass over into 
tlie land of Canaan." See the land,] T/te 
land of Canaan, saith the Gr. : and so Moses 
expresseth it in Deut. xxxii. 49. Though 
this were some comfort unto Moses, to see the 
land afar oli^ and salute the same (as the faith- 
ful fathers are said to do the promises which 
they received not, Heb. xi. 13,) yet his desire 
and earnest suit unto the Lord was, that he 
might have gone over and seen it: but he 
would not giant it him, because he had sinned, 
and God had denounced his death before, 
Deut. iii. 23 — 26; Num. xx. 12. See the 
annot. on Deut. xxxiv., where his viewing 
of the land is described. 

Ver. 13. — Be gathered unto thy peo- 
ple,] In Gr. be added unto thy people: 
meaning, that he should die there, and be 
buried, Deut. xxxii. 50; xxxiv. 5, G, and his 
soul should be gathered unto his godly fore- 
fathers: see Num. xx. 24. 

Ver. 14. — For ye rebelled,] Or, /or- 
asniuck as ye rebelled against tny mouth, 
that is, as the Gr. and Chald. expound it, 
against my ivord: so in Num. xx. 24. To 
SANCTIFY ME, J That is, which word and com- 
mandment of mine was, that ye by faith 
should sanctify me, but ye sanctified me not. 
Wherefore the Gr. here translateth, ye sane- 
tified me not: and so it is explained in Deut. 
xxxii, 51, 'because ye sanctified me not.' 
Meribah of Kadesh,] Or. strife of Kadesh; 
as the Gr. tian,«lrvlith if, of (he contradiction 

of Kadesh, and the Chald. the strife of Re- 
kam. By this name Kadesh it is distin- 
guished from the other Meribah spoken of in 
Exod. xvii. 7. So in Deut. xxxii. 51. 

Ver. 15. — Of the spirits of all flesh,] 
The Gr. translateth, of the spirite, and of 
all flesh: so before in Num. xvi. 22. It 
meaneth that God is both the Creator of all 
men's souls or spirits, Eccl. xii. 7; Zach. 
xii. 1, and he that giveth them spiritual gifts 
of wisdom, knowledge, grace, &c. as spirits 
are used for 'spiritual gifts,' 1 Cor. xiv. 12. 
Set,] Or, visit, that is, provide and consti- 
tute for bishop or overseer ; who therefore is 
called in ver. 17, a shepherd, or pastor. 
Though for the people's sake the Lord was 
angry with Moses, and would not let him go 
into the good land, Deut. iv. 21, yet such 
was Moses' love unto them, and care for their 
welfare, that he procureth what in him lieth, 
their good after his decease, by having a 
faithful governor set over them of God, which 
is a blessing unto a land or people, Eccl. x. 

Ver. 17. — Go out before them,] By 
this phrase of going out, and coming in, and 
that which foUoweth, leading out and bring- 
ing in, is signified the administration of the 
oflicer, and government of his people, both 
in time of peace and of war: wherefore when 
Moses was old, and the time of his admini- 
stration expired, he said, ' I can no more go 
out and come in,' Deut. xxxi. 2. So the 
priests' administration in the Lord's house, is 
called a going in thereto, 1 Chron. xxiv. 19. 
The similitude is taken from a shepherd, 
whose duty is to go before the sheep, and to 
lead them out, that by his guidance they may 
go in and out, and find pasture, as is spoken 
of our great Shepherd, the Lord Jesus, whom 
this Jesus the successor of Moses prefigured, 
John X. 3, 4, 9. Which have no shep- 
herd,] Or, no pastor: which estate is mi. 
serable, as is noted of our Saviour, that 
' when he saw the multitudes, he was moved 
with compassion on them, because they fainted 
and «eie scattered abroad, as sheep having 
no shepherd,' Matt. ix. 30. 



them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them 
in : that the congregation of Jehovah be not as sheep which have 
no shepherd. ^^ And Jehovah said unto Moses, Take unto thee 
Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay tliine 
hand upon him. ^^ And cause him to stand before Eleazar the 
priest, and before all the congregation, and cliarge thou him before 
their eyes. ^^ And thou shalt give of thine honour upon him, that 
all the congregation of the sons of Israel may hear. ^' And he 
shall stand before Eleazar the priest, and he shall ask f counsel J for 

Veb. is. — Joshua the son of Nun,] In 
Gr. Jesus the son of Nun : so in the New 
Testament he is called Jesus, Acts vii. 45; 
Heb. iv. 8. The Spirit,] To wit, the Spi- 
rit of God; meaning the gifts and graces of 
the Spirit, as wisdom, Deut. xxxiv. 9, and 
the like. The Chald. expoundeth it, the 
spirit of prophecy; and Tliargum Jonathan 
saith, " the spirit of prophecy from before the 
Lord remaineth upon him:" which accordeth 
with Num. xi. 24. But whether in prophecy 
or other graces, he was but a shadow of Jesus 
the Son of God, to whom he ' gave not the 
Spirit by measure,' John iii. 34. Lay thine 
HAND,] Or, impose thine hand, that is, thine 
hands, as the Gr. translateth, and as Moses 
after showeth in ver. 23, which was a sign of 
his calling and ordination to his office, as in 
Num. viii. 10, with which also it seemeth he 
received a greater measure of the Spirit; as 
it is said, ' And Joshua the son of Nun was 
full of the spirit of wisdom ; for Moses had 
laid his hands upon him,' Deut. xxxiv. 9. 

Ver, 19. — Charge thou him,] Or, coin- 
mand him; give him a charge for the faith- 
ful executing of his office ; such as we read 
of in Deut. xxxi. 7, 8. Besides that which 
was now done by Moses, God himself did 
after give him a charge in the tabernacle, 
Deut. xxxi. 14, 15. 

Ver. 20. — Give of thine honour,] Or, 
give (that is, put) of thy glory, or o/" thy 
majesty: whereby the gifts fitting the gov- 
ernment of Israel seem to be meant, as wis- 
dom, according to Deut. xxxiv. 9, or some 
other exterior sign of his calling from God, 
whereby the people might be obedient to him. 
As it is said of Solomon, when he sat on the 
throne of the Lord, and all Israel obeyed him, 
that ' the Lord magnified Solomon exceed- 
ingly before the eyes of all Israel, and gave 
upon him the honour of the kingdom, (or 
royal majesty) such as had not been on any 
king before him in Israel,' 1 Chron. xxix. 
23, 25. And the contrary is spoken of An- 
tiochus, that vile person, ' they shall not give 
upon him the honour of the kingdom; but he 
shall come in peaceably, and obtain the king- 
dom by llatteries,' Dan. xi. 21. The Chald. 

translateth, thou shalt give of thy bright- 
ness (in Gi". thy glory) upoti him : as refer- 
ring it to the shining of Moses' face spoken 
of in Exod. xxxiv. 30, 35, and so other Hebs. 
expound it, as Sol. Jarchi here saith, " This 
is the shining of the skin of his face ;" and 
R, Menachem from the judgment of former 
doctors saith thus, " of thine honour, and not 
all thine honour: hereupon they say, The 
face of Moses was like the face of the sun; 
the face of Joshua like the face of the moon." 
Though Joshua had not all the honour of 
Moses, for 'there arose not a prophet since in 
Israel like unto Moses,' Deut. xxxiv. 10, 
yet Jesus Christ ' was counted worthy of 
more glory than Moses,' Heb. iii. 3. May 
hear,] That is, hear him, as the Gr. trans- 
lateth, and so obey his authority. Thus it 
is opened in Deut. xxxiv. 9, ' Moses had 
laid his hands upon him, and the sons of 
Israel hearkened unto him,' that is, obeyed 
him: which is further manifested by their 
words unto him, in Josh. i. 16 — 18. Herein 
Jesus the son of Nun was a figure of Jesus 
the Son of God, of whom it is written, ' We 
were eye-witnesses of his majesty, for he re- 
ceived from God the Father honour and 
glory, when there came such a voice to him 
from the excellent glory, This is my be- 
loved Son, in whom I am well pleased, hear 
ye him,' 2 Pet. i. 16, 17; Matt. xvii. 5. 

Ver. 21. — And he shall ask for him,] 
That is, Eleazar shall ask counsel of God for 
Joshua in all doubtful cases, in all their 
wars, &c. Or, and he shall ask of him, 
that is, Joshua shall ask of Eleazar: this the 
Gr. favoureth, translating, and they shall 
ask of him the judgment of Uriin (or of 
manifestations.) By the .judgment of 
Urim,] By tile breast-plate of judgment, 
wherein were Urim and Thummim; whereof 
see the annot. on Exod. xxviii. 30. Thus 
Saul inquired of the Lord by Urim, but he 
answered him not, 1 Sam. xxviii. 6. At 
his mouth,] In Chald. at his word; by his 
understanding God's mouth, or Eleazar's 
mouth, speaking from the Lord: so in Thar- 
gum Jonathan it is expounded, " At the 
wcid of Eleazar the priest they shall go out." 



]iim, by the judgment of Urini, before Jehovah : at his mouth 
shall they go out, and at his mouth shall they come in ; he, and all 
the sons of Israel with liim, and all the congregation. ^^ And 
Moses did as Jehovah commanded him : and he took Joshua and 
caused liim to stand before Eleazar the priest, and before all the 
congregation. "^ And he laid liis hands upon him, and cliarged 
him, as Jehovah spake by the liand of Moses. 

But therein is implied the Lord's word, by 
which the priest was to give answer: for 
it is a ride among the Heb. doctors, " Every 
priest that spcakcth not by the Holy Spirit, 
and the divine Majesty residing on him, they 
ask not (counsel) by him," Talmud. Bab. in 
loma, cap. vii. in Gemara. For in such 
consultations, though they inquired by the 
priest, yet the answer came from the Lord ; 
as there is an example in David, 1 Sam. 
xxiii. 9 — 12. Shall tfiey go out,] Out to 
war, and in again from the same; and so in 
all weighty afiiiirs which were extraordinary. 
Wherefore it was an over-sight in Joshua and 
Israel that they made peace with the Gibeon- 

ites, and ' asked not (counsel at) the moutli 
of the Lord,' Josh. ix. 14, 15. He,] That 
is, Joshua himself, and all the people. 
Whereas the high priest with Urim and 
Thummim, lights and perfections, was a 
figure of Clirist, (as is showed on Excd. 
xxviii. 30,) the Lord by this ordinance signi- 
fied, that all governors and people should have 
their administrations directed by the mouth 
of Christ: 'For God who commanded the 
light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in 
our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge 
of the glory of God, in the face of Jesus 
Christ,' 2 Cor. iv. G 


1. The Lord's oblatiojis are commanded to he offered in the t'une ap- 
pointed. 3. The continual hiirnt-offerings every day, with their meat 
and drinli-offerings. 9. The offerings in the Sabbath; the begin- 
nings of the months ; 16. at the passover ; 26. and in the day of first- 
fruits, or Pentecost. 

' And Jehovali spake unto Moses, saying, ^ Command tlie sons 
of Israel, and say unto them : Mine oblation, my bread for my 

Ver. 2. — Command the sons of Israel] 
After that God had numbered tlie people, and 
appointed them their inheritance, he now re- 
peateth and explaineth former laws concern- 
ing his service which they should do unto 
him in that their inheritance, daily, weekly, 
monthly, and at their solemn feasts as they 
fell every year: for he therefore would give 
unto them ' the lands of the heathens,' and 
they sliould inherit ' the labour of the people, 
that lliey might observe his statutes, and keep 
his laws,' Ps. cv. 44, 45. And because they 
had omitted the solemnizing of these feasts 
now thirty-eight years, (from the keeping of 
the pa.<sover in the wilderness in the second 
yeai". Num. ix., until the circumcision and 
passover at (iilgal. Josh, v.) by reason of 
their travels v.herein the sanctuary, altar, 
and iioly thin_ ■ were folden up and removed 

from place to place, and the generation which 
had been before mustered was dead. Num. 
xxvi. 64, 65, therefore lest the ordiuances 
formerly given should be forgotten or neg- 
lected, and the people continue to do as now 
they did, ' every man whatsoever was right 
in his own eyes,' Dent. xii. 8, the Lord 
causeth the law of sacrificing to be again 
commanded. AVhich sacrifices being all 
figures of Christ, and our service of God by 
him, (as hath been showed in the book of 
Leviticus,) teach us to serve the Lord under 
the gospel of his Son in spirit and truth: for 
thereof were these legal feasts a figure, Is. 
Ixvi. 23; Zach. xiv. 16—19; 1 Cor. v. 7, 
8; Col. ii. 16, 17; Heb. xiii. 15. Mine 
oblation,] That is, viine oblations; In Gr. 
my gifts: Heb. my korban, which is an of- 
ferin/; or gift by which men drew nigli unto 



ixvQ- offerings, the savour of my rest, ye shall observe to offer unto 
me in liis appointed time. ^ And thou shalt say unto them, This 
is the fire-offering wliich ye shall offer unto Jehovah ; Two he- 
lambs of the first year, perfect, day by day,^r a continual burnt- 
offering. * The one lamb thou shalt make ready in the morning, 
and the other lamb thou shalt make ready between the two even- 

God, through faith in Christ. See the notes 
on Lev. i. 2, My bre.\d for my fire-of- 
ferings,] The Chakl. expoundeth it, the 
bread ordained for my oblations. Under 
the name of bread all food is implied, and 
the flesh itself, or fat of the sacrifices, as is 
noted on Lev. iii. 11. The savour of my 
REST,] The savour or odour of sacrifices 
which may quiet or pacify my spirit and 
anger, and make you and your service pleas- 
ing and acceptable to me. The Gr. trans- 
lateth it, /or a savour of sweet smell; the 
Chald. to be accepted luith favour. See 
Lev. i. 9. In his appointed,] Every 
one in the time appointed therefore of God: 
the Gr. sailh, in my feasts; for the same 
word which signifieth an appointed time, is 
also used for a solemn feast appointed of God, 
Lev. xxili. 2. Hereby God limiteth every 
sacrifice to his proper day and time; which 
if it were let slip, that oblation might not be 
offered in another day or time. This is fur- 
ther manifested in ver. 10, where he saith, 
' The burnt-oflering of the Sabbath in his 
Sabbath;' which the Hebs. expound thus, 
"and not the burnt-offering of one Sabbath, 
in a[iother Sabbath," Maim. torn. 3, in Ta- 
midin, chap. i. sect. 7. And it is a common 
proverb among them, " Gnabar zeman, gna- 
bar korban; If the time be past, the oblation 
is past:" and it is prophesied of Antiochus 
the wicked, that he should ' think to change 
the times and the laws,' Dan. vii. 25. And 
Jeroboam king of Israel, who kept the feast 
of the seventh month, in the eighth month, 
is taxed for it in the scripture, which calleth 
it ' the month which he had devised of his 
own heart,' 1 Kings xii. 32, 33. 

Ver. 3. — The fire-offering,] The sa- 
crifices to be burned with fire unto the Lord; 
which fire signified both the work of God's 
Spirit, and the fiery trials and afflictions 
through which Christ and his children should 
be consecrated unto God, Matt. iii. 11 ; Heb. 
ix. 14; 1 Pet. iv. 12 — 14. Of the first 
YEAR,] Heb. son of the year: so after often 
in this and the next chapter: of which phra=e 
see the annot. on Exod. xii. 5. Perfect,] 
That is, perfect lambs, without blemish or 
corruption; what this meant is showed on 
Lev. i. 3; xxii. 23. Day by day,] Or, for 
a day, that is, daily. A continoal bornt- 
offering,] Heh. a burnt-offering of con- 

tinuation, which should be offered without 
intermission. See the notes on Exod. xxix. 
42; Lev. i. 

Ver. 4. — Make ready,] Or, do, that is, 
kill, sprinkle the blood, cut in pieces, burn 
on the altar, and all other rites pertaining to 
sacrificing, showed in Lev. i. Between 
the two EVENINGS,] That is, i7i the after- 
noon : of which phrase, see the annot. on 
Exod. xii. 6. God setteth no hours for the 
morning or evening sacrifices, because they 
might occasionally be changed. By the 
Heb. canons, the ordinary time of killing the 
morning sacrifice, was before " sun-rising, 
after that the face of all the east was light- 
ened," that is, between day-breaking and 
sun-rising. The time of killing the evening 
sacrifice, though it might be all the after- 
noon, yet they used not to kill it till ' half an 
hour after two of the clock:' and this they did 
by reason of the sacrifices of particular per- 
sons, or of the congregation, " because it was 
unlawful to offer any oblation at all, before 
the continual burnt-offering of the morning: 
neither killed they any oblation after the con- 
tinual evening sacrifice, save the oblation of 
the passover only: for it was impossible for 
all Israel to offer their passovers in two hours: 
so they killed not the passover, but after the 
daily evening sacrifice," Maim, in Tatnidin, 
chap. i. sect. 3, 4. By this daily sacrifice 
morning and evening, was signified the re- 
conciliation of the church unto God by faith 
in Christ; notwithstanding their continual 
infirmities which they fell into night and 
day, (as one end of the burnt-offering was to 
make atonement for sins, Job i. 5,) and that 
being reconciled, they should both show their 
thankfulness for it unto God, and expect from 
him a blessing upon them, their labours, and 
their rest. Wherefore at such times, special 
favours were showed of God unto his people; 
as, ' in the morning, when the meat-offering 
was offt-red,' the country was miraculously 
filled with water, for Israel, when they were 
in distress, 2 Kings iii. 9, 10, 20. And 
'about the time of the evening oblation,' 
God answered unto Daniel's prayers, by 
sending the angel Gabriel unto him, who 
foretold him when Christ should come for 
the salvation of his people, Dan. ix. 20 — 22, 
&c. See also the notes on Exod. xxix. 39. 

Ver. 5. — A tenth part,] That is, an 



ings. * And a tenth part of an cphah of fine flour for a meat-of- 
fering, mingled with the fourth part of an hiu of beaten oil. 

*^ Tlie continual burnt- offering wliich was made in mount Sinai 
for a savour of rest, a ^ve-offeri7ig unto Jehovah. ' And the drink- 
offering tliereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the lamb ; in 
the lioly place shalt thou cause to be poured out a drink-offering of 
strong nine unto Jeliovah. * And the other lamb thou shalt make 
ready between the two evenings: as the meat-offering of tiie morn- 
ing, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt make ready ; a 
fire -offering, a savour of rest unto Jehovah. 

^ And in the Sabbath day, two he-lambs of the first year perfect, 

was the lamb, and so difiered from the meat- 
ofllring ill Lev. ii., whereof an handful only 
was burned. 

Ver. 7. — Drink OFFERING,] So named of 
pouring out upon the altar, as is noted on 
Num. XV. 5. In the holy place.] The 
court of the sanctuary; Heb. in the holiness. 
Strong wine.] In Ileb. shecar, which name 
the Gr, retaineth, calling it sikera, and so in 
t^ie evangelist's writing, Luke i. 15. It is 
generally used for all strong drink, which 
causeth mirth, fulness, and (if it be taken ex- 
cessively) drunkenness : see the notes on 
Gen. xliii. 24. The Chald. here translateth 
it, old wine, and that is better than new, 
Luke V. 39. Thus God required the best 
liquor, wine; and the best sort of wine to be 
given with his sacrifice: which was a figure, 
not only of the blood of Christ, (the memorial 
whereof he hath still left unto his church in 
wine, Matt. xxvi. 27—29,) but of the blood 
also of his servants, pourwd out in martyrdom, 
'upon the sacrifice and service of the faith,' 
(as in the holy place,) Phil. ii. J 7. See the 
annot. on Num. xv. 12. 

Ver. 9.. — The Sabbath day,] Heb. the 
day of Sabbath, that is, of rest, which the 
Gr. expresseth in the form plural, the day of 
Sabbaths, and so in the New Testament, Luke 
iv. 16; Acts xiii. 14; xvi. 13. Two he- 
lambs,] Understand, as the Gr. version add- 
eth, ye skull bring two he lambs : these 
were over and beside the daily sacrifices 
fore-mentioned, ver. 10. The Sabbath was 
a remembrance of the creation of the world, 
Exod. XX. 11; of Israel's coming out of 
Egypt, Dent. v. 15; a sign of their sanctifi- 
cation by the Lord, E/ek. xx. 12, and a 
figure of grace and rest, which should come 
by failh in Christ, Heb. iv. As therefore 
this day was a sign of more than ordinary 
favours from the Lord, so he required greater 
testimonies of their thankfulness and saiicti- 
fication. And Ezekiel prophesying of the 
church's service under the gospel, under the 
figure of these legal ordinances, he saitli, 
' And the bnrnt-olifring that the prince shall 

mner; for that was the tenth deal of an ephah 
or bushel, as is showed in Exod. xvi. 36. 
Fine flour,] Meaning, wheuten flour, as 
Exod. xxix. 2. So Chazkuiii here saitli, 
" as the flour spoken of in the consecration 
(of the priests) was of wheat; so all the flour 
spoken of in the law is of wheat." The 
FOURTH i'art,] That was somewhat less than 
a quart of oil; for an hin contained twelve 
logs, and a log held as much as six eggs: see 
the annot. on Exod. xxx. 24; Lev. xiv. 10. 
When God showed unto Ezekiel the spiritual 
temple which Christ should build, and the 
service therein, (declared after the similitude 
of the legal service of Moses) he saith, that 
every lamb should have for the meat-oflering 
' the sixth part of an ephah, and the third 
part of an hin of oil,' Ezek. xJvl. 13, 14, 
where the quantity is increased more than 
was ofi'ered under Moses : to teach, that as 
God's grace and blessing aboundeth towards 
us in Christ, so should our thankfulness again 
towards him, abound more than under the 
law, by a more cheerful obedience unto him, 
and more ample fruits of the Spirit, figured 
by the flour and oil. Beaten oil,] Oil sig- 
nified grace; beating of it signified afllic- 
tions, whereby the grace of God is more per- 
fected in us, 2 Cor. i. 21; xii. 9, 10. "The 
oil was beaten in a mortar: and they strained it 
out with hands, and pressed it not out in an (oil) 
press, to the end there might be found no 
dregs in it," saith Chazkuni on Num. xxviii. 

Ver. 6. — Which was made,] That is, 
which (or such is) icas offered; as in Thar- 
gum Jonathan it is expounded, " such as was 
oflered at the mount of Sinai." Or, by made, 
understand ordained of God, having reference 
to the ordinance in Exod. xxix. 38 — 42. 
Thus God calleth them throughout their ge- 
nerations, unto his first institution, which 
they were to keep, till he himself made a 
•thaiige of the law. And here observe, that 
the lamb, the flour, and the oil, are all of 
them together called a burnt-oU'ering, as also 
in Ezek. xlvi. 15, because the meat-oll'ering 
with the oil was all burned on the altar, as 

Vol. H. 


N U M B P_: R S. 

and two tenth parts of fine ^onr for a meat-offering, mingled with 
oil, and the drink-offering thereof, 

'" The burnt -offering of tlie Sabbatli, in his Sabbath, beside the 
continual burnt- offering, and his drink-offering. 

" And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt- 
offering unto Jehovah : Two bullocks, younglings of the herd, and 
one ram ; seven he-lambs of the first year, perfect. '^ And three 
tenth parts of fine flour for a meat-offering, mingled with oil, for 
one bullock : and two tenth parts of flour for a meat-offering, 
mingled with oil for one ram. " And a several tenth part of fine 

offer unto the Lord, in the Sabbath day, shall 
be six lambs perfect, and a ram perfect: and 
the meaUoflering shall be an ephah for a 
ram ; and the meat-offering for the lambs 
shall be the gift of his hand, and an hin of 
oil to an ephah,' Ezek. xlvi. 4, 6, signifying 
that the service of God now in spirit and 
truth should exceed the legal services of old. 

Ver. 10.— In his Sabbath,] The Chald. 
expoundeth it, that shall be done in the Sab- 
bath; it meaneth, that on the Sabbath it should 
be otiered, and not deferred till another day or 
week, as is before noted, ver. 2. The like is 
for the month in ver. 14. 

Ver. 11.— The beginnings of your 
MONTHS,] That is, as the Gr. translateth it, 
the iieiv moons; for in Israel they began the 
mouth with the new moon ; and it was pro- 
claimed by the synedrion, or magistrates, as 
Maimony showeth in Kiddush bachodesh, 
chap. i. These new moons were days 

sanctified to the service of God, by special 
sacrifices appointed, as after followeth ; then 
did they blow with the silver trumpets in the 
sanctuary, Num. x. 10, and for burnt-ofier- 
ings ou the Sabbaths, new-moons, and solemn 
feasts, was Solomon's temple dedicated, 2 
Chron. ii. 4. Then also did they throughout 
the coasts of Israel repair unto the prophets, 
or other ministers of God, for to hear his 
word, as appeareth by 2 Kings iv. 23, 
' Wherefore wilt thou go to him (to the man 
of God) to-day? it is neither new-moon, nor 
Sabbath.' Then also they kept religious 
feasts, I Sam. xx. 5, C; neither was it law- 
ful to buy or sell, or do other like worldly 
works, Amos viii. 5, but they were to medi- 
tate of their light, sanctification, graces, and 
comforts to come by Christ, whereof these 
and other holy days were a shadow, Col. ii. 
16, 17. And in Christ we spiritually keep 
this feast (as the apostle speaketh of the pass- 
over, 1 Cor. V. 7, 8,) for so it is prophesied, 
' From one new-moon to another, and from 
one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come 
to worship before me, saith the Lord,' Is. 
Ixvi. 23. Not that we are now bound to 
' observe days, and months, and times, and 

years/ Gai. iv. 10, but are taught by those 
figurative speeches in the prophets, to ' wor- 
ship the Father in spirit and in truth,' John 
iv. 21, 23, who will accept of our service 
performed in Christ, in every place, as he 
did at Jerusalem, Mai. i. 11, and at all 
times, as he did at the solemn feasts of Israel. 
The renewing of the moon, (which borroweth 
her light of the sun) might figure the renew- 
ing of the church (said to l3e ' fair as the 
moon,' Song vi. 10,) by Christ 'the Sun of 
righteousness,' Mai. iv. 2, while her light 
and joy is by him increased and continued; 
as it is written, ' Thy sun shall no more go 
down, neither shall thy moon withdiaw it- 
self: for the Lord shall be thine everlasting 
light, and the days of thy mourning shall be 
ended,' Is. Ix. 20. And Ezekiel (prophesy, 
ing of the days of Christ) saith of the 'gate 
of the inner court of the sanctuary, that 
looketh toward the east, which should be shut 
the six working days, that in the Sabbath, 
and in the day of the new-moon, it should be 
opened,' Ezek. xlvi. 1. The Hebs. say, 
" As the beginning of the months are sanc- 
tified and renewed in this world, so shall 
Israel be sanctified and renewed in time to 
come," Pirke Eliezer, per 51. Two bul- 
locks,] The service at the new-moon was 
much more than in the Sabbath, for that was 
but two lambs, ver. 9, but this at the new- 
moon, is ' two bullocks, one ram, and seven 
lambs,' all burnt-offerings, and ' one goat- 
buck, for a sin-offering,' ver. 11, 15. These 
sacrifices were oflered, beside the daily burnt- 
offering, and after the same: but Ezekiel 
foretelleth a lessening of this service, speak- 
ing but of one bullock, six lambs, and a ram, 
which the prince should offer, Ezek. xlvi. 6. 
Ver. 12. — Three tenth parts,] Of an 
ephah or bushel, as ver. 5, that is, three 
omers. The like quantity was prescribed in 
Num. XV. 9, and so two omers for a ram, 
Num. XV. 6. But in Ezek. xlvi. 7, the 
meat-offerings is increased; ' an ephah for a 
bullock, and an ephah for a ram; and for the 
lambs, according as his hand shall attain 
unto.' See before on ver. 9. 



flour, for a meat offering mingled with oil, for one lamb : for a 
burnt-offering, a savour of rest, a fire-offering unto Jehovah. 

" And tlieir drink-offerings, lialf an hin of wine shall be for a 
bullock, and the third part of an hin for a ram, and the fourth 
part of an hin for a lamb -. This is the burnt-offering of the mouth, 
in the month, throughout the months of the year. '* And one 
goat-buck of the goats for a sin-offering unto Jehovah -. it shall be 
made ready beside the continual burnt-offering, and his drink-of- 

'" And in the first month, in tlie fourteenth day of the month, 
shall be the passover unto Jehovah. '' And in the fifteenth day of 
this month shall be tlie feast : seven days shall unleavened cakes be 
eaten. '^ In the first day shall be a convocation of holiness ; ye 
shall not do any servile work. '^ But ye sliall offer a fire-offering 
for a burnt-offering unto Jehovah; two bullocks, younglings of the 
herd, and one ram, and seven he-lambs of the first year, perfect 
shall they be unto you. 

^^ And their meat-offering, fine flour mingled with oil ; three 
tenth parts shall ye make readj/ for a bullock, and two tenth parts 
for a ram. ^' A several tenth part shalt thou make ready for one 
lamb, throughout the seven lambs. ^^ And one goat-buck for a 
sin-offering, to make atonement for you. 

^^ i3eside the burnt-offering of tlie morning, which is for a con- 

Ve«. 13. — A SEVERAL TENTH PART,] which vve should 'keep the feast,' 1 Cor. v. 

Heb. a tenth part a tenth part, that is, for 
every one a tenth pait; or, (as Moses ex- 
plaineth it in Num. xxix. 4,) 'one tenth part 
for one lamb.' So after in ver. 21, 29, and 
chap. xxix. 10, 15. With oil,] With the 
fourth part of an hin of beaten oil, as was de- 
clared in ver. 5. But when there was an ephah 
of flour for a meat-oflering, there was 'an 
hin of oil to an ephah,' Ezek. xlvi. 5, 7, 11. 

Ver. 15. — For a slv-offering,] In Gr. 
for sin; this was to make atonement for 
them, ver. 22, the law for sin-oiierings was 
given in Lev. iv. And whereas some sin- 
oflerings were eaten by the priests, and others 
(whose blood was carried into the holy place) 
were not eaten, but burnt without the camp, 
Lev. vi. 20, 30, of this the Hebs. say, " The 
ofl'ering(or doing) of the sin-otlerings at the be- 
ginnings of the months, and at the solemn feasts, 
is like the oH'ering of the sin-olleriiig that is 
eaten," Maim, in Tamidin, chap. vii. sect. 2. 

Ver. 16. — The first sionth,] Called of 
the Hebs. Abib, and Nisan; it answereth in 
part to that which we call March : see the 
/lotes on Exod. xii. 2; Lev. xxiii. 5. 

Vr.R. 17. — The feast,] Of unleavened 
takes, as is expressed in Lev. xxiii. Ci. The 
passover was a figure of ' Christ our Pass- 
over,' to be sacrificed for us: 'he unleavened 
cnkes signified 'sincerity and truth,' with 

7, 8. See the annot. on Exud. xii. 15. 

Ver. 18. — Any servile work,] Heb. 
any work of service: it meaneth any work 
save about that which men should eat ; that 
only was to be done of them, Exod. xii. 16. 
See the notes there, and on Lev. xxiii. 7. 

Ver. 19. — Two bullocks, &c.,] The 
same sacrifices, and so many as were ofi'ered 
at the new-moons, ver. 11. The meat and 
drink-oflerings also were the same, ver. 12, 
13, 20, 21. But Ezekiel prophesieth of a 
change, how at the passover on the fourteenth 
day, the prince should prepare ' for himself, 
and for all the people of the land, a bullock 
for a sin-ofl'ering. And the seven days of the 
feast (of unleavened cakes) he should prepare 
a burnt-oflering to the Lord, seven bullocks, 
and seven rams perfect, daily the seven days ; 
and for a sin-oflering, a goat-buck of the 
goats daily.' The meat-ofl'erings also should 
be increased ; ' an ephah for a bullock, and an 
ephah for a ram, and an hin of oil for an 
ephah,' Ezek. xlv. 22—24. 

Ver. 22. — A sin-offering,] Of it the 
Hebs. say, " it was eaten in the second day of 
the passover, which was the sixteenth day of 
(the fiist month) Nisan," Maim, in Ta7nidin, 
chap. vii. sect. 3, See before on ver. 15. 

Veh. 23. — Beside the bdrnt-offering,] 
The daily sacrifice appointed in ver. 3, unto 



tinual burnt- offering, ye shall make ready these. "* After this 
manner ye shall make ready for every day, seven days, the bread of 
the fire-offerhig of a savour of rest unto Jehovah -. it shall be made 
ready, beside the continual bui'nt- offering, and his drink-offering. 
^^ And in the seventh day ye shall have a convocation of holiness, 
ye shall not do any servile work. 

^^ iVnd in tlie day of the first-fruits, when ye offer a new meat- 
offering unto Jehovah after your weeks, ye shall liave a convoca- 
tion of holiness, ye shall not do any servile work. 

^' And ye shall offer a burnt-offering for a savour of rest unto 
Jehovah; two bullocks, younglings of the herd, one ram, seven 
he-lambs of the first year. ^^ And their meat-offering, fine flour 
mingled with oil ; three tenth parts for one bullock, two tentli parts 
for one ram, ^^ And several tenth part for one lamb throughout 
tJie seven lambs. 

^^ One goat-buck of tlie goats, to make atonement for you. 
'' Ye shall make them ready, beside the continual burnt-offering, 
and his meat-offering ; perfect shall they be unto you, and their 

which these sacrifices fore-mentioned were 
added. And beside all these, there was the 
lamb, for a burnt-oflering, which was sacri- 
ficed with the wave sheaf or omer, as was 
commanded in Lev. xxiii. 10 — 13. 

Ver. 25. — The seventh day,] Which 
was the last day of the feast of unleavened 
cakes ; and in this day it is said, there should 
be ' a feast to Jehovah,' Exod. xiii. 6, called 
here ' a convocation of holiness,' or holy as. 
sembly. So in Exod. xii. 16; Lev. xxiii. 8. 

Ver. 26 — Day of the first-fruits,] 
Called Pentecost, Acts ii. 1, ' the feast of 
harvest,' Exod. xxiii. 16, * the feast of weeks, 
of the first-fruits of wheat harvest,' Exod. 
xxxiv. 22. A NEW jiEAT-OFFERiNG,] Called 
so in respect of the former offered at the 
passover: the law for this was given in Lev. 
xxiii. 16. After your weeks,] After the 
seven weeks, or fifty days, which the Israel- 
ites were commanded to number unto them 
fiom the passover, Lev. xxiii. 15, 16. The 

Heb. which usually signifieth in your tveeks, 
is here to be interpreted after: see the au- 
not. on Exod. ii. 23. 

Ver. 27. — Two bollocks,] These and 
the rest following are here added to the feast, 
over and beside those • seven lambs, one bul- 
lock, and two rams,' which were oflered with 
the first-fruits, Lev. xxiii. 18, as is showed 
in the annot. there; and 'beside the con- 
tinual burnt-offering,' or daily sacrifice, as 
after followeth in ver. 31. 

Ver. 31. — And their drink-offerings,] 
This seemeth to be referred not only to the 
former, ye shall make them ready, but also 
to the latter, they shall be perfect: that as 
the beasts, flour and oil, were to be perfect, 
unblemished, sound and sweet; so the wine 
for drink-offerings should likewise be perfect, 
(as he called it strong wine, in ver. 7,) not 
dead, sour, mixed with dregs or lees, or 
otherwise corrupted. See the annot. on 
Gen. iv. 4. 


1 . The offerings at the feast of trumpets on the first day of the 
seventh month ; 7. at the day of afflicting their souls, which roas the 
tenth day of the seventh month ; 12. and on the eight days of the feast 
of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth day of the seventh month. 

* And in the seventh montli, in tlie first day. of tlie month, ye 



shall have a convocation of holiness ; ye sliall not do any servile 
work : a day of blowing of trumpets shall it be unto you. ^ And 
ye shall make ready a burnt- offering for a savour of rest unto Je- 
hovah, one bullock, a youngling of the herd, one ram, seven he- 
lambs, of the first year, perfect. ^ And their meat-offering shall he 
of fine flour mingled with oilj three tenth /?aris for a bullock, two 
tenth parts for a ram. * And one tenth part for one lamb, through- 
out the seven lambs. ^ And one goat-buck of tlie goats for a sin- 
offering, to make atonement for you. 

^ Beside the burnt- offering of the month, and his meat-offering, 
and the continual burnt- offering, and In's meat-offering, and tlieir 
drink-offerings according to their manner, for a savour of restj a 
f^xG-offering unto Jehovah. 

' And in the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a 
convocation of holiness, and ye shall afflict your souls ; ye shall 
not do any work. ® And ye sliall offer a burnt- offering unto Jeho- 
vah ^r a savour of rest; one bullock, a youngling of the herd, 
one ram, seven lie-lambs of the first year, perfect shall they be 
unto you. ^ And tlieir meat-offering shall be of fine flour, mingled 
witli oil ; three tenth parts for a bollock, two tenth parts for one 

Ver. 1. — The SEVENTH month,] Called 
in 1 Kings viii. 2, 'the moiilh Etiiatiim,' of 
tlie Hebs. commonly Tisri; of us Septem- 
ber. Tills montii was 'tlie going out of tlie 
year,' Exod. xxiii. 16, and ' tlie revolution of 
tlie year,' Exod. xxxiv. 22, for then the old 
year went out, and the new began, as touch- 
ing the jubilees. Lev. xxv. 9, 10, and other 
civil aflairs: but by reason of Israel's coming 
out of Egypt in Abib, or March, that montli 
was made unto them ' the first of the montlis 
of the year,' Exod. xii. 2. So the ecclesias- 
tical feasts were reckoned after this order; 
and that which had been the first month, is 
here and usually called the seventh. The 
FIRST DAY,] Hcb. the one day; of which 
phrase see Gen. i. S. Blowing of trum- 
pets,] Of this rite, see Lev. xxiii. 24, and 
the annot. there. 

Ver. 2. — Sa\'our of rest,] Which the 
Gr. tr.iiislateth, of sweet smell; the Chald. 
to be accepted with favour before the Lord. 
See Gen. viii. 21. One bullock,] At 
every new-moon they were to ofl'er 'two bul- 
locks, one ram, and seven lambs,' Num. 
xxviii. 11; the same were to be oflijred at 
this new-moon, and this one bullock, one 
ram, and seven lambs, &c. here mentioned, 
were added over and ' beside the burnt-ofl'er- 
ing of tlie month,' as is after expressed in 
ver. 6. So this day they sacrificed three 
bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs for 
burntoliiirings, and two goats for sin, besides 
the two lambs for the daily oblation. Fur as 

the solemnity was greater, by reason of the 
blowing of the trumpets, (which figured the 
preaching of repentance and belief in Christ, 
Is. Iviii. 1; Mark i. 1 — 4,) so their service 
and thankfulness unto God was to be testified 
by the more sacrifices. And if this new- 
moon fell to be on the Sabbath, then besides 
all the former oblations, they offered also the 
two lambs, which were added for the Sabbath, 
Num. xxviii. 9, 10. The order of offering 
is said to be thus; " After the daily morning 
sacrifice was offered, the addition of the Sab- 
bath was first, and after that, the addition of 
the new-moon; and after it, the addition of 
this good day (or feast,)" Maim, in Tamidin, 
chap. ix. sect. 2. 

Ver. G. — Their manner,] Heb. their 
judgment, that is, the law and ordinance pre- 
scribed of God. So in ver. IS, 21, 24, &c. 
Under this word manner or judgment, the 
Hebs. understand the orrfer also here set down : 
for whereas sometimes the sin-oflcring was of- 
fered first, before the burnt-offering, Lev. v. 
7, 8, 10, " in the oblations of the feast (they 
say) it was not so, but they offered according 
to the order that is written, as it is said, 
' According to their manner.' As, first the 
bullocks, and after them the rams, and after 
them the lambs, and after them the goat- 
bucks, altliough the goat-bucks were sin-of- 
ferings, and all those before them were burnt- 
oflerings," Maim, in Tamidin, chap. ix. 
sect. 7. 

\'kr. 7. — The tenth n.w.l Which was 



ram. " A several tenth part for one lamb, throughout the seven 
lambs. " One goat-buck of the goats, ^or a ^\n-offering, beside the 
siXi-offering of atonements, and the continual burnt^ offering, and 
the meat-offering of it, and their drink-offerings. 

'^ And in the fifteenth day of the seventli month ye shall have a 
convocation of holiness; ye shall not do any servile work, and ye 
shall festivally keep a feast unto Jehovah seven days. '^ And ye 
shall offer a burnt- offering, a fixe -offering for a savour of rest unto 
Jehovah ; thirteen bullocks, younglings of the herd, two rams, 
fourteen he-lambs of the first year, they shall be perfect. '* And 
their meat-offering shall be of fine flour, mingled with oil ; three 
tenth parts for one bullock, throughout the tliirteen bullocks ; two 
tenth parts for each ram, of the two rams. ^^ And a several tenth 
part for one lamb, throughout tlie fourteen lambs. 

'^ And one goat-buck of the goats for a sin-offering , beside the 
continual burnt-offering, liis meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

' the day of atonements,' Lev. xxiii. 27, 
called ' the fast,' Acts xxvii. 9. The man- 
ner of atonement, and the service on that 
day, is described at large in Lev. xvi. Af- 
flict YOUR SOULS,] With fasting and absti- 
nence: see the annot, on Lev. xvi. 29. 

Ver. U. — Beside the sin-offering of 
ATONEMENTS,] That goat-buck, wliose blood 
was carried into the holy place, and the body 
burned without the camp, Lev. xvi. 9, 29, be- 
sides it, this sacrifice here commanded was to 
be offered, and besides the daily burnt-oflering. 
" On atonement day, they offer an addition 
according to the addition of the beginning of 
the year, [which was the first day of the 
seventh month, fore-mentioned in ver. 1, 2,] 
a bullock and a ram, and this ram is called 
the people's ram ; and seven lambs, all of 
them for burnt- offerings, and a goat-buck for 
a sin-offering, and that was eaten at evening. 
Moreover the congregation offered a goat- 
buck for a sin-offering which was burnt, the 
fellow whereof was sent away for a scape- 
goat," (Lev. xvi. 9, 10,) Maim, in Tami- 
din, chap. x. sect. 12. This atonement was 
a lively figure of our reconciliation unto God, 
by the death of Christ, (as is showed on Lev. 
xvi.) the afflicting of their souls figured re- 
pentance and humiliation for sins, with our 
fellowship in the afflictions of Christ, Rom. 
vi. 3, 4, 6; 1 Pet. ii. 21. The sacrifices 
added here, signified the faith that God's 
people should have in Christ sacrificed, and 
thankfulness unto God therefore, 1 John ii. 
1, 2; Heb. X. 10, 19, &c. ; Rom. xii. 
1, 2. 

Ver. 12. — The fifteenth day,] When 
the feast of booths, or of tabernacles did be- 
gin, which lasted seven days, Lev. xxiii. 34 

— 36, &c., the signification of which feast is 
showed in the annot. on that place. 

Ver 13.' — Thirteen bullocks,] Whereas 
at the other feasts fore-mentioned, they of- 
fered but two bullocks, one ram, and seven 
lambs in a day; at this, they were to ofTer 
thirteen bullocks, two rams, and fourteen 
lambs; both because the solemnity was 
greater, and at this time they had gathered 
in their com and wine, and had seen the 
blessing of God in all their increase, and in 
all the works of their hands, Deut. xvi. 13, 
15; therefore the Lord required more sacri- 
fices in sign of thankfulness. But Ezekiel 
prophesying of the days of Christ (under 
whom we keep this feast in spirit and truth, 
Zech. xiv. 16 — 19,) appoiiiteth like sacrifices 
as were to be offered at the passover; as that 
the prince should prepare seven bullocks and 
seven rams daily for a burnt -offering, &c. 
Ezek. xlv. 23, 25. 

Ver. 17. — Twelve bullocks,] In every 
of the seven days of this feast, one bullock is 
abated, as on the second day twelve, on the 
third day eleven, ver. 20, on the fourth day 
ten, ver. 23, and so forward, till on the 
seventh day they were to offer seven bullocks, 
ver. 32, (all which, in seven days amounted 
to seventy bullocks) but the rams and lambs 
were every day alike. By this diminishing 
of one bullock every day, the Holy Spirit 
might teach their duty to grow in grace, and 
increase in sanctification: that their sins de- 
creasing, the number of their sacrifices 
(whereby atonement was made for their sins) 
should also decrease daily. Or it might sig- 
nify a diminishing and wearing away of the 
legal offerings, to lead them unto the spiritual 
and reasonable service, by presenting their 

CHAP. XXIX. 151 

" And in the second day, twelve bullocks, younglings of the 
herd, two rams, fourteen he-lanibs of tlie first year, perfect. 

■' And their meat-offering and their drink-offerings, for the bul- 
locks, for the rams, and for the lambs, by tlie number of tliem ac- 
cording to the manner. " And one goat-buck of the goats for a 
^m-offering, beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meat-offer- 
ing thereof, and tlieir drink-offerings. 

'^'^ And in the third day, eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he- 
lambs of the first year, perfect. ^^ And their meat-offering and 
tJieir drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the 
lambs by the number of them, according to tlie manner. '^'^ And 
one goat-buck ^r a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt-offer- 
ing, and his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

^ And in the fourth day, ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen he- 
lambs of the first year, perfect. ^* Their meat-offering, and their 
drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, 
by the number of them, according to the manner. " And one 
goat-buck of the goats for a sin-offering , beside the continual 
burnt -offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

'^® And in the fifth day, nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen he- 
lambs of the first year, perfect. ^' And their meat-offering, and 
their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, foi the rams, and for the 
lambs, by the number of them, according to the manner. ^ And 
one goat- buck yor a &n\-offering , beside the continual burnt-offer- 
ing, and his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

'^'^ x\nd in the sixth day, eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen he- 
lambs of the first year, perfect. ^^ And their meat-offering, and 
their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for tlie 
lambs, by the number of them, according to the manner. ^' And 
one goat-buck ^;" a sin-offering, beside the continual burnt offer- 
ing ; his meat- offering, and his drink-offering. 

" And in the seventh day, seven bullocks, two rams, fourteen 
he-lambs of tiie first year, perfect. ^^ And their meat-offering, 
and their drink-offerings, for the bullocks, for the rams, and for 
the lambs, by the number of them, according to the manner. 

^* And one goat-buck for a sin-offering, beside the continual 
burnt-offering, his meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

^^ In the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly ; ye shall 
not do any servile work. 

own bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable selves; whether they were the oblations of 

unto God, Rom. xii. 1. the congregation, or the oblations of a parti- 

Ver. is. — And for the lambs,] The cular person " Maim, in Tamidin, chap. x. 

Ilehs. say, "that the meat and drink-ofierings sect. 1 5. 

of these several sacrifices, were never to be Ver. 35. — In the f.ightii day,] Chazku- 

mixed together, but the meat and drink-of- ni here observeth, "that it is not said (as 

ferings of the bullocks were by themsehes, was of the former days) And in the eighth 

and the meat ami driiik-otierings of the rams day; to teach that it was a good day [of 

by theiDselvcs, and of the lamb: hy tiicm- fvast) by itself." A solemn assembly,] 


x\ U M H E R S. 

'^ And ye shall offer a burnt-offering, a ^ve-offering for a savour 
of rest unto Jehovah ; one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of 
the first year, perfect. ^' Tiieir meat-offering, and their drink- 
offerings, for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, by the 
number of them, according to the manner, 

^^ And one goat-buck for a sin-offering, beside the continual 
burnt-offering, and Iiis meat-offering, and his drink-offering. 

^^ These things ye sliall do unto Jehovah in your solemn feasts, 
beside your vows, and your voluntary offerings, for your burnt- 
offerings, and for your meat-offerings, and for your drink-offerings, 
and for your peace-offerings. *" And Moses spake unto the sons 
of Israel, according to all that Jehovah commanded Moses. 

Or, general assevihly: see the notes on Lev. 
xxiii. 36. 

Ver. 36. — One bullock,] Though this 
was the last, and ' the great day of the feast,' 
John vii. 37, yet were the sacrifices fewer 
than on any other day; as if God would call 
them from the multitude of outward oblations 
to his spiritual worship, as is noted on ver. 
17. And our Saviour on that day called the 
people from their many carnal observations, 
(some whereof are noted on Lev. xxiii. 40,) 
unto himself, to drink the waters of his 
Spirit, John vii. 38, 39. 

Ver. 39. — Beside your vows, &c.j Of 
the difference between vows and voluntary- 
oflerings, see the annot. on Lev. vii. 16. 
The sacrifices fore-mentioned, the congrega- 
tion of Israel was bound to ofler, every thing 
in his day: but all men as they had either 
vowed, or voluntary would, brought their sa- 
crifices at the feasts, (especially peace-ofier- 
ings, which the owners did eat before the 

Lord) that according to the blessing of God 
upon them, they, their children and their 
servants, the Levites, the stranger, the fa- 
therless and the widow with them, might eat 
and drink, and rejoice before the Lord, Deut. 
xvi. 10, 11, 14, 15. The truth and mean- 
iug of all which solemnities are now fulfilled 
unto us by Christ, who by one offering of 
himself, hath reconciled us unto God, and 
wrought our eternal redemption, and hath 
given us of his Spirit, whereby we know 
that he abideth in us, and hath placed in us 
the kingdom of God, which consisteth in 
righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy 
Spirit: ' that by him we should ofler the sa- 
crifice of praise to God continually, that is, 
the fruit of our lips, confessing to his name, 
and should not forget to do good, and to com- 
municate, for with such sacrifices God is well 
pleased,' Col. ii. 16, 17; Heb. ix. 12, 26, 
28; 1 John iii. 24; Rom. xiv. 17; Heb. 
xiii. 15, 16. 


1. The Lord coinmandeth that men's vows or oaths he not profaned, 
hut kept. 3. A maid in her father's house, the father hath power to es- 
tahlish her vow, or to disanmd it. 6. Likewise a married woman is in 
her husband's power, he may confirm or disannul her vow, in the day 
that he heareth it. 9- Hut the vows of a widow, or divorced woman, 
are to stand. 10. An explanation of the case between man and wife, 
concerning vows or oaths. 

' And Moses spake unto tlie lieads of the tribes, concerning the 
sons of Israel, saying, This is the thing which Jehovah com- 

Ver. 1. — The heads,] That is, as the 
Gr. translateth, the rulers (or princes) e/ 

S S B Here beginneth the forty-second lec- 
ture of the law: see Gen. vi. 9. 



manded. ^ A man, when he shall vow a vow unto Jehovah, or 
swear an oatli to bind a bond vipon his soul, he shall not profane 
his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his 
mouth. ^ And a woman, when she shall vow a vow unto Jehovah, 
and bind a bond in her father's house in her youth : * And her fa- 
ther hear hei' vow and lier bond, which she hath bound upon her 
soul, and her father shall hold his peace at her ; then all lier 
vows shall stand, and every bond which she hath bound upon her 
soul shall stand. * And if her father disannul her in the day that 

the tribes. In the two former chapters were 
Jaws for necessary duties commanded: here 
followeth the law for vokiiitary things, which 
people having by vow or oatli taken upon 
them, were bound to perform. Concerning 
THE SONS,] Or, to the sons of Israel ; or as 
the Gr. joineth it with the former, the princes 
of the tribes of the sons of Israel. It was 
spoken by Moses to tlie princes, that by them 
it might be orderly communicated unto the 
people; as in Exod. xii. 3, 21 ; iv. 29 ; also 
that the governors should look unto the people 
for the performance of their religious pro- 
mises. The thing,] Heb. the word. 

Ver. 2. — A vow, J A religious promise to 
the Lord. Of a vow, and how it diflered 
from a voluntary gift, see the annot. on Lev. 
xxvii. 2; vii. 16; and of an oath, see the 
notes on Lev. v. 1, 4. And that alms pro- 
mised for the poor, is comprehended also 
under the name of vows, is showed on Deut. 
xxiii. 21. A BOND UPON his soul,] That 
is, to bind his soul (or himself) with a bond. 
Hereupon is that manner of speech, * Thy 
vows are upon me, O God,' Ps. Ivi. 12. 
Not I'ROFANE his word,] Not violate or 
break his promise, but shall have an holy care 
to keep it. A like phrase is of ' profaning a 
covenant,' in Ps. Iv. 20 ; Ixxxix. 34. And 
as vows might not be broken, so neither 
might they be delayed, Deut. xxiii. 21. 
All that proceedeth out of his mouth,] 
That is, every word of his, as the phrase is 
opened in Luke iv. 4, from Deut. viii. 3. 
This is to be understood of good and lawful 
vows, and such as are in a man's power to 
perform: for impossible vows are to be re- 
pented of, and wicked vows or oaths are not 
to be kept, but broken. Acts xxiii. 21, &c. 

Ver. 3. — And bind a bond,] To wit, 
' upon her soul,' as in ver. 4, tliat is, bound 
herself with a bond. And may here be 
used for or (as it is often, and as the Gi-. here 
translateth, or determine a detertnitiation) 
to imply either a vow to sanctify any thing 
to the Lord, or a bond to restrain herself 
from something, as by afflicting her soul, or 
abstinence, as in ver. 13. In her father's 
house,] She abiding there, and being under 

Vol. II. 

his power. The Hebs. (as Sol. Jarchi on 
this place) by house, do understand power, 
saying, *' under the power of her father, 
though she be not in his house.'' In her 
YOUTH,] Youth difl'ereth from childhood, for 
in her youth she understandeth what a vow is, 
whereof in childhood she is ignorant. The 
Heb. canons have limited the time both for 
men and women, thus : "■ A young man that 
is a son of twelve years and one day, and a 
young woman that is a daughter of eleven 
years and one day, which do swear or vow, 
either vows of binding (or restraint,) or 
vows of sanctifying (atiy thing to the Lord,) 
they do examine them, and ask questions of 
them. If they know to whose name they 
have vowed, &c. then their vows are stab- 
lished : but if they know not, then is there 
nothing in their vows or words. And this 
examination is necessary all that year, which 
is the twelfth year for a young maid, and the 
thirteenth year for a young man. Before 
this time, although they say, we know to 
whose name we have vowed, their vows arc- 
no vows. But after this time, when the son 
is a son of thirteen years and one day ; and 
the daughter is a daughter of twelve years 
and one day ; although they say, we know- 
not to whose name we have vowed ; their 
words are established, and their vows are 
vows, &c. And this is the time of vows 
spoken of in eveiy place : for as much as they 
are come to the years of great (or aged) per- 
sons, their vows are stablished," Maim. torn. 
3, treat, of vows, chap. xi. sect. 1, 3, 4. 

Ver. 4. — Hold his peace at her,] Or, 
keep silence at it : though he do not by 
woids approve, yet by silence he seemeth to 
consent, therefore her vow standeth firm. 
Shall stand,] That is, shall be stable, 
firm and sure; as the field which Abraham 
bought, was said to stand, when by sale it was 
sure. Gen. xxiii. 17, 20. So one's counsel or 
word is said to stand, when it abideth firm, 
Prov. xix. 21; Is. xiv, 24; xl. 8; Jer. xliv. 

Ver. 5. — Disallow her,] Or, disallow 
(nullify) it, to wit, her vow : so after. The 
iiAV Timx HE heareth,] Whether it be in 




he heareth, not any of her vows or of her bonds which she hatli 
bound upon lier soul shall stand -. and Jehovah will mercifully for- 
give her, because her father disallowed her. ^ And if having she 
have an husband, and her vows be upon her, or the utterance of 
her lips, which she hath bound upon her soul ; ' And her husband 
hear, and hold his peace at her in the day that he lieareth ; then 
her vows shall stand, and her bonds which she hath bound upon 
her soul shall stand. ^ But if in the day that her Imsband heareth 
he disallow her, then he shall make void her vow wliich is upon 
her, and the utterance of her lips which she hath bound upon her 
soul ; and Jehovah will mercifully forgive her. ^ But the vow of 
a widow, and of her that is put away, whatsoever she hath bound 
upon her soul shall stand upon her. " And if she vowed in her 
husband's house, or bound a bond upon her soul with an oath: 
" And her husband heard, and held his peace at her, and disallowed 
her not; then all her vows shall stand, and every bond which she 

the day that she vowed, or many days after 
that her father heareth of it. "If she vow 
and wait many days, and afterwards her father 
or her husband hear of it, then he may break 
it in the day that he heareth, &c. as it is 
said, ' In tlie day that he heareth, and not in 
the day that she voweth only,' " Maim, in 
voxvs, chap. xii. sect. 16. Will mercifully 
FORGIVE HER,] In Gr. ivill purge (or cleanae) 
her : her sin in vowing, (when she was not 
in her own power, but in her father's) shall 
be forgiven: but she may not perform her 
vow, which by her father's authority is dis- 
annulled. So for her husband in like sort, 
ver. 12. 

Ver. 6. — If having she h.^ve a hus- 
band,] Heb. if being she be to a man; that 
is, if she be at all married. Or the ut- 
terance OF her LIPS,] Or, pronunciation, 
that which she hath pronounced, or distinctly 
uttered, to wit, by oath, as appeareth by the 
word or, which distinguisheth it from her 
VOWS: and by that which foUoweth, 'which 
she hath bound upon her sou!,' that is, by 
oath, as in ver. 2, 10. So the pronouncing 
with the lips, is joined with swearing, in 
Lev. V. 4, and Chazkuni here saith, "the 
pronunciation is not (meant) but of an oath." 

Ver. 8. — He disallow her,] Or, dis- 
allow it, that is, signify his disallowance of 
her vow or oath. The Hebs. say, " A man 
maketh void, or establisheth the words of his 
wife, or of his daughter in any language, al- 
though she know it not ; for it is not of ne- 
cessity that the woman should hear the mak- 
ing void, or the establishment, &c. He that 
maketh void the words of his daughter, or of 
his wife, it is necessary that he utter it with 
his lips; and if he make it void in his heart 

(only) he doth not make it void:" Maim, in 
vows, chap. xiii. sect. 1, 7. 

Ver. 9. — Put away,] To yvit, from her 
husband, as is expressed in Lev. xxi. 7, 
that is, divorced. Shall stand,] She is to 
perform her vow; and this (as the Hebs. 
think) though she be afterward married. As, 
" A woman which hath no husband, and 
which is not under her father's power, if she 
say, Lo (such) flesh be unlawful to me after 
thirty days, and she be married within thirty 
days; although at the time when the vow be- 
ginneth, she be under the power of a husband, 
he cannot make it void ; because at the time 
of the vow (making) she was not under his 
power. And of this it is said (in Num. 
XXX. 9,) ' But the vow of a widow, and of 
her that is put away,' " &c. Maim, in vows, 
chap. xiii. sect. 16. 

Ver. 10. — In her husband's house,] 
After that she is married, and in her hus- 
band's power. But what if she were be- 
trothed only, and remained yet in her father's 
house? Of this case the Hebs. say, "A 
maid that is betrothed, none can make her 
vow void, but her father and her husband 
jointly together. And if the one of them 
alone do make it void, it is not made void. 
If her espoused husband die, she returntth 
into the power of her father: and whatsoever 
she voweth, her father may make it void, as 
before her espousals. If her father die after 
that she is betrothed, and she make a vow 
after his death, her husband cannot make it 
void ; for an husband maketh not the vows of 
his wife void, until she be come into the 
wedding chamber, (or married,)" Maim, in 
voias, chap. xi. sect. 9, 10 

Ver. 11. — Shall stand,] She is to keep 



liatli bound upon her soul shall stand. '- But if her husband hath 
utterly made them void in the day that he heard, whatsoever pro- 
ceeded out of lier lips concerning her vows, or concerning the bond 
of her soul, shall not stand ; her husband hath made them void, 
and Jehovah will mercifully forgive her. '^ Every vow, and every 
oath of bond to afflict the soul, her husband may establish it, and 
her husband may make it void. 

" But if her husband altogether hold his peace at lier from day 
to day, then he establishetli all her vows, or all lier bonds, which 
are upon her : he establisheth tliem, because lie held his peace at 
lier ill the day that he heard them. '^ But if he shall utterly make 
them void, after that he hath heard them, tlien he shall bear her 
iiiiquit}'. '® These are the statutes, which Jehovah commanded 
Moses, between a man and his wife, between a father and liis 
daughter, in her youth, in her father's house. 

her vow, though after her husband's death. 
" A young woman, whom her father hath 
given in marriage, if she become a widow, 
or be divorced after marriage, lo she is as an 
orphan while her father liveth, and her father 
cannot make her vows of none eflect, al- 
though she be yet but a young woman," 
Maim. ibid. sect. 25. 

Ver. 12 Hath utterly made them 

VOID,] Or, hath any ways made them void; 
Heh. making void hath made them void: 
so in ver. 15. 

Ver. 13. — Oath of bond,] That is, bind- 
ing oath, or, bond confirmed with an oath. 
To afflict the soul,] By abstinence, fast- 
ing, &c. See the notes on Lev. xvi. 29. 
This seemeth to be added for amplification, 
rather than limitation or restraint: howbeit, 
the Hebs. from hence gather, that although 
the father may disannul all his daughter's 
vows, of what sort soever, yet the husband 
hath not power to disannul the vows of his 
wife, unless they be of this sort, to wit, vows 
or bonds to afflict the soul, &c. Sol. Jarchi 

on Num. xxx., and Maim, in voivs, chap, 
xii. sect. 1. May establish it,] Or, may 
make it stand, shall confirm it. Some 
understand these words to be a command- 
ment, and translate thus, let her husband 
establish it, or let her husband make it void, 
to wit, out of hand, and let him not defer it 
till afterward. 

Ver. 14. — Altogether hold his peace,] 
Heb. holding his peace shall hold his peace, 
(or keep silence.) From day to day,] And 
do not disannul it the same day that he hear- 
eth it. 

Ver. 15. — Shall utterly make them 
void,] Or, shall any tvays ynake them of 
none effect: see this phrase in ver. 12. 
Shall bear her iniquity,] That is, shall 
bear the punishment of her iniquity; God 
rvill require her sin at his hand. "From 
hence we learn (saith Sol. Jarchi) that he 
which is a cause of scandal (or ofl'ence) unto 
his neighbour, shell come in his stead unto al' 


1 . The Israelites are commanded to take vengeance on tlie Midianites. 
5. Twelve thousand of the tribes of Israel, tvith Phinehas the priest, 
are sent to mar. 7. They slay all the males, and the five kiiigs of Me- 
dian, and Balaam the son of Beor. 9. They take the wo7?ie?i a7id chil- 
dren captives, and the spoil of their goods and cattle, and hum their 
cities. 13. Moses is wroth with the officers for saving the wo7nen alive. 
If). Ho7V the soldiers with their captives and sjjoil are to be purified. 25. 
The proportion whereby the prey is to be divided. 28. The tribute levied 



unto the Lord of the divided prey, and given to the priests and Levites. 
48. The captains of Israel numbering their soldiers, miss not a man, 
and, therefore, give a voluntary oblation unto the treasury of the Lord. 

^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ^ Avenge the ven- 
geance of the sons of Israel upon the Midianites -. afterward shalt 
thou be gathered unto thy people, ^ And Moses spake unto the 
people, saying. Arm ye some men of yourselves unto the war, and 
let them be against Midian, to render the vengeance of Jehovah 
upon Midian. * A thousand of a tribe, a thousand of a tribe, of 
all the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the war. * So there were 
delivered of the thousands of Israel, a thousand of a tribe, twelve 
thousand armed ^r war. * And Moses sent them, a thousand of a 
tribe, to the war : them and Phinelias the son of Eleazar the priest 

• Ver. 1. — Avenge the vkngeance,] Or, 
revenge the revengement of the sons of Israel, 
that is, take vengeance for the Israelites' 
wrong and injury upon the Midianites, who 
vexed Israel with their wiles, and beguiled 
them in the matter of Peor, Num. xxv. 17, 
18. The Lord, to whom vengeance and 
recompence belongeth, Deut. xxxii. 35 ; (and 
would not therefore have men avenge them- 
selves, Rom. xii. 19 ;) commandeth this 
vengeance for his people's sake, many of 
whom he had formerly slain for sinning with 
the Midianites, Num. xxv. 9 ; and now 
turneth his hand against their enemies, be- 
cause he is ' the avenger of all such,' 1 Thess. 
iv. 6. Therefore he calleth it here, ' the 
vengeance of the sons of Israel ;' but Moses 
calleth it ' the vengeance of Jehovah,' ver. 
3. And the commandment is given to Mo- 
ses the magistrate, the minister of God, a 
revenger to execute wrath upon evil doers, 
Rom. xiii. 4. Midianites,] In Gr. Ma- 
dianites, the posterity of Midian the son of 
Abraham, by iiis wife Keturah, Gen. xxv. 
1, 2. Why these were now punished rather 
than the Moabites (their partners in sin,) is 
touched on Num. xxv. 17. Gathered 
UNTO THY people,] That is, die and be buri- 
ed: see the annot. on Num. xx. 24; and 
Gen. xxv. 8. 

Ver. 3. — To render,] Or, to give the 
vengeance of Jehovah, which phrase the apos- 
tle useth in 2 Thess. i. 8, ' giving (or ren- 
dering) vengeance on them that know not 
God.' That which in ver. 2, was called 
' the vengeance of the sons of Israel,' is here 
named, ' the vengeance of the Lord,' as be- 
ing executed by his word, and for the injury 
done unto him ; for he that toucheth his peo- 
ple, toucheth the apple of his eye, Zeeh. ii. 
8. The Chald. here expoundeth it, ' the 
vengeance of the people of the Lord.' 

Ver. 4. — A thoitsand of a tribe, a 
THOUSAND,] That is, of every tribe a thou- 
sand, in all twelve thousand, ver. 5 ; which 
was but a small company in respect both of 
the six hundred thousands of Israel, Num. 
xxvi. 51 ; and of the nation of the Midian- 
ites, governed by five kings, ver. 8. But 
' there is no restraint to the Lord, to save by 
many, or by few,' 1 Sam. xiv. 6. And this 
small number was chosen, that the victory 
might be acknowledged the Lord's ; as after 
this, he said unto Gideon, ' the people that 
are with thee are too many for me to give 
the Midianites into their hands, lest Israel 
vaunt themselves against me, saying. Mine 
own hand hath saved me,' Judg. vii. 2. 

Ver. 5. — There were delivered,] In 
Chald. there were chosen in Gr. they num- 

Ver. 6. — Phinehas,] The zealous priest, 
who had formerly slain Cozbi the prince's 
daughter of Midian, Num. xxv. 7 — 15. 
Holy instruments,] Heb. instrnments (or 
vessels) of holiness : hereby the ark and 
things belonging thereto may be meant, as 
appeareth by Num. xiv. 44. Or, because 
the ark was but one, and he speaketh here of 
more instruments, the trumpets may be un- 
derstood : and so to read it, the holy instru- 
ments, that is, the trumpets, &c. for and is 
sometimes used by way of explication for that 
is, or to wit, as is noted on Gen. xiii. 15. 
But to understand hereby the Urim and 
Thummim, or golden plate (as some do) is 
improbable, because they were not in the 
hand of Phinehas, but of Eleazar, who was 
the high priest, Num. xxvii. 21 ; xx. 26. 
Trumpets of alarm,] To blow an alarm, 
that they might be remembered before the 
Lord their God, and saved from their ene- 
mies, according to the law and promise in 
Num. X. 9; and pi-actised in ages following, 



to the war; and the holy instruments and the trumpets of alarm in Iiis 
hand. ' And they warred against Midian, as Jehovah commanded 
Moses, and tliey killed every male. * And they killed the kings 
of Midian, beside those that were slain of them ; Evi, and Rekem, 
and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian ; Balaam also the 
son of Beor they killed with the sword. " And the sons of Israel 
took tlie women of Midian captives, and their little ones, and took 
the prey of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods. 
" And they burnt all their cities in their habitations, and all their 
castles with fire. " And tliey took all the spoil, and all the booty 
of men and of beasts. ^^ And they brouglit the captivity, and the 
booty, and the spoil, unto Moses, and unto Eleazar the priest; and 
unto the congregation of the sons of Israel, unto the camp, unto 
the plains of Moab, wliich are by Jordan, near Jericlio. 

" And Moses and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the 
congregation went fortli to meet them witliout the camp. '^ And 
Moses was wroth witli the officers of the host, the captains of tliou- 

2 Chron. xiii. 12, 14, 15. Thus had they 
both God's commandmeut, and the signs of 
his presence and aid, to sanctify their expe- 

Ver. 8. — Beside those,] Or, with those 
that were slain; for the Weh. gnal, often signi- 
fieth with, as in Exod. xxxv, 22; Lev. xiv 31 ; 
Deut. xxii. 6; and elsewhere. Five kings,] 
Called elsewhere jirinces and dukes of Sihon, 
Josh. xiii. 21. But Sihon the Amorite be- 
ing slain before (Num. xxi. 23, 24 ;) these 
dukes of his now reigned as kings, and fought 
against Israel, and were overcome by faith 
which subdueth kingdoms, Heb. xi. 33. The 
antichristian Amorite (the beast) hath twice 
five, that is, ten kings, as horns on his head, 
which make war with the Lamb (Christ) and 
the Lamb overcometh them, Rev. xvii. 12, 
14 ; xix. 19 — 21. Balaam also,] They 
killed among (or with) those that were slain 
of them, as is expressed in Num. xiii. 22 ; 
which also is added in the Gr. version here. 
So that either he stayed with the Midianites, 
when he departed from Balak, or returned 
from his place \nito them, as is uoted on 
Num. xxiv. 25. And he died not the death 
of the righteous, (as he seemed to desire, 
Num. xxiii. 10,) but his iniquity was upon 
his bones, though he was the terror of the 
mighty in the land of the living; yet was he 
broken in the midst of the uncircumcised, 
and lay with them that were slain with the 
sword, as the prophet speaketh of others, in 
Ezek. xxxii. 27, 28. 

Ver. 10. — Castles,] Or, goodly build- 
ings, or villages : see this word in Gen. xxv. 
16. The Chald. here expoundeth it, their 
houses of worship or adoration, their temples. 

Ver. 12. — The captivity,] That is, the 
captives, women and children: see Num. 
xxi. 1. So after in ver. 19. The booty,] 
Or, the thing taken ,• which being here dis- 
tinguished from the captives, meaneth the 
beasts and cattle, as appeareth by ver. 32, 
and 26. The spoil,] A general word for 
things taken in war. Josh. xxii. 8 ; imply- 
ing sometimes beasts and cattle also, as in 
2 Chron. xv. 11 ; and all other things, as 
garments, gold, silver, &c. ver. 20, 22 ; 
Josh. vii. 21 ; 2 Chron. xxviii. 15; victuals, 
1 Sam. xiv. 30; and the like. These all 
they brought unto the governors and congre- 
gation, to be disposed of according to the will 
of God, whose the victory was. 

Ver. 13. — To meet them,] As Melchi- 
sedek king and priest went forth to meet 
Abram returning from the slaughter of the 
kings. Gen. xiv ; so Moses the king, Elea- 
zar the priest, and the princes go forth here 
to meet Abraham's children returning from 
the slaughter of the kings of Midian. Where- 
in the work of Christ (our king and priest) 
was figured: who after our spiritual warfare 
with the enemies of our salvation, meeteth us 
with his gracious Spirit, to sanctify and bless 
us, Heb. vii. Also they went out to meet 
them, to provide for the cleansing of the sol- 
diers, which were polluted by the dead, and 
might not therefore come into the camp be- 
fore they were purified. Num. v. 2, 3 ; xix. 

Ver. 14. — The Officers,] Or, the bishopn 
iif the host, as both the Heb. and Greek 
words signify: these were the captains, as 
after is explained. Moses, who was the 
meekest man on earth in his own matters. 



sands, and the captains of hundreds, which came from tlie battle 
of the war. " And Moses said unto them, Have ye saved alive 
all the females ? ^^ Behold, these were to the sons of Israel through 
tlie word of Balaam, fa cause J to commit trespass against Jehovali 
in the matter of Peor : and there was a plague among the congre- 
gation of Jehovah. " Now, therefore, kill every male among the 
little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man, by lying 
with a male. ^^ But all the little ones among the women, that have 
not known the lying with a male, keep alive for yourselves. '^ And 
you, encamp ye without the camp, seven days, whosoever hath 
killed any sou], and whosoever hath touched awz/ slain, purify your- 
selves and your captivity, in the third day, and in the seventh da^^ 
^° And purify every garment, and every instrument of skin, and 
every work of goat's f hair, J and every instrument of wood. 

^' And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of the army which 
went to the war. This is the ordinance of the law, which Jehovah 

is yet observed to have been often angry for 
tiie Lord's cause, as is noted on Num. xii. 
3. And lie was wroth with the officers, be- 
cause upon them lay the charge to direct and 
govern the people in the ways of God. Com- 
pare Acts XX. 28 ; 1 Pet. v. 2, 3 ; Rev. ii. 
1 — 5, &c. The battle of the war,] The 
battle ray (oi' host) of the war : the first word 
signifieth warfare, at it is orderly set in array ; 
the second meaiieth the war, fight, or com- 
bat with the enemy 

Ver. 16. — The word of Balaam,] The 
doctrine of Balaam, as Rev. ii. 14 ; oi-, (as 
the Chald, expoundeth it) the counsel of Ba- 
laam ; having reference to that counsel inti- 
mated, Num. xxiv. 14. A cause to com- 
mit,] Or, an occasion to commit (Heb. to 
give) a trespass by fornication and idolatry, 
Num. XXV. 1 — 3. The Gr. translateth to 
revolt and to despise the word of the Lord. 
The matter,] Heb. the word ; in Gi-. de- 
cause of Phogor : see Num. xxv. 3, 18. 

Ver. 17. — Known man by lying with 
A male,] The latter explaineth the former, 
which sometime is used alone in the same 
meaning, as in Gen. iv. 1 ; Luke i. 34. Af- 
ter it is said, known the lying with a male : 
the like phrases are in Judg. xxi. 11, 12. 

Ver. 19. — Seven days,] For so long did 
the pollution by the dead continue. Num. xix. 
11. Any son Lj^ThaX is, any perso7i. Pn- 
RiFY,] With the water of separation, ver. 
23 ; the law whereof was given in Num. xix. 
Your captivity,] That is, your captives, or 
prisoners, as in ver. 12. The Jews hold, 
that the heathens are not polluted by the 
dead, or with other like legal uncleanness, as 
is noted on Num. xix. 14. But in this case, 
when heathens are captived by Israelites, 
and so become their lawful possession, they 

are unclean, and to be purified by proportion 
from the law in Gen. xvii. 12, 13. Where- 
upon Jarchi here saith, " yourselves and 
your captivity, not that heathens do receive 
uncleanness, and need to be sprinkled ; but 
as you the children of the covenant, so your 
captives also which come into the covenant, 
and are unclean, have need to be sprinkled." 
And in the seventh day,] According to 
the law in Num. xix. 19 ; the signification 
whereof is showed there. 

Ver. 20. — Every garment,] Or, every 
cloth : the word implieth not only garments 
for man's body, but clothes for other use ; as 
in Num. iv. C — 8. Instruments,] Or ves- 
sel of his ; whatsoever is made of the skin of 
any beast : so after, every instriiment (or ves- 
sel) of wood. Work of goat's hair,] That 
is, thing viade of goat's hair : the word hair 
may here be understood, as in Exod. xxv. 
4 ; some add, of goat's skins, it may also 
mean any other part, as Sol. Jarchi here 
saith, it implieth any instrument " of the 
horns, and of the hoofs, and of the bones." 

Ver. 21. — Which went,] That is, which 
had gone ; Heb. ivhich came : wherefore it 
may also be Englished, which came from the 
battle : so the Gr. here translateth it ; and so 
the Heb. word which usually signifieth to, is 
by the Holy Spirit in Gr. translated yrow or 
out of, as in Rom. xi. 26; from Is. lix. 20. 
See the like noted on Gen. xxxvi. 6. The 
ordinance,] Or, the statute of the law ; 
which the Gr. calleth Dicaiorna, that is, the 
just ordinance or righteous statute of the law. 
The same word Paul useth in Rom. ii. 26, 
' if the uncircumcision (that is, the uncir- 
cumcised Gentile) keep the ordinances (or 
righteous statutes) of the law ;' and in Rom. 
viii. 4, ' that the ordinance (the righteous sta- 



commanded Moses. ^" Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, th*^ 
iron, t]ie tin, and tlie lead ; ^^ Every thing that goeth through the 
fire, ye shall make it pass through the fire, and it shall be clean ; 
nevertheless, it shall be purified with the wafer of separation : and 
every thing that goeth not through the fire, ye shall make pass 
through the water. ^* And ye shall wash your clothes in the 
seventJi day, and ye shall be clean ; and afterward ye shall come 
into the camp. 

^^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ^® Take thou the sum 
of the booty of tlie captivity, of man, and of beast ; thou, and 
Eleazar the priest, and the heads of the fathers of the congregation. 
^^ And divide the booty into two parts, between them that took 
upon tliem the war, who went out to battle, and between all the 
congregation. ^^ And levy a tribute unto Jehovah, of the men of 

tute) of the law might be fulfilled in us.' 
So ill Heb. ix. 1, ' ordinances of divine ser- 
vice.' Here Eleazar the priest declareth to 
the people the law which God had command- 
ed Moses ; as it was generally the duty of 
priests and Levites to teach Jacob God's 
judgments, and Israel his law, Deut. xxxiii. 
8, 10; Hag. ii. 11, 12; Mai. ii. 7. More- 
over the heifer, with whose ashes the purify- 
ing water was prepared, was expressly given 
to Eleazar, Num. xix. 3, &c. 

Ver. 23. — That goeth through the 
FIRE,] That is, will, or may abide the fire, 
and not be consumed therewith. Or, that 
Cometh in the fire. And it shall be,] Or, 
that it may be clean. Water of separa- 
tion,] 111 Gr. water of purification : the wa- 
ter mentioned in Num. xix. 9; which was 
to be sprinkled upon the vessels with hyssop, 
Num. xix. 18 ; after they had passed through 
the fire. Goeth not through the fire,] 
That will not abide the fire, or cometh not in 
the fire. This latter, some of the Heb. ex. 
positors (as Jarchi and Thargum Jonathan) 
do follow, and understand by things that come 
in the fire, such vessels and instruments as 
are used at the fire, kettles, spits, and the 
like: and by things that come not in the fire, 
they understand cups, platters, and such like. 
But the former seemeth best. Through 
THE water,] To be washed therewith, and 
not sprinkled only with that water of separa- 
tion. Num. xix. By this passing through 
fire and water, the vessels had a legal purifi- 
cation from their ceremonial uncleanness ; to 
signify that the creatures are sanctified unto 
our use ' by the word of God and prayer.' 1 
Tim. iv. 4, 5. And sometime by vessels 
the Scripture signifieth men ; and by their 
passing through fire and water, their cleans- 
ing from corruption by afllictions, and through 
the grace and Spirit of Christ: as, * I will 

gather you into the midst of Jerusalem, as 
they gather silver, and brass, and irtn, and 
lead, and tin, into the midst of the furnace, 
to blow the fire upon it, to melt it, so will I 
gather you in mine anger,' &c. Ezek. xxii. 
19 — 22. 'And, in a great house there are 
not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of 
wood and of earth ; and some to honour, and 
some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge 
himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto 
honour, sanctified, and meet for the master's 
use,' &c. 2 Tim. ii. 20, 21. Again, 'thou 
hast tried us as silver is tried, &c. we went 
through fire, and through water,' Ps. Ixvi. 
10, 12. See also Zech. xiii. 9 ; Mai. iii. 3. 

Ver. 26, — The sum,] Heb. the head, that 
is, the sum or count, as the Gr. and Chald. 
expound it: see Num. i. 2. So after in ver. 

Ver. 27. — Into two parts] Or, into 
halfs: Heb. divide (or half the booty. The 
war and victory being the Lord's, he divideth 
the prey at his pleasure, half to the twelve 
thousand soldieis, and half to the congrega- 
tion who went not out to war. So David 
made it an ordinance in Israel, ' as his part 
is that goeth down to the battle, so shall his 
part be that tarrieth by the stufl": they shall 
part alike,' 1 Sam. xxx. 24, 25. And to 
the waniors of the two tribes and the half 
that ftught against the Canaanites, Joshua 
said, ' divide the spoil of your enemies with 
your brethren,' Josli. xxii. 8. 

Ver. 28. — And levy,] Or, and heave up, 
which the Gr. and Chald. translate, and se- 
parate a tribute to the Lord : by this homage 
and tribute, they were to acknowledge tlie 
victory to be of God, and to show their thank- 
fulness for his salvation. So David dedicat- 
ed unto the Lord, silver and gold, of all na- 
tions which he had subdued, 2 Sam. viii. 11, 
12. And Esaias prophesieth, ' in that time 



war whicli went out to battle, one soul of five hundred ; of the 
men, and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep, ^s Qf 
their half shall ye take it, and thou shalt give it unto Eleazar the 
priest, for an heave -offering of Jehovah. ^' x\nd of the sons of 
Israel's half, thou shalt take one portion of fifty, of the men, of the 
beeves, of the asses, and of the sheep, of all beasts : and thou shalt 
give them unto the Levites, wliich keep the charge of the taberna- 
cle of Jehovah. ^' And Moses and Eleazar the priest did, as Jeho- 
vah connnanded Moses. ^^ And the booty, the residue of the prey, 
vi^hich the people of the army had made prey of, was six hundred 
tliousand, and seventy thousand, and five thousand sheep. ^^ And 
seventy and two thousand beeves. ^* And sixty and one thousand 
asses. ^' And souls of mankind, of the women which had not 
known the lying with male, all the souls were two and thirty thou- 
sand. ^® And the half, which was the portion of them that went 
out to war, was, the number of sheep, three hundred thousand, and 
thirty thousand, and seven thousand, and five hundred. ^' And 
Jehovah's tribute of the sheep was six Imndred seventy and five. 
'^ And the beeves were six and thirty thousand ; and Jehovah's tri- 
bute of them was seventy and two, ^^ And the asses were thirty 

shall a present be brought unto the Lord of 
hosts, of a people scattered and peeled.' &c. 
Is. xviii. 7. One soul of five hundred,] 
By soul is here meant person of mankind, 
and living body of beasts, as after is explain- 
ed. And as the twelve thousand soldiers 
had much more of the spoil, considering their 
small number, than the other many thousands 
of the congregation ; so their tribute to the 
Lord was much less by proportion, they giv- 
ing but the five hundredth part, when the 
congregation gave the fiftieth, ver. 30. God 
requireth less of them, as their labour, ser- 
vice, and jeopardy of their lives, had been 
greater than their brethren's. 

Ver. 29. — Unto Eleazar,] The Lord, 
who was the inheritance of the priests and 
Levites, Deut. xviii. 1, 2 ; and had given 
them the ordinary heave-ofl'erings which the 
Israelites offered unto him, Num. xviii. 19; 
giveth them also this extraordinary tribute 
which was levied for him. So Abram gave 
to Melchisedek the priest, the tithe of the 
spoil which he had gotten in war. Gen. xiv. 
20. And as the Levites had the tribes in 
Israel, and the priests had but a tenth of 
those tithes, Num. xviii. 21, 24, 26, 28, so 
is there here a like proportion allotted, while 
the Levites had the fiftieth part, ver. 30 ; 
and the priests but the five hundredth. 

Ver. 30. — One portion of fiftv,] Or, 
one taken (or detained) of fifty : so in ver. 
47. Of the sheep,] Or, of the flock -beasts, 
that is, of sheep and of goats, for both these 

are implied under the name flock; as in Lev. 
i. 10. Of all beasts] That is, ofallinan- 
ner of beasts : but this seemeth to be meant 
of the beasts fore-named only, and not of 
camels, or other unclean beasts ; because in 
the particular sums after rehearsed, ver. 32 — 
39, there are no unclean but asses only spoken 
of. Chazkuni here saith, " if thou ask why 
God commanded not to take a tribute of the 
camels, seeing there were many camels there, 
as it is written in the war of Gideon, (against 
the Midianites,) their camels were without 
number, Judg. vi. 5; vii. 12; the answer 
is, the scripture mentioneth those only where- 
of they took the tribute ; * and they took no 
tribute of unclean beasts, save of asses, be- 
cause they are sanctified by the firstling of the 
ass,'" Exod. xiii. 13; xxxiv. 19,20. Which 
keep the charge,] Or, observe the observa- 
tion, keep watch and do the service: seethe 
notes on Num. xviii. 5. 

Ver. 32. — The residue of the prey,] 
The cattle (whose numbers follow) are call- 
ed the residue or remainder, either because 
some had been slain for the soldiers to eat, 
or in respect of the gold and silver and other 
such spoils, whereof there was no tribute 

Ver. 33. — Seventy and two thousand,] 
That is, seventy thousand and two thousand, 
as was explained in the former verse. So 

Ver 35. — Souls of mankind,] Heb. 
soul of Adam, meaning by soul, the persons, 



thousand and five hundred ; and Jehovah's tribute of thcni was 
sixty and one. ^^ And the souls of mankind were sixteen tliousand ; 
and Jehovah's tribute of tliem tvas two and thirty souls. "' And 
Mosos gave the tribute, the heave -offering of Jeliovah, unto Elca- 
zar Uie priest, as Jehovah commanded Moses. ^'^ And of the sons 
of Israel's half, which Moses divided from the men that warred. 
^'' (Now the congregation's half was, of the sheep, tliree hundred 
thousand, and thirty thousand, seven thousand, and five hundred. 
" And beeves, six and tliirty thousand. "* And asses, thirty thou- 
sand and five hundred, ^^ And souls of mankind, sixteen thousand.) 
' x\.nd Moses took of the sons of Israel's lialf, one portion of fifty, 
of man and of beast, and gave (liem unto the Levites which kept 
the charge of the tabernacle of Jehovali, as Jehovah commanded 
Moses. '^^ And the officers which were over the thousands of the 
host, the captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, came near 
unto Moses. ^^ And they said unto Moses, Thy servants have 
taken the sum of the men of war which zvere in our hand, and there 
lacketli not a man of us, ^° Tiierefore we have brought an obla- 
tion _^r Jehovah, what every man hath found o/^ jewels of gold, 
chains, and bracelets, rings, ear-rings, and tablets, to make atone- 

aiid by Adam or mankind, the women, as 
alter is explained. For as at tiie first, both 
man and woman were called Adam, Gen. v. 
2, so the same name is often used for both 
sexes, as here and in ver. 40, 46, 47. 

VeR. 40. Two AND THIRTY,] So the 

^vhole niimber of beasts and girls (which were 
the Lord's tribute out of the soldier's half) 
was eight hundred and forty, which were 
given to Eleazar the priest, ver. 41. 

Ver. 47. — One portion of Firry,] Or, 
one taken of fifty, as in ver. 30. The par- 
ticular sums (as may be gathered by the for- 
mer computation) were six thousand seven 
hundred and fifty sheep, seven liundred and 
twenty oxen, six hundred and ten asses, three 
bundled and twenty souls of young women : 
the whole sum of them altogether, was eight 
thousand and four hundred, which wore taken 
out of the congregation's half, and given to 
the Levites So the whole prize brought 
liome from the Midianites, and kept for the 
use of Israel, was of beasts and women kind, 
eight hundred thousand, and forty thousand: 
out of which the Lord took for his priests 
and Levites, nine thousand two hundred and 
forty. Thus lie enriched his people with the 
spoils of their enemies ; and they in homage 
and thankfulness to the Lord, gave him one 
of five hundred out of the one half, and one 
of fifty out of the other half ; as Abram gave 
one of ten to INIelchisedek the priest of God, 
of all the spoils that lie had taken from his 
enemies. Gen. xiv. 20. 

Vol. H. X 

Ver. 4>t. — Thk officers,] Or bishops, as 
in ver. 14. 

Ver. 49. — In our h.vnd,] That is, in our 
power, under our leading and charge: which 
the Gr. and Chald. translate with iis. There 
LACKETH NOT,] Heb. there is not numbered 
or vuistered, to wit, as wan tin. g or missing: 
for in such musters the number is observed, 
of those that are absent, as of those preserit. 
This was a rare and wonderful mercy, that 
twelve thousand men of Israel should van- 
quish so great a nation of Midian vi'ithoat 
loss of any man's life, whereas commonly 
' the sword devoureth one as well as another,' 
2 Sam. xi. 25. But hereby appeareth, that 
' precious in the eyes of the Lord is the 
dtath of his saints,' Ps. cvi. 15; and a much 
like speech was uttered by our Saviour; ' of 
them which thou gavest me, have I lost none', 
•Icib xviii. 9. Moreover, by this victory, 
God encouraged his people to fight the resi 
due of his battles against the Canaanites 

Ver. 50. — An oblation for Jehovah,] 
Or, as the Chald. explaineth it, the oblation 
of the Lord : in Gr. a gift to the Lord. This 
was a voluntary gilf, wlu reas the former levy 
was commanded, ver. 25, &c. Hath 
FOUND,] That is, hath gotten in this war. 
.Ik\vels,J Or instrrtmcnts, vessels. Atone- 
ment FOR our .souis,] That is, for our lives 
which God hath spared ; and that there be 
no plague amongst us, as Exod. xxx. 12. 
Herein also they might have respect unto 
their bin in sparing the women alive, for 



merit for our souls before Jehovah, '" And Moses and Eleazar the 
priest took the gold of them, every wrought jewel. *^ And all the 
gold of the lieave-offering that they offered up to Jeliovah, was 
sixteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty shekels, of the captains 
of thousands, and of the captains of hundreds. *^ The men of the 
army had taken spoil, every man for himself. ^* And Moses and 
Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands, and 
of himdreds, and brought it into the tent of the congregation, for 
a memorial for tlie sons of Israel, before Jehovah. 

which Moses reproved them, ver. 1 , 17. 
Thus though they found all alive, yet were 
they not proud, neither boasted of their va- 
lour, but gave the glory unto God, and in 
themselves they were humbled in conscience 
of their unworthiness. 

Ver. 51 — Every wrought jewel,] Heb. 
jewel (or mstrument) of work ; that is, cun- 
ningly wrought. So as the matter was the 
best of gold, the form also was the best. 
Chazkuni here saith, " the scripture showeth 
that they brought no broken instrument." 

Ver. 52. — Shekels,] What the shekel 
weighed, see on Gen. xx. 16. Of the 
CAPTAINS,] Or, from the captains; that is, 
Moses took the gold of them, as in ver. 51, 
and 54. 

Ver. 54. — ^The tent,] The Lord's ta- 
bernacle, where it was a memorial for them : 
as the like is spoken of the half shekels 
which the Israelites gave when they were 
numbered, to make atonement for their souls, 
Exod. XXX. 15, 1(5. 


1 . The Reubenites and Gadites sue for their inheritance on that side 
Jordan. 6. Moses reproveth them. 16. They offer him conditions to his 
content. 28. Moses commandeth Eleazar and Joshua to give them that 
inheritance when they had performed the conditions. 3 1 . The Gadites and 
Reubenites promise again to perform them. 33. Moses assigneth them the 
land. 34. They build fenced cities for their wives and children, and 
folds for their cattle. 39. The sons of Manasses conquer the Amorites 
in Gilead, and have it and the villages thereof given them hy Moses for 
a possession. 

* Now the sons of Reuben, and the sons of Gad, had a very 
great multitude of cattle : and they saw the land of Jazer, and the 
land of Gilead ; and behold, the place was a place^^r cattle. ^ And 
the sons of Gad, and the sons of Reuben came, and said unto 
Moses, and unto Eleazar the priest, and unto tlie princes of the 

Ver. 1. — Reuben,] He was Israel's first- 
born of his wife Leah, Gen. xxix. 32, and 
Gad was the first sou of Zilpah, Leah's hand- 
maid. Gen. XXX. 10, 11. To these are 
added some of the sons of Manasses, (ver. 
39, &c.) who was the son of Joseph, the eld- 
est son of Israel by his wife Rachel, Gen. 
XXX. 22, 24. Jazer,] A city taken a while 
before from the Amorites, Num. xxi. 32. 
Gilead,] In Gr. Galaad, a mountain also of 
the Amorites which had many cities; half 

that mount was given to the sons of Gad, the 
other half to the sons of Manasses, ver. 40 ; 
Deut. iii. 12, 13; Josh. xiii. 24, 25, 31. 
A PLACE FOR CATTLE,] That is, 7neet to feed 
and nourish cattle. Therefore God promis- 
ing to feed his people Israel, signifieth the 
goodness of their pasture, by the similitude 
of Bashan and Gilead, Mic. vii. 14; Jar. 1. 

Ver. 2.- — Sons of Gad,] They are named 
before the sons of Reuben, both here and in 



congregation, saying, ^Ataroth, and Dibon, and Jazer, and Nim- 
rah, and Heslibon, and Elealeh, and Shebam, and Nebo, and Boon ; 
* The land which Jehovah smote before the congregation of Israel, 
is a land Jbr cattle, and thy servants have cattle. * And they said, 
If we liave found grace in tliine eyes, let this land be given unto 
thy servants for a possession, bring us not over Jordan. 

^ And Moses said unto the sons of Gad, and to the sons of Reu- 
ben, Shall your brethren go to war, and shall you sit here ? ' And 
wherefore break ye the heart of the sons of Israel, from going 
over into the land wliich Jehovah Iiath given them ? "^ Thus did 
your fathers, wlien I sent them from Kadesh-barnea to see the 
land. ^ For they went up into the land of Eshcol and saw the 
land, and brake the lieart of the sons of Israel, that thei/ should 
not go into the land whicli Jehovah had given them. " And Jeho- 
vah's anger was kindled in that day, and he sware, saying, '^ If 
the men that came up out of Egypt, from twenty years old and 
upward, shall see the land wliich I sware unto Abraham, unto 

ver. C, 25, 29, 31, 33, so it seemeth they 
were first in this counsel and foremost in the 

Ver. 3. — Ataroth, and Dibon, Sec] 
These were places in the country of Sihon 
and Og on the outside of Jordan : there was 
also an Ataroth within the land of Canaan, 
whereof see Josh. xvi. 2, 5, 7. Of Dihon, 
see Num. xxi. 30; Josh. xiii. 9, 17. Nui- 
RAH,] Called also Beth-Nimrah, in ver. 36, 
and Nimrim, Is. xv. 6, in Gr. Nainra. 
This place was given to the sons of Gad, 
Josh. xiii. 27. Heshbon",] The city of king 
Sihon, Num. xxi. 26, given to the Reuben- 
ites, Josh. xiii. 15, 17. Sheham,] Or, Se- 
bam, called also Sibmah, in ver. 38; Josh. 
xiii. 19, in Gr. Sebatua : it was a place of 
vines, Is. xvi. 8, 9; Jur. xlviii. 32. Beon,] 
Called in ver. 38, Bnalmeon ; and in Jer. 
xlviii. 23, Beth-meon ; and in Josh. xiii. 
17, Bethbaal-meon. The Gr. here corru])t- 
eth it Bailian. 

Ver. 4. — Jehovah sjiote,] That is, 
smote or killed the inhabitants thereof, de- 
livering them before his people, so that they 
smote them, Dout. ii. 33, but the victory is 
ascribed unto the Lord. FoR cattle,] In 
Gi'. that 7iourishctli cattle: soever. I. 

Ver. 5. — Bring us not over,] Or, lead 
us not, cause us not to pass over Jordan, to 
wit, for to have possession there. This tlieir 
request (whereat Moses was oflended) might 
seem at this first propounding of it, very 
evil. For, it might argue in them a covet- 
ous mind for their own benefit, which also 
might turn to the injury of their other bre- 
thren. They prevented the time before all 
the land was conquered. Tlicy seemed to 

contrary the word of God, who commanded 
the land to be divided by lot, Num. xxvi. 55, 
which they now would prevent. It might 
imply a distrust in them, of subduing and 
inheriting the land of Canaan, It might be 
a discouragement of their brethren. It ar- 
gued want of love, or a neglect of duty in as- 
sistance. It might be an evil precedent to 
others, who when some part of the land 
should be conquered, might likewise ciave the 
same for their inheritance ; and so great 
trouble and confusion might ensue. 

Ver. 6. — Shall your brethren,] The 
other tribes. In this reproof, Moses teacheth 
brotherly duty, to love their neighbours as 
themselves ; not to look ' every man on his 
own things, but every man also on the things 
of others,' Phil. ii. 4, and that they ought to 
lay down their lives for the brethren, 1 John 
iii. 16. 

Ver. 7.— Break ye the heart,] That 
is, discourage ye, or make ye it to turn; as 
the Gr. translateth, joerwr^ ye the minds. A 
like phrase is of 'melting the heart," for dis- 
couraging, in Dent. i. 28. 

Ver. 8. — Thus nm your fathers,] The 
Gr. expresseth this by a (lUu^liun, did nci 
your fathers thus? So where the prophet 
^aith, ' All these my hand hath made,' Is. 
l.wi. 1, the Holy Spirit turneth it in Gr. 
' Hath not my hand made all these?' Acts 
vii. 49. 

Ver. 9. — Valley.] Or, bourne of EsA- 
col, that is, as the Gr. translateth it, valley 
of the cluster of grapes ; see Num. xiii. 23, 

Ver. 11. — If the men,] That is, surely 
the men, fyr. shall not see : this is an oatli: 



Isaac, and unto Jacob, because they liave not followed me fully. 
'^ Save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, the Kenizite, and Josliua the 
son of Nun, for because they have followed Jehovah fully. '^ And 
Jehovah's anger was kindled against Israel ; and he made them 
wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation was 
consumed that had done evil in the eyes of Jehovah. " And be- 
hold, ye are risen up in your fathers' stead, an increase of sinful 
men, to augment yet tlie burning anger of Jehovah against Israel. 
*' For if ye turn away from after him, then will he yet again 
leave them in the wilderness, and ye shall destroy all this people. 

^^ And they came near mito him, and said. We will build sheep- 
folds here, for our cattle, and cities for our little ones. '' But we 
ourselves will go ready armed before tlie sons of Israel, until tliat 
we have brought them unto their place ; and our little ones shall 
dwell in the fenced cities, because of the inhabitants of the land. 
'° We will not return unto our houses, until the sons of Israel have 

see the notes on Num. xiv. 23. Thenty 
YEARS OLD,] Hel). son of twenty years. 
Followed ME folly,] SAah. fulfilled after 
vie, which the Chald. expounded, fulfilled 
after my fear; the Gr. followed after me : 
see Num. xiv. 24. A like phrase is in 1 
Sam. xiii, 7, where the people trembled after 
Saul, that is, followed him trembling. 

Veb. 12. — The Kenizite,] Of the pos- 
terity of Kenaz, of the tribe of Judah, I 
Chron. iv. 13, 15. 

VEa. 13. — Wander,] This is an explana- 
tion of that phrase, ' shall feed in the wilder- 
ness;' whereof see Num. xiv. 33. The 
generation,] That is, the jneu of the ge- 
neration, as, • this generation,' Matt. xii. 
42, is expoundud, ' the men of this genera- 
tion,' Luke xi. 31. And the consuming of 
the Israelites in the wilderness, is before ob- 
served in Num. xxvi. 64, C5. 

Ver. 14. — An increase of sinful men,] 
Or, a creiv (a multitude) of men sinners: 
that is, bred and brought up of men most 
sinful, which the Chald. expoundeth, disciples 
of sinful men. By sinners, is meant men 
given unto sin: see the notes on Gen. xiii. 
13; Num. xvi. 38. The burning anger,] 
Heb. the burning of the anger (or of the 
nostril) of Jehovah toward (or against) Is- 
rael. In this sharp rebuke, Moses upbraid- 
eth them with their fathers' sin also, as he 
doth likewise in Deut. i. 26, 27, &c. ; ix. 7— 
24, and signifieth that the renewing of their 
sins, augmenteth wrath upon the children, (as 
Christ also teacheth in Matt, xxiii. 31—36,) 
and upon the whole congregation, as after in 
ver. 15; Josh. xxii. 17, IS. 

Veb. 15. — From after him,] That is, 
fiom following, from obeying him; which 

tiie Chald. expoundeth, /r^w after his fear. 
So Christ calling James and John, they 
* went after him,' Mark i. 20, that is, they 
'followed him,' Matt. iv. 22. Then he 
will yet again leave them,] Heb. a?id 
he loill add again, to leave him; that is, 
God will again leave Israel, who are spoken 
of as one man ; therefore the Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, he will yet again detain them, 
or make them to tarry. But the Gr. seem- 
eth to understand it of their leaving of God, 
saying, " For ye will turn away from him, 
to add again to leave him in the wilderness." 
Destroy all this people,] Or, corrupt 
them, that is, occasion them to sin and so to 
be destroyed : for, corrupting is used both for 
sinning, and for destroying because of sin, as 
is noted on Gen. vi. 13. The Gr. translat- 
cXh, ye shall do wickedly agai7ist this ivhole 

Ver. ] 7. — Will go ready armed,] Heb. 
tvill be armed, making haste, before the 
sofis of Israel: which the Gr. expiaineth, 
we being armed will go in the foreward be- 
fore the sons of Israel. Signifying both 
their ready mind to jeopard their lives in the 
battle, and that by leaving their wives, child- 
ren, and cattle behind them, they should 
be freed from that cumbrance which others 

Ver. 18.. — We will not return,] here 
they promise a continuance with their bre- 
thren in all their wars and troubles unto the 
end: which also they performed, as Joshua 
said unto them, ' Ye have not left your 
brethren these many days, unto this day, 
&c. And now the Lord your God liath given 
rest unto your brethren,' &c. Josh, xxii 
•i, 4. 



inherited every man his inlieritauce. " For wc will not inherit 
with them on yonder side Jordan and forward, because our inheri- 
tance is come unto us on this side Jordan eastward. 

^ And Moses said unto them, If ye will do this thing, if ye will 
go armed before Jehovah to war ; '' And will go all of you armed 
over Jordan before Jehovah, until he liave driven out his enemies 
from before him. ^ When the land is subdued before Jehovah, 
then afterward ye shall return, and ye shall be guiltless before Je- 
hovah, and before Israel ; and tliis land sliall be yours for a posses- 
sion before Jehovah. ^ But if ye will not do so ; beliold you 
have sinned against Jehovah : and know ye your sin which will 
find you out. ^* Build ye cities for your little ones, and folds for 
your sheep, and do that which hath proceeded out of your mouth. 

^ And the sons of Gad, and the sons of R euben said unto Moses, 
saying, Thy servants will do as my lord commandeth. ^^ Our 
little ones, our wives, our flocks and all our cattle shall be there 

Ver. 19. — We will not inherit with 
THEM,] By taking upon them these condi- 
tions, they free themselves of those evils 
which might justly seem at fu'st to be im- 
puted unto them. For they showed both 
faith in God, and love to their brethren, so 
to go in the fore-front of the battle, with 
their lives in their hands against so many 
and mighty enemies, leaving their weak 
families behind them, unto the Lord's protec- 
tion. And that they would thus do freely, 
without any further benefit to themselves, 
resting contented with their portion now al- 
lotted them. Wherefore Moses changing his 
mind, yielded to their request, upon the per- 
formance of these conditions, ver. 20, &c. 

Ver. 20. — This thing,] Heb. ^/«/« word: 
ill Gr. according to this word. Before 
Jehovah,] The Chald. explaineth it here 
and in ver. 21, and Josh. iv. 13, ' before Ihe 
people of the Lord.' So, 'the help of the 
Lord,' in Judg. v. 23, is in Chald. the help 
uf the people of the Lord. See the notes on 
Num. xxxi. 3. 

Ver. 21 — All of you armed,] Or, 
every armed man of you. Thus things aic 
carried between Moses and them, as if the 
land should be conquered by force of arms: 
but it was lest they should tempt God, by 
neglect of the means; and that under this 
warfare the good fight of faith might be fought 
of Israel. For though they were all bound 
by their promise to aid their brethren, yet 
Joshua took not all, but a competent number 
of them, namely, ' about foi ty thousand,' 
Josh. iv. 12, 13, which were much fewer 
than all the men of war in the two tribes of 
Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Ma- 
iiasses, as appeareth by the last muster in 

Num. xxvi. 2, 7, 18, 31. It seemeth the 
residue ■were left behind, to keep their coun- 
try and families: or, God would not have all 
go to war, that the victory might appear to 
be his, as the church after acknowledgeth to 
his praise, in Ps. xliv. 2 — 4, &c., and lest 
Israel should vaunt themselves against him, 
saying, ' INIine own hand hath saved me:' as 
in Judg. vii. 2. 

Ver. 22. — Before Jehovah,] In Chald. 
before the people of the Lord, as in ver. 20. 
So again in ver. 27, 29, 32. Guiltless 
jiEKORE Jehovah,] Or, from Jehovah, and 
from Israel, that is, innocent and free from 
being punished by the Lord and his people. 
So in 2 Sam. iii. 28. A possession before 
Jehovah,] Hereby is signified the Lord's ap- 
probation, and so their just possession of the 
country, as being given them not by Moses 
only, (as in ver. 33,) but by the Lord, 
as he after saith, ' Jehovah your God hath 
given you this land to possess it/ Deut. iii. 

Ver. 23 — Sinned against Jehovah,] 
Or, u7ito Jehovah; which the Gr. and Chald. 
translate, before the Lord. Your sin,] 
Hereby may be meant both the guiltiness 
and the punishment: see the notes on Lev. 
xxii. 9. Which will find vou,] Or, that 
it will find you out, that is, will come upon 
you; being referred to the punishment: see 
Gen. xliv. 34. The Gr. translateth, and ye 
shall know your sin, when evils shall over- 
take (or come upon) you. So the people a'- 
knowledge in their alUictions, ' Our sins tes- 
tify against us; for our transgressions arc with 
u^, and our iniquities we know them,' Is, 
lix. 12. 

Vfm. 25 — Said,] Heb, he said, signifying 


in the cities of Gilead. ^' But thy servants will pass over every- 
one armed for war before Jeliovah to battle, as my lord speaketh. 

^* So concerning them, Moses commanded Eleazar the priest, 
and Josliua the son of Nun ; and the heads of the fathers of the 
tribes of the sons of Israel. ^' And Moses said unto them, If the 
sons of Gad, and the sons of Reuben, will pass with you over Jor- 
dan, every juan armed to battle before Jehovah ; and the land shall 
be subdued before you : then ye shall give unto them the land of 
Gilead for a possession. ^° But if they will not pass over with you 
armed, then they shall have possessions among you in the land of 

^' And the sons of Gad, and tlie sons of Reuben, answered, say- 
ing. As Jehovali Iiath spoken unto thy servants, so will we do. 
^^ We will pass over armed before Jehovah into the land of Canaan j 
and the possession of our inheritance on tliis side Jordan, shall be 
ours. ^^ And Moses gave unto them, unto the sons of Gad, and 
unto the sons of Reuben, and unto half the tribe of Manasses the 
son of Josepli, the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, and 
the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, the land with the cities thereof 
in the coasts, the cities of the land round about. 

^* And the sons of Gad built Dibon, and Ataroth, and Aroer. 
^' And Atroth, Shophan, and Jazer, and Jogbehah. ^^ And Beth- 
Nimrah, and Beth-Haran, fenced cities, and folds Jbr sheep. 
^'^ And the sons of Reuben built Heshbon, and Elealeli, and Kirja- 
thaim. ^^ And Nebo, and Baal-Meon, (the names being changed) 
and Sibmah : and they called by names, the names of the cities 

their joint consent to speak as one man in 12. With the cities thereof in the 

this repetition of their promise. coasts,] Or, as the Gr. translateth, a7id the 

Ver. 29. — Then ye shall give,] Moses cities with the coasts thereof. The Heb. 

giveth them not the inheritance, but upon preposition lamed, is often in Gr. translated 

condition, if they with their brethren should and, witli good sense, as in Gen. i. 6; ii. 3; 

subdue the land : which was not done under Exod. xvii. 19; Lev. viii. 12; xvi. 21 

his ministry, but under Eleazar and Joshua, Num. ix. 15; xxxiii. 2. 
the types of Christ. A figure that the law Ver. 34.— Built Dibon,] That is, rc- 

should make nothing perfect, but the bringing paired and fortified these cities, which had 

in of a better hope, Heb. vii. 19. been partly ruined before in the conquest, or 

Ver. 32. — Shall be ours,] Or, that it fallen into decay. So in ver. 37. 
may be ours: Heb. with us, that is, remain Ver. 38. — The names being changed,] 

with us as our own. So in Ps. xii. 6, ' our Ov, being turned in name: which seemeth 

lips are with us,' that is, are ours. to be in respect of the former idolatry where - 

Ver. 33. — Half the tribe of Manas- to by name they were dedicated: for Nebo 

SES,] There is no mention of these before, and Baal were the names of false gods. Is. 

among them that sued for inheritance: but xlvi. I; Judg. vi. 31, which the Lord would 

because the sons of Manasses showed their not have to be mentioned, Exod. xxiii. 13. 

faith and valour in conquering Gilead, ver. And thus the Hebs. (as Sol. Jarchi here) ex- 

S9, tlierefore the Lord by Moses giveth them plain it, saying, "They were idolatrous 

a possession there. And of Machir the son names, and the Amorites had called their 

of Manasses, it is said, 'Because he was a cities by the names of their idols; but the 

man of war, therefore he had Gilead and sons of Reuben turned their names to other 

Bashan,' Josh. xvii. 1. This half tribe had names." They called by names,] That 

also their inheritance given them upon like is, by other names for the cause fore-men. 

condition as tlie former two tribes. Josh. iv. tioned: the Gr. translateth, they named by 

CHAP. XXX 1 1 1. 


whicli they buildcd. ^^ And the sons of Machir, tlie son of Ma- 
nasses, went to Gilead and took it, and dispossessed the iVmorite 
which was in it. ^^ And Moses gave Gilead unto Macliir the son 
of Maiiasses, and he dwelt therein. *' And Jair the son of Ma- 
nasses, went and took the villages, and called them the villages of 
Jair. *'^ And Nobali went and took Kenath, and the daughters 
thereof, and he called it Nobah, after his own name. 

their names : so it accordeth with ver. A'i, 
where Nobali liaving taken Kenath, called it 
Nobah by his own name. 

Vek. 40.— Gave Gilead,] To wit, half 
of mount Uilead, for the other half was given 
to the sons of Reuben and Gad, Dent. iii. 
12, 13. Unto Machir,] Seeing Machir 
was the fnst-born of Manasses, Josh. xvii. 1, 
and Machir's sons were borne upon Joseph's 
knees, Gen. 1. 23, it is not likely that iVIa- 
chir himself was now alive, but that his pos- 
terity are called here by their father's name; 
and this is usual throughout the scriptures, to 
give the father's name unto the children. 

Ver. 41. — Jair the son of Manasses,] 
Jair was the son of Hezron the son of Judah 
by the father's side, and the son of Machir 
the son of Manasses by his mother, 1 Chron. 
ii. 21, 22, and taking these villages with the 
other Manassites, he is here reckoned of that 
tribe. So elsewhere some of the priests are 
called the sons of Barziliai, ' which took a 
wife of the daughters of Barziliai the Qilead- 
ite, and was called after their name,' Ezra ii. 
61. The villages of Jair,] In Heb. Ha- 
vot/i Jair. There was also one Jair son of 

Segub, who had ' three and twenty cities in 
the land of Gilead,' 1 Chron. ii. 22, and ano- 
ther Jair of the tribe of Manasses, who was 
judge of Israel twenty years: he had thirty 
sons, and they had thiity cities in the land of 
(iilead, which were also called Havoth-Jair, 
Judg. X. 3, 4. 

Ver. 42. — The daughters,] That is, 
the towns or villages, as is noted on Nnm. 
xxi. 25. So again in 1 Chron. ii. 23, 
These two tribes and an half, as they were 
the first of all Israel that had their inheri- 
tance assigned them, so were they of the first 
that for their sins were carried captives out 
of their land, 2 Kings xv. 29. For 'they 
transgressed against tlie God of their fathers, 
and went a whoring after the gods of the 
people of the land, whom God destroyed be- 
fore them. And the God of Israel stirred up 
the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the 
spirit of Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria: 
and he carried them away, even the Reu- 
benites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe 
of Manasses, and brought them unto Halah, 
and Habor, and Mara, and to the river Gozan, 
unto this day,' 1 Chron. v. 25, 2G. 

CHAP. XXX 1 1 1. 

1 . Two and forty journeys of the Israelites through tlie wilderness, 
from Egypt to Jordan. 50. A commandment to destroy the Canaanites 
and their monuments of idolatry. 54. The land must he divided by lot. 

3 33 

These are the journeys of the sons of Israel, Avhich went forth 
out of the land of Egypt by their armies, by tlie hand of Moses and 

SEE Here beginneth the forty-third lec- 
ture of the law, called the journeys: see Gen. 

Ver. 1. — The joornevs,] Or, the re- 
niovings, to wit from place to place, which 
was a sign of their inisettled estate, as not 
being yet come unto their rest, Deut. xii. 

9. Figuring tlie inistayedness of the church 
under Moses' law, otherwise than under the 
gospel of Christ, where 'we which have be- 
lieved do enter into rest,' Heb. iv. 3. Of 
which unmovable state it is prophesied, 
• look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities, 
thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habita- 
tion, a tabernacle that shall not he taken 



Aaron. ^ And Moses wrote their goings out, according to their 
journeys at the mouth of Jehovah : and these are their journeys ac- 
cording to their goings out. ' And they journeyed from Rameses, 
in the first month, in the fifteentli day of the first month, on the 
morrow after the passover, the sons of Israel went out with an 
liigh hand, in the eyes of all the Egyptians. And the Egyptians 
buried tliose whicli Jeliovali had smitten among them, every first- 
born : upon their gods also Jeliovah executed judgments. And 
the sons of Israel journeyed from Rameses, and encamped in Suc- 
coth. ^ And they journeyed from Succoth, and encamped in 
Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness. ^ And they jour- 
Jieyed from Etham, and turned again unto Pi-hahiroth, which is 
before Baal-zephon, and they encamped before Migdol. * And 
tliey journeyed from before Hiroth, and passed througli the midst 
of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days journey in the 

down, not one of the stakes thereof shall ever 
be removed, neither shall any of the coids 
thereof be broken,' Is. xxxiil. 20. Tlie com- 
plement hereof is showed by the apostle, say- 
ing, that this word, ' yet once more,' signifi- 
eth the removing of those things that are 
shaken, as of things that are made ; that those 
things which cannot be shaken may remain: 
and tliat we receive a kingdom which can- 
not be moved,' Heb. xii. 27, 28. And as 
here Moses reckoneth forty two journeys from 
Egypt to the river Joidan, over which Joshua 
led them into Canaan: so the apostle fin 
Matt, i.) reckoneth two and forty generations 
from Abraham unto Christ, by whom we 
have entrance into tlie kingdom of God. 
With their armies,] Or, by their armies, 
being about six hundred thousand men, be- 
side little ones, and much mixed people with 
them, Exod. xii. 37, 38. They are called 
also the Lord's armies, Exod. vii. 4 ; xii. 
41. By the hand,] Under the guidance 
or conduct. This Asaph mentioneth to the 
praise of Gud ; ' thou didst lead thy people 
like a fluck, by the hand of Moses and 
Aaron,' Ps. Ixxvii. 21. 

Ver. 2. — According to their journeys,] 
Or, with their journeys (or reviovings) as the 
Gr. translateth, and their journeys ( or sta- 
tions.) The mouth.] Tiiat is, the ivord or 
comma7idme7it of Jehovah. This may be 
understood either of his commandment to 
write these journeys here, or of their journey- 
ings ; as it is said, ' at the mouth of Jeho- 
vah the sons of Israel journeyed, and at the 
mouth of Jehovah they encamped,' Num. ix. 
18, 20. 

Ver. 3. — From Rameses,] A city in 
the land of Egypt, Gen. xlvii. 11. See also 
Exod. xii. 37. The first month,] Called 

Abib, and Nisan, Exod. xiii. 4; Neh. u. 
1, answering to ihat which we call March. 
Why it was the first month, is showed on 
Exod. xii. 2. The passover,] Whereof 
see Exod. xii. With an high hand,] In 
Chald. with an uncovered head : meaning, 
openly, boldly, powerfully : see Exod. xiv. 8. 

Ver. 4. — Had smitten,] That is, as the 
Chald. expoundelh it, had killed ; and the 
Gi-. all the dead ivhich the Lord had smitten : 
see Exod. xii. 29. Their gods,] In Chald. 
their idols. Some understand it of the beasts 
which the Egyptians worshipped. Judg- 
ments,] In Gr. did (or executed) vengeance : 
see Exod. xii. 12; xviii. 11. 

Ver. 5. — Succoth.] By interpretation. 
Booths : see Exod. xii. 37. 

Ver. 6. — Etham which is in the edge,] 
In Gr. Bouthati, which is a pari of the wit- 
ness : see Exod. xiii. 20. 

Ver. 7. — Pi-hahiroth,] Or, as the Gr. 
and Chald. translate, the mouth of Hiroth : 
for in the next verse, the place is only called 
Hiroth, which seem to be mountains, be- 
tween which was a narrow passage, called 
figuratively a mouth. It was by the Red 
sea, and there the Egyptian? overtook the 
Israelites, Exod. xiv. 2, 9. 

Ver. 8. — The sea,] The Red sea, the 
waters whereof God divided, and led his peo- 
ple through it; but the Egyptians following 
them were drowned, Exod. xiv. 21 — 23, 
&c. Three days' journey,] Heb. three 
days' way. Etham,] Called, the wilderness 
of Shur, Exod. xv. 22. Marah,] That is, 
bitterness, as the Gr. here interpreteth it: 
so called of the bitter waters which the peo- 
ple could not drink, therefore they murmur- 
ed: but God sweetened the waters with a 
tree, Exod. xv. 23, &c. 

C II A p. X X X I II. 


wilderness of Etliam, and encamped in Marali. ^ And tlicy jour- 
neyed from Marah, and came unto Elim : and in Elim were twelve 
fountains of water, and seventy palm trees, and they encamped 
there. '° And they journeyed from Elim, and encamped by the 
Red sea. " And they journeyed from the Red sea, and encamped 
in the wilderness of Sin. '^ And they journeyed from the wilder- 
ness of Sin, and encamped in Dophkali. '"^ And they journeyed 
from Dophkah, and encamped in Alush. '* And they journeyed 
from Alush, and encamped in Rephidim ; and there was no water 
tliere for the people to drink. '* And they journeyed from Re- 
phidim, and encamped in the wilderness of Sinai. '" And they 
journeyed from the wilderness of Sinai, and encamped in Kibroth 
liattaavah. " And they journeyed from Kibroth hattaavah, and 
encamped in Hazeroth. ** And they journeyed from Hazeroth, 
and encamped in Rithmah. " And they journeyed from Ritli- 

Ver. 9. — Palm-trees,] Or, dale-trees : 
see Exod. xv. 27. There,] There by the 
waters, Exod. xv. 27. So God refreshed his 
people with waters, in the dry and barren 

Ver. 10. — By the Red sea,] Of this 
resting place, there hath been no mentioit he- 

Ver. 11. — Of Sin,] A wilderness which 
adjoined unto Sin, a city of Egypt so called, 
Ezek. xiii. 15, 16. Hither they came, just 
a month after their departure from Rameses, 
ver. 3, namely, in the fifteenth day of the 
second month : in this wilderness they mur- 
mured for want of food, and God gave them 
quails, and rained manna from heaven, Exod. 
xvi. 1, 2, &c. 

Ver. 12. — Dophkah,] In Gr. Raphahuh: 
putting R for D through likeness of the let- 
ters in Hebrew: see the notes on Gen. iv. 
18. Of this place there is no mention in 

Ver. 13. — Khv%a,'\\\\Gr. Ailous: nei- 
ther is this station named before, but Moses 
intimated them, when he said, the Israelites 
journeyed from the wilderness of ♦ Sin, after 
their journeys,' Exod. xvii. 1 

Ver. 14.— Rephidim,] In Gr. Rephidein. 
No water,] Therefore the people contended 
with Moses, and almost stoned him: God 
gave them water out of the rock in Horeb ; 
and the place was called Massah and Meri- 
bali, that is, teiitation and contention. Here 
also at Rephidim, the Amalckites fought 
against Israel and were overcome, Exod. xvii. 

Ver. 15. — Wilderness of Sinai,] The 
wilderness of muunt Siuai, Acts vii. 30. 
Thither they came in the beginning of the 
third month, Exod. xix. 1. There God 
gave them his laws, statutes, and judgments, 

Vol. II. 

Exod. XX. and xxi. &c. There they sinned 
and made the golden calf, Exod. xxii. After- 
ward they made the tabernacle, Exod. xxxvi, 
&c. Out of it God speaking, taught them 
how they should serve him with sacrifices, 
&c. Lev. i. &G. He numbered and ordered 
the twelve tribes, both for their encamping 
about the tabernacle, and for their journey- 
ings with it towards Canaan, Num. i. &c. 
And in this place they abode, till the twen- 
tieth day of the second month of the second 
year after their coming out of Egypt, Num. 
X. 11, 12. 

Ver, 16. — Kibroth hataavah,] That 
is, the (/raves of hist, where the peojile lust- 
ing for flesh, died while the flesh was between 
their teeth, and were buried there, Num. xi. 

Ver. 17. — Hazeroth,] In this place, 
Mary with Aaron murmured against Moses, 
and she was smitten with leprosy, Num. xii. 

Ver. 18. — Rithmah.] A place in thewil- 
deruess of Pharan, Num. xiii. 1. It hath 
the name of Juniper, which either grew there, 
or (as some of the Hebs. think) because the 
evil tongues of the spies which were sent 
from thence to view tiie land, (Num. xiii. 
3,) and brought up an evil report thereof, 
were like the coals of juniper, (as in Ps. 
cxx. 3, 4,) and kindled a rebellion among the 
people. Num. xiv. 

Ver. 19. — Rimmon Parez,] luGr.Rheni- 
Iton Phares : by interpretation, the puiiw- 
granate (or the lifting up) of the hre^.ch. 
This place is not named before: Chazkuni 
Ihinketh they came hillier after Gud had 
bidden them turn back into the wilderness 
by the way of the Red sea. Num. xiv. 25. 
So it might have the name of the breach or 
slau"liter which the Amalekites and Canaan- 



mail, and encamped in Rimmon Parez. ^° And they journeyed 
from Rimmon Parez, and encamped in Libnah. ^' And they jour- 
neyed from Libnah, and encamped in Rissah. *'' And they jour- 
neyed from Rissah, and encamped in Kelielatliali. '^' And they 
journeyed from Kehelathah, and encamped in mount Sliapher. 
''* And they journeyed from mount Shapher, and encamped in 
Haradali. ^^ And they journeyed from Haradah, and encamped in 
Makheloth. ^^ And they journeyed from Makheloth, and en- 
camped in Tahatli. " And they journeyed from Tahath, and 
encamped in Tarah. ^^ And they journeyed from Tarah, and 
encamped in Mithkah. "^^ And they journeyed from Mithkali, 
and encamped m Hashmonah. ^° And they journeyed from 
Hashmonah, and encamped in Moseroth. ^^ And they journeyed 
from Moseroth, and encamped in Benejaakan. ^'^ And they jour- 
neyed from Benejaakan, and encamped in Horhagidgad. ^^ And 
they jom-neyed from Horhagidgad, and encamped in Jotbathah. 
^* And they journeyed from Jotbathah, and encamped in Ebronali. 
^^ And they journeyed from Ebronah, and encamped in Ezion- 
gaber. ^^ And they journeyed from Ezion-gaber, and encamped 
in the wilderness of Zin, which is Kadesh, ^' And they journeyed 

ites made among the Israelites for their pre- 
sumption, Num. xiv. 44, 45 ; as Perez Uzza, 
in 1 Chron. xiii. 11; and Baal Perazim, in 
1 Chron. xiv. 11 ; were places so named of 
the death of Uzza, and slaughter of the Phi- 

Ver. 20. — Libnah,] In Gr. Lembona : 
some think it to be that which is called Let- 
ban, in Deut. i. 1, 

Ver. 21. — Rissah,] In Gr. Ressan : it is 
not elsewhere mentioned. 

Ver. 22 Kehelath.^h,] In Gr. Make- 
lath : signifieth asiembling . 

Ver. 23. — Mount Shapher,] In Heh. 
Har Shapher; by interpretation, /aeV mount: 
in Gr. Arsaphatk 

Ver. 24. — Haradah,] Or, Charadah : 
in Gr. Charadath : it signifieth trembling. 

Ver. 25. — Makheloth,] In Gr. Make- 
doth : it is interpreted assem.blies or congre- 
gations, and is thought of some to be so rail- 
ed of the mutinous assemblies of Korah, Da- 
than, and Abiram, Num. xvi. 

Ver. 26. — Tahath,] In Gr. Kataath : 
signifying underneath or belou'. 

Ver. 27.— Tarah,] Or Therach ; in Gr. 

Ver. 28. — Mithkah,] In Gr. Mutheka ; 
by interpretation, sweet. 

Ver. 29. — Hashmonah,] In Gr. Asel- 

Ver. 30. — Moseroth,] In Gr. Masur- 
outk; in Eng. Bonds. In Deut. x. C, it 
is called singularly Moserah. 

Ver. 31. — Bene Jaakan,] That is, the 
sons of Jaakan, called in Deut. x. 6, Bee- 
roth Bene Jaakan, that is, the well of the 
sons of Jaakan : though some think that 
was another place. Of one Jaakan we read 
in 1 Chron. i. 42. 

Ver. 32. — Horhagidgad,] That is, the 
hole of Gidgad, called also Gudgod, in Deut. 
X. 7. 

Ver. 33. — Jotbathah,] In Gr. Eteba. 
tha : it was a land of rivers of waters, nam- 
ed also Jotbath, Deut. x. 7. 

Ver. 34. — Ebronah,] Or, Gnabronah, 
not elsewhere mentioned. 

Ver. 35. — Ezion-gaber,] In Gr. Geth- 
sion-gaher, mentioned again in Deut. ii. 
8. It was by the Red sea, where was a 
place for shipping in Edom's land, 1 Kings 
ix. 26; xxii. 4S. Thus Israel had been 
brought back again towards the Red sea, as 
was commanded in Num. xiv. 25; Deuf. 
ii. I. 

Ver. 36. — Zin which is Kadesh,] Or, 
that is, Kades, which the Chald. cailetli 
Rekam. Hither they came in the fir.'t 
month of their fortieth year of their travel: 
and here Mary the prophetess, the sister of 
Moses and Aaron, died. Here again the 
people murmured for water, which was given 
them out of a rock. And at this Kadesh, 
they sent unto Edom for leave to pass throupli 
his country, but were denied it, Num. xx. 
See the annot. there. 

Ver. 37. — In the edge,] By the border 



from Kadesh, and encamped in mount Hor, in the. edge of the land 
of Edom. ^* And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the 
mouth of Jehovah, and died there, in the fortieth year after the 
sons of Israel ivere come out from the land of Egypt, in the fifth 
month, in tlie first dmj of the month. ^^ And Aaron was an hun- 
dred and twenty and tlu'ee years old when he died in mount Hor. 
'° And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, which dwelt in the south, 
in the land of Canaan, heard of the coming of the sons of Israel. 
■" And they journeyed from mount Hor, and encamped in Zalmo- 
nah. " And they journeyed from Zalmonah, and encamped in 
Punon, ^^ And they journeyed from Punon, and encamped in 
Oboth. " And they journeyed from Obotli, and encamped in Ije- 
Abarim, in the border of Moab. " And they journeyed from Ijim, 
and encamped in Dibon Gad. *^ And they journeyed from Dibon 
Gad, and encamped in Almon Diblathaim. ^^ And they journeyed 
from Almon Diblathaim, and encamped in the mountains of Aba- 
rim before Nebo. ^ And they journeyed from the mountains of 
Abarim, and encamped in the plains of Moab, by Jordan, near 
Jericlio. ^^ And tliey encamped by Jordan, from Beth-jesimoth, 
even unto Abel Shittim in the plains of Moab. 

of the land, Num. xx. 23 ; the Gr. translat- 
eth, near the land of Edom. 

Vek. 38. — At the mouth,] That is, as 
the Chald. explaineth it, at the ivord y in Gr. 
hy the commandment of the Lord. Died 
THERE,] Being stript of his priestly garments 
which were put upon Eleazar his son: and 
he died there on mount Hor for his sin com- 
mitted at the water of Meribah in Kadesh, 
Num. XX. 24, 2(5, &c. 

Ver. 40. — King of Arad,] Of whom see 
Num. xxi. 1. Heard of the coming,] 
And fought against Israel, and took some of 
them captives; but Israel by help from God 
vanquished him, Num. xxi. 1 — 3. 

Ver. 41. — From mount Hor,] By the 
way of the Red sea to compass the land 
(if Edom, Num. xxi. 4. Zalmonah,] In 
Gr. Selmona ; which seemeth to be so nam- 
ed of Zelem an imaye, aud to be meant of 
that place where the brazen serpent was set 
up, to heal those that were stung of fiery ser- 
pents, l)ecause they had murmured against 
God, Num. xxi. 6, 6, &c. 

Ver. 42. — Punon,] Or Phunon ; in Gr. 
Phinon ; hereof there is no mention else- 

Veh. 43. — Oi;otii,] Mentioned in Num. 
xxi. 10. 

\'er. 44, — Ije-Abarim,] That is, tiiu 
heaps of Al/arim ; which Abarim weie moun- 
tains, ver. 47. I" the ver. following this 
place is called only /Jh/i, that is, heaps. 
Ver. 45. — Dikon Gai>,] In Gr. Baihon 

Gad, that is, Dibon of the Gadites: Dibon 
was the name of an high place and city, 
whereof see Num. xxi. 30. This Dibon 
was repaired and possessed by the sons of 
Gad, Num. xxxii. 34; and it is so named to 
distinguish it from another Dibon which was 
given to Reuben, Josh. xiii. 15, 17. 

Ver. 46. — Almon,] Or Gnalmon; in Gr. 
Gelmon diblathaim ; of which Diblathaim, 
see Jer. xlviii. 22. 

Ver. 47. — Before Nebo,] The name of 
a mountain, where afterward Moses died, 
Deut. xxxii. 49, 50; xxxiv. 1, 5. 

Ver. 48. — Jordan near Jericho,] That 
part of the river Jordan which is over against 
Jeiicho, called therefore in Heb. Jarden of 

Ver. 49. — Beth Jesimoth,] Which place 
was allotted to the Reubenites, Josh. xiii. 
15, 20; mentioned also in Ezek. xxv. 9. 
Abel Shittim,] The Chald. expoundeth it, 
the plain of Shittim ; it seemeth to have the 
name of the Shittim trees that grew there ; 
as Abel Geramin is the plain of tlie vine- 
yard, Judg. xi. ."^S. The travels of Israel 
through that great and terrible wilderness, 
wherein was ' fiery serpents, anil scorpions, 
and drought, where there was no water,' 
Deut. viii. 15 ; ' which was a land of deserts 
and of pits, a land of drought, and of the 
shadow of death, a land that no man passed 
through, and where no man dwelt,' Jer. ii. 
G; signified the many troubles and afBictions 
through which we must enter into the king- 



^° And Jehovah spake unto Moses in the plams of Moab, by 
Jordan, near Jericho, saying, ^' Speak unto the sons of Israel, and 
say unto them. When ye are passed over Jordan into the land of 

idom of God, Acts xiv. 22. Tlie helps, 
comforts, and deliverances which God gave 
unto his people in their distresses, are exam- 
ples of his love and mercy towards his, who 
comforteth them in all their tribulation, that 
as the sufl'erings of Christ abound in them, 
so their consolation also aboundelh in Christ, 
2 Cor. i. 45. The punishments which God 
inflicted upon the disobedient who perished 
in the wilderness for their sins, ' happened 
unto them for ensamples, and they are writ- 
ten for our admonition, upon whom the ends 
of the world are come,' 1 Cor. x. 1 — 11; Heb. 
iii. 17 — 19; iv. 1, 2. By the names of 
their encamping places, and histories adjoin- 
ed, it appeareth how Israel came sometimes 
into straits and troublesome ways, as at Pi- 
hahiroth, Exod. xiv. 2, 3, 10, &c. ; and at 
Zalmonah, Num. xxi. 4, &c. ; sometimes 
into large and ample room, as at the plains of 
Moab: sometimes to places of hunger and 
thirst, as at Rephidim and Kadesh, Exod. 
xvi. and xvii.; Num. xx. ; sometimes to 
places of refreshing, as at Elim and Beer, 
Exod. XV. 27; Num. xxi. 16; sometimes 
where they had wars, as at Rephidim, Ka- 
desh, Edrehi, Exod. xvii. 8 ; Num. xxi. 1, 
33; sometimes where they had rest, as at 
mount Sinai. Sometimes they went right 
forward, as from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea : some- 
times they turned backward, as from Kadesh- 
barnea to the Red sea. Sometimes they 
came to mountains, as Sinai, Shepher, Hor, 
Gidgad: sometimes to valleys, as Tahath, 
&c. ; sometimes to places of bitterness, as 
Marah; sometimes of sweetness, as Mith- 
kah. The sins which they committed in the 
wilderness, were many and great; as open 
idolatry by the calf at Horeb, Exod. xxxii. ; 
and with Baal-peor, Num. xxv.; unbelief at 
Kadesh, Num. xiv. ; and afterwards pre- 
sumptuous boldness in the same place ; mur- 
murings against God sundry times, with 
tempting of Christ (as the apostle speaketh, 
1 Cor. X.) Contention and rebellion against 
their governors often: lusting for flesh to fill 
their appetite, and loathing manna the hea- 
venly food: whoredom with the daughters of 
Moab, and sundry the like: that this com- 
plaint is after made of them, ' how oil did 
they provoke him in the wilderness, and 
grieve him in the desert !' Ps. Ixxviii. 40. 
All sorts of persons sinned against God, tbe 
multitude of people very often ; the mix- 
id multitude of strangers among them, Num. 
xi. The princes, as the ten spies, Dathan, 

Abiram, &c. The Levites, as Korah and 
his company. Mary the prophetess. Num. 
xii. Aaron the priest with her, beside his 
sin at Horeb, Exod. xxxii. ; and at the water 
of Meribah, Num. xx. Moses also himself 
at the same place, for which he could not 
come into the land of Canaan, The punish- 
ments laid on them by the Lord for their 
disobedience were many. They died by the 
sword of the enemy, as of the Amalekites, 
Exod. xvii. ; and of the Canaanites, Num. 
xiv. 45; and some by the sword of their bre- 
thren, Exod. xxxii. Some were burnt with 
fire. Num. xi. and xvi. ; some died with sur- 
feit, Num. xi. ; some were swallowed up 
alive into the earth. Num. xvi. ; some were 
killed with serpents. Num. xxi. ; many died 
of the pestilence. Num. xvi. 46; v. 25 ; and 
generally all tliat generation which were first 
mustered after their coming out of Egypt, 
perished. Num. xxvi. 64, 65. God ' con- 
sumed their days in vanity, and their years 
in terror, Ps. Ixxviii. 33. Nevertheless, for 
his name's sake, he magnified his mercies 
unto them and their posterity. He had divid- 
ed the sea, and led them through on dry land, 
drowning their enemies, Exod. xiv. Haled 
them with a cloud by day, and a pillar of 
fire by night continually. He gave them 
manna from heaven daily. He clave the 
rocks, and gave them water for their thirst. 
He fed them with quails when they longed 
for flesh. He sweetened the bitter waters. 
He saved them from the sword of their ene- 
mies. He delivered them from the fiery 
serpents and scorpions. Their raiment wax- 
ed not old upon them, neither did their foot 
swell these forty years, Deut. viii. 4. He 
delivered them from the curse of Balaam, 
and turned it into a blessing, because he 
loved them. Num. xxii. ; Deut. xxiii. 5. 
He came down from mount Sinai, and spake 
with them from heaven, and gave them 'right 
judgments, and true laws, good statutes, and 
commandments, and gave also his good Spi- 
rit to instruct them,' Neh. ix. 13, 20. In 
the times of his wrath he remembered mercy; 
his eye spared them from destroying them, 
neither did he make an end of them in the 
wilderness, Ezek. xx. 17, 22. He gave 
them kingdoms and nations, and they pos- 
sessed the lands of their enemies ; and he 
multiplied their children as the stars of hea- 
ven, and brought them into the land pro- 
mised unto their fathers, Neh. ix. 22, 23. 
Now- ' whatsoever things were written afore- 



Oanaaii j *'^ TJieii ye shall drive out all the inliabitants of the land 
from before yon, and destroy all their pictures, and all their molten 
images ye shall destroy, and quite pluck down all their highplaces. 
" And ye shall dispossess the land and dwell therein : for unto you 
liave I given the land to possess it, ^' And ye shall divide the land 
by lot for an inlieritance among your families : to the many ye 
shall give tliem the more hiheritance ; and to the few, thou shalt 
give them the less inheritance ; wlieresoever the lot shall come 
forth for him, liis shall it be, according to the tribes of your fathers 
ye shall inherit. " But if ye will not drive out tlie inhabitants of 
tlie land from before you, then it shall be that those which ye let 
remain of tliem, shall he pricks in your eyes, and tliorns in your 
sides, and shall vex you in the land wherein ye dwell. ^'^ And it 
shall be, that I will do unto you as I thought to do unto them. 

time were written for our learning, that we 
tlirougii patience and comfort of the scriptures 
might have hope,' Rom. xv. 4. 

Ver. 52. — Ye shall drive out,] Or, 
ye shall dispossess, as in ver. 53 ; in Gr. yc 
shall destroy. So Moses explaineth this law 
to he meant of their destruction, in Deut. 
vii. 1, 2. And they might not be suflered 
to dwell in the land, Exod. xxiii. 33. Their 
I'lCTL'RES,] Or, their imagery tvorks ; which 
the Chald. expoundeth, the house {or place) 
of their worship : see the annot. on Lev. 
xxvi. 1. Their jiolten image,] Heb. the 
images of their meltings, that is, which they 
have molten; vnider which name, graven 
images and all other idols are implied, as is 
showed on Exod. xx. 4. This law is also 
repeated in Deut. vii. 5 ; and Deut. xii. 
Quite pluck down,] Or, destroy, aholish, 
letting nothing remain ; in Gr. take away 
their pil/ars : see Lev. xxvi. 30. 

V^er. 53. — Dispossess the land,] Or, 
disinherit, drive out (as in ver. 52,) the land; 
that is, as the Gr. translateth, destroy the in- 
habitants of the laiid : and so Moses explain- 
eth it in ver. 55. A like phrase is in Josh, 
xvii. 17, ' they could not dispossess (or diive 
out) the cities,' meaning, the inhabitants of 
those cities : so house is for the household, 
or men of the house, Gen. xlv. 11, 18. It 
may also lie translated, ye shall inherit the 
land; and so it agreeth with the words fol- 

Ver. 54. — By lot,] As was commanded 

before in Num. xxvi. 55. Ye shall give 


shall multiply his inheritance : see this phrase 
in Num. xxvi. 54. For hi.m,] That is, for 
any one, or for every one. 

Ver. 55. — Shall re pricks,] Or, shall 
he for pricks in your eyes, and for thorns in 
your sides : which Joshua repeating, saith, 
' scourges in your sides, and thorns in your 
eyes,' Josh, xxiii. 13. And the prophet 
speaking of the enemies of God's people, 
calleth them ' a pricking briar unto the house 
of Israel, and a grieving thorn,' Ezek. xxviii. 
24. By these similitudes the hurt and mis- 
chief is signified, which such wicked people 
would do unto the church in soul and body, 
being a mean to draw them into sin, and to 
afflict them, as it is written, ' they destroy- 
ed not the nations, concerning whom the 
Lord commanded them ; but were mingled 
among the heathen, and learned their works, 
and served their idols which were a snare 
unto them, Ps. cvi. 34 — 36. And the trou- 
bles which they brought upon Israel, are set 
forth in the book of Judges, in the history of 
Jabin, Sisera, and others. So the Chald. 
expoundeth these pricks and thorns thus, 
" they shall be companies taking up arms 
against you, and troops causing you to fall." 
Shall vex you in the land,] And Joshua 
addeth, ' until ye perish from ofl" this good 
land, which Jehovah your God hath given 
you,' Josh, xxiii 13. 




1 . The Lord by Moses declareth unto Israel the borders of the land 
of Canaan which they should inherit. 1 6. The names of the princes 
that should divide the land. 

* And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, ' Command the sons 
of Israel, and say unto them ; When ye come into the land of Ca- 
naan, that is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, 
the land of Canaan with the borders thereof. ^ And your south 
quarter shall be from the wilderness of Zin, by the sides of Edom : 
and your south border shall be the outmost coast of tlie salt sea 
eastward. * And your border shall turn about from the south to 

Ver. 2. — Command the sons of Israel,] 
After the commandment to destroy the Ca- 
naanites, and to root out the monuments of 
their idolatry, the Lord now giveth laws for 
Israel's quiet inheritance of the promised 
land: which first he limiteth out unto them, 
then showeth who should possess it, and ap- 
pointeth twelve men by name to divide the 
possession. And this is by command from 
God, to signify the weight of the precept aad 
care which Israel should have to observe it. 
Shall fall unto you,] To wit, by lot, or 
byline: as, 'he made them fall by line of 
inheritance,' Ps. Ixxviii. 55, and, 'The lines 
are fallen unto me in pleasant places,' Ps. xvi. 
C, and, ' there fell ten lines, (that is, ten 
portions) to Manasses,' Josh. xvii. 5. With 
THE BORDERS,] Or, according to the borders 
or coasts, bounds, limits, or confines. God 
who ' set all the borders of the earth,' Ps. 
Ixxiv. 17, and limited the bounds of all men's 
habitations, Acts xvii. 16, doth here in spe- 
cial and exact manner determine the limits 
ct the holy land, called ' the border of his 
holiness (or sanctuary,)' Ps. Ixxviii. 54, to 
the end that his people might behold his 
bounty and providence in giving them so 
large and good a land: wherefore he after ex- 
postulateth with Isiael, whether the border of 
the neighbouring kingdoms were greater than 
their border, Amos vi. 2. Also that his 
people might not be defrauded of their right 
by other nations which sometimes fought with 
Israel here-about, Judg. xi. 13, &c., as the 
Ammonites ' ripped up the women with child 
of Gilead, that they might enlarge their bor- 
der,' Amos i. 13. Likewise, that Israel 
might rest contented with their limits al- 
lotted them of God, both generally and parti- 
cularly, and 'not remove the ancient bound,' 
Prov. xxiii. 10 j xxii. 28 ; Deut. ii. 5, 9, 
19. And these limits of Canaan figured the 

state and condition of the church of Christ, 
(who rejoiceth that the lines are fallen unto 
him in pleasant places, and that he hath a 
goodly heritage, Ps. xvi. 6,) which therefore 
is showed to the prophet in a vision, like the 
land of Canaan, inherited by the tribes of Is- 
rael, and the borders appointed of their habi- 
tations, Ezek. xlvii. 13 — 15, &c. 

Ver. 3. — South quarter,] Or, south 
corner, which the Cliald. calleth the south- 
wind: as in Matt. xxiv. 31, the four winds 
are put for the four quarters of the world. 
The limits here are set towards all the four 
quarters, south, west, north, and east: the 
order of proceeding is thus ; for the south- 
side he lieginnctli at the east corner, and 
goeth along to the west ; the west-side be- 
ginneth at the south end, and extendeth to 
the north; the northern quarter is likewise 
fiom the west to the east ; and the eastern 
side from the north to the south. But in 
Ezek. xlvii. 15, &c., he beginneth with the 
north, which here is begun at the south, and 
endeth at the west, as here at the east. 
Wilderness of Zin,] Whereof see Num. 
xxxiii. 36. This was the uttermost part of 
the south coastj and fell by lot unto the tribe 
of Judah, Josh. xv. 1. The sides of Edom,] 
Heb. the hands of Edom, that is, ' the bor- 
der of Edom,' as is explained in Josh. xv. 1. 
The salt sea,] Or, 'sea of salt,' so in ver. 
12. This was the lake of Sodom, called also 
the Dead Sea, for that it liad no fish or living 
thing in it; whereof see Gen. xiv. 3. From 
the end of that sea, from the tongue (or bay) 
thereof that looked southward, was their 
south border, Josh. xv. 2. This sea is in 
human writers called Asphaltites, Plin. 1. 5, 
cap. 16. 

Ver. 4. — Shall turn about,] That is, 
fetch a compass; as the Gr. translateth it, 
shall compass, for which in Josh. xv. 3, it 



the ascent of Akrabbim, and pass on to Zin; and the goings out 
thereof shall be from the south to Kadesh-barnea, and it shall go 
out to Hazar-Addar, and pass on to Azmon, ^ And the border 
shall turn about from Azmon unto the river of Egypt, and the 
goings out of it shall be at the sea. ^ And the sea border, you 
shall even liave the great sea and tlie border thereof: tliis shall be 
your sea border. ^ And this shall be your north border : from tlie 
great sea you shall point out for you mount Hor. ® From mount 
Hor ye shall point out unto the entrance of Hamath : and the 
goings out of the border shall be to Zedad. ^ And the border 
shall go out to Ziphron, and the goings out of it shall be at Hazar- 
Enan : this shall be your north border. " And ye shall point out 
for you for the east border from Hazar-Enan, to Shcpham. " And 
the border shall go down from Shepham to Riblah on the east side 

is said, 'it went out.' From the s uth,] 
Or, on the south side • so after. The ascent 
OF Akrabbim,] Or, ' Maaleli-akralibim,' as 
ill Josli. XV. 3, which is by interpretation, 
the ascent (or going up) of scorpions: wliich 
place some think was so named of tlie scor- 
pions which were in the wilderness, Deut. 
viii. 15. The goings out thereof,] For 
this, ill Josh. XV. 3, is said, ' it ascended \\\).' 
It shall go out to Hazar-addar,] By 
going out is meant a ' passing along,' as is ex- 
pounded in Josh. XV. 3, where Hazar-addar 
are two places, Ilezron and Addar; for it is 
said, it ' passed along to Hezron, and went up 
to Addar.' To Azmon,] In Josh. xv. 3, 4, 
there is added, that it ' turned about (or 
fetched a compass) to Karkaa, and passed on 
to Azmon.' This Azmon is in Thargum 
Jonathan called Kesmn; in Gr. ylselmona. 

Ver. 5. — Unto the river of Egypt,] 
It went out unto ' the river of Egy]5t,' Josh. 
XV. 4, tlie river called Sihor, Josh. xiii. 3, in 
Thargum Jonatlian, Nilos. Goings out of 
IT,] Namely, ' of tlie coast (or border,') Josh. 
XV. 4. At the sea,] To wit, the great sea, 
as the Gr. translatetii it, wliereof Moses 
speaketh in th(; ver. following: the Chald. 
calleth it, the fl'est sea. 

Ver. 6. — The sea border,! That is, as 
the Chald. explaineth it, the west border: so 
called because the Great sea lay westward 
from the land of Canaan: see Gen. xii. 8. 
Yoo SHALL even have,] Or, shall be to 
you: which two phrases expound one another, 
as is noted on Gen. xii. 16. So alter in ver. 
7, 12. The Great sea,] So called in res- 
pect of the lesser inland seas, as the Salt sea, 
ver. 3, and the sea of Chinnereth, ver. 11. 
This Great sea is commonly called the Medi- 
terranean sea. And the hokder tiiekf.of,] 
So the Chald. here translatetii it, supplying 
the word thereof: and so it is Englished in 

Josh. XV. 12, 47. The Gr. interpreteth it, 
the Great sea shall bound (or shall limit.) 

Ver. 7. — Vou shall point out,] Or, 
shall mark out, shall design; in Gr. ye 
shall measure out: so in ver. 8, 10. Mount 
Hor,] This is not that mount Hor where 
Aaron died, which was southward in the 
edge of Edom's land, Num. xxxiii. 37, 38, 
but another mountain on the north side of 
Canaan, which in Josh. xiii. 5, is called 
mount Hermon, and near the entering into 
Hamath, as mount Hor is here. And Her- 
mon had many names, as Moses showeth in 
Deut. iii. 9 ; iv. 48. 

Ver. 8. — The entrance of Hamath,] 
Or, the entering into Chamath: this Ha- 
math (in Gr. Emath) is in Amos vi. 2, 
called ' Heniath the great.' See the annot. 
on Num. xiii. 21. Hamath is also men- 
tioned among the northern borders of the 
land, in Ezek. xlvii. IG, 17. Zedad] In 
Gr. Sedada: so in Ezek. xlvii. 15. 

Ver. 9. — Hazar-enan,] In Ezek. xlvii. 
17, Hazar-enon; in Gr. Arsenain. This 
was the nortli-east part of the land. 

Ver. 10. — Shepham,] Called in 1 Sam. 
XXX. 28, Siphmoth: in Gr. Sepphama: by 
Thargum Jonathan, and some others, it is 
called Apainiah. 

Ver. 11. — Riblah,] A city in the land of 
Hamath, where God executed his judgments 
on the kings of Judah, for their sins, by the 
kings of Egypt and of Babylon, 2 Kings 
xxiii. 33; xxv. 6, 20, 21 ; Jer. xxxix. 5, 6. 
East of Ain,] A in by interpretation is ati 
eie, or a fountain, and so is translated here 
in Gr. fountains: and by the old Lat. inter- 
preter, the fountain Daphnis. The side,] 
Or, the shoulder, that is, the shore of the 
sea. The Sea of Chinnereth,] Called in 
Gr. Chenereth; iu Chald. Ginnosur; and in 
the New Testament, * the lake of Gennesa- 



of Ain : and the border shall go down, and shall reacli nnto the 
side of the sea of Cliinnereth eastward. '^ And the border shall go 
down to Jordan, and tlie goings out of it shall be at tlie salt sea : 
this shall be your land with the borders thereof round about. 
'^ And Moses commanded the sons of Israel, saying. This is the 
land, which ye shall inherit by lot, which Jehovah commanded to 
give unto the nine tribes, and to the half tribe. '^ For the tribe 
of the sons of the Reubenites, according to the house of their fa- 
tliers ; and the tribe of the sons of the Gaddites, according to tlie 
house of their fathers, have received ; and half the tribe of Ma- 
nasses have received their inheritance. '^ The two tribes, and the 
half tribe, have received their inheritance on this side Jordan Jiear 
Jericho, eastward toward the sun rising. 

"* And Jehovah spake unto Moses, sayiiig, " These are the 

ret,' Luke v. 1 ; and in ] Mac. xi. 67, there 
is mentioned ' tlie water of Gennesar.' And 
the country adjoining was called ' the land of 
Gennesaret/ Matt. xiv. 34; Mark vi. 53. 
This sea is also named * the sea of Galileo,' 
and ' the sea of Tiberias,' John vi. 1, and a 
lake and sea are the same; as, they ran 'into 
the lake,' Luke viii. 33, that is, ' into the 
sea,' Matt. viii. 32. Of the sea Chimner- 
eth there is mention also in Josh. xii. 3 ; xiii. 
27, and of a city so named, Josh. xix. 35, 
and of the country, Josh. xi. 2; 1 Kings xv. 
20. It is thought to be called in Chald. 
Ginnosar, and Genesar, of princely gardens 
which were in those parts. This sea had 
store of fishes, and from hence our Lord took 
his four first apostles, fishers of Galilee, and 
made them ' fishers of men,' by the preach- 
ing of his gospel. Matt. iv. 18 — 21. On 
this sea Christ walked, and allayed the waves 
thereof, Mark vi. 45, 48, 51, 53; John vi. 
16 — 21, and here he appeared to his disci- 
ples after his resurrection, at what time they 
took at one diaught an hundred fifty and 
three grent fishes, John xxi. 1 — 11. 

Ver. 12. — Jordan,] In Heb. Jarden; in 
Gr. and in the New Testament, Jordanes. 
It was the goodliest river of all Canaan, 
famous throughout the scriptures. The 
waters of this river God did cut ofl", and 
made them stand upon an heap, (at that 
time when Jordan overflowed all his banks) 
until his people Israel passed over it on diy 
ground into the land of Canaan, Josh. iii. 13 
— 17. Elijah and Elisha the prophets di- 
vided also the waters thereof, and went over 
on dry ground, 2 Kings ii. 8, 14. Naaman 
the Syrian washing seven times in it, by the 
word of the prophet, was cleansed of his le- 
prosy, 2 Kings V. 10, 14, In this river our 
Lord Jesus himself, and the nation of the 
Jews, were baptized, Mark i. 5, 9. S.m.t 

SEA,] Or, sea of salt: see ver. 3. Tlie 
river Jordan ran all along by the land of Ca- 
naan on the east side, from the north end of 
the country to the south, beginning at the 
foot of mount Lebanon, (where it is said to 
spring out of two fountains, the one called 
Jor, and the other Dan,) and passed on to 
the lake of Merom, (by the waters whereof 
Joshua vanquished the Canaanites, Josh. xi. 
4, 5, 7, 8,) and from thence it ran and emp- 
tied itself into the sea of Chinnereth fore- 
mentioned: and from that sea it passed along, 
till it ended at the Salt sea, here spoken of, 
where also the limits of the land began, in 
ver. 3. The promised land being thus en- 
closed and guarded with the main sea west- 
ward, the inland seas and the river Jordan 
east-ward, and at each end north and south 
with mountains, fore-showed God's provi- 
dence towards his people for their safe de- 
fence on every side. And so it is written, 
' As the mountains are round about Jerusa- 
lem, so the Lord is round about his people, 
from henceforth even for ever,' Ps. cxxv. 2. 

Ver. 14. — Sons of the Reubenites,] 
Heb. of the Reubenite, and after, of the 
Gadite; which the Gr. and Chald. translate, 
sons of Reuben, and of Gad. Of these two 
tribes receiving their iuheritance, see Num. 

Ver. 17. — Shall divide the land by 
inheritance unto you,] Or, shall inherit 
the land for you, that is, shall take posses- 
sion of the land for you, and in your names, 
and after divide it unto you, as in ver. 29. 
See ver. 18. Eleazar the priest, and 
Joshua,] In Gr. Jesus. These were the 
two chief princes, and both of them figures 
of Christ, who divideth to his people the in- 
heritance of the kingdom of heaven : the one 
figuring him in his priesthood, the other in 
his kingdom: 'fur if Jesus Cthat is Joshua) 



names of the men whicli shall divide the land by inheritance inito 
you : Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun. '* And ye 
shall take one prince, one prince of a tribe to divide the land by 
inlieritance. '' And these are the names of the men-. Of the tribe 
of Judali, Caleb the son of Jephunneh. ^° And of the tribe of the 
sons of Simeon, Samuel the son of Ammihud. ^' Of tlie tribe of 
Benjamin, Elidad the son of Chislon. ^'^ And the prince of the 
tribe of tlie sons of Dan, Bukki the son of Jogli. '^'^ Of the sons 
of Joseph, the prince of tlie tribe of tlie sons of Manasses, Han- 
niel the son of Epliod. ^* And the prince of tlie tribe of the sons 
of Ephraim, Kemuel the son of Shiphtan. '^* And the prince of 
the tribe of the sons of Zabulon, Elizaphan the son of Parnach. 
^'^ And the prince of the tribe of the sons of Issachar, Paltiel the 
son of Azzan. '" And the prince of the tribe of tlie sons of Aser, 
Ahihud the son of Shelomi. '^^ And the prince of the tribe of the 

liad given them rest, then would he not after- 
ward have spoken of another day,' Heb. iv. 
8. The priest had an hand in parting the 
inheritance, to signify that it was an holy 
work, and a shadow of heavenly things. 
Also, that if difficulty did arise, he might 
ask counsel for Joshua, * after the judgment 
of Urim before Jehovah,' Num. xxvii. 21. 
And likewise for that the priests and Levites, 
though they had no inheritance as the other 
tribes, yet had they cities and suburbs from 
among their brethren, Num. xxxv., which 
also the Levites claimed of Eleazar the priest, 
and of Joshua, and the other princes, and had 
the cities and suburbs given them by lot be- 
fore the Lord, Josh. xxi. Thus also the 
truth of God's promise to Abraham was mani- 
fested ; for he had said, that in the fourth 
generation they should return from their af- 
fliction and servitude into the land of Canaan, 
Gen. XV. 14 — 16. And so it came to pass, 
for Kohath the son of Levi was one of them 
that went with Jacob into Egypt, Gen. xlvi. 
11, 26; of Kohath proceeded Amram, of 
him Aaron, and of him Eleazar, 1 Chron. 
vi. 1—3. 

Ver. 18. — One prince, one trince of a 
TRIBE,] That is, of every tribe one priiice. 
See the like phrase in Num. xiii. 2; xvii. 6; 
Josh. iii. 12; iv. 2, 4. To divide the 
LAND i?y INHERITANCE,] Or, to inherit the 
land, as the Heb. properly and usually signi- 
fieth; this latter some of the Hebs., as Jar- 
chi and Kimchi, do retain, expounding it of 
the princes, who instead of the people, and as 
their tutors and governors, first took the pos- 
session in the name of their tribes, and after 
distributed it unto them by their families. 
But the Chakl. here, and again in Josh. xix. 
49, (where tlie like phrase is also used) both 
Vol. II. 

the Chald. and Gr. do there translate it, 
cause to inherit, or divide by inheritance; 
and so Moses explainetli it in ver. 29. 

Ver. 19. — Caleb,] He was one of the 
spies sent to view the land : of whom see 
Num. xiii. 7, 31 ; xiv. 24 ; Josh. xiv. 6, 

Ver. 20. — Sa.muel,] Or, Shenmel : the 
notation of which name, see in 1 Sam. i. 20. 
The Gr. calleth him Salarniel, by a mistak- 
ing from Num. i. 6. Ammihud,] In Gr. 
Semioud: so in Num. i. 10. 

Ver. 21.— Elidad,] In Gr. Eldas the 
son of Chaslon. 

Ver. 22. — Bukki,] In Gr. Bokkor son nf 

Ver. 23. — Hanniel,] In Gr. Aniel sou 
of Soup hid. 

Ver. 24. — Kemuel,] In Gr. Kamonel 
sofi of Saphta?i. 

Ver. 25 — Parnacii,] Or, Pharnach; in 
Gr. Charnach. 

Ver. 26. — Paltiel,] Or, Phaltiel ; in 
Gr. Phantiel son of Oza. 

Ver. 27. — Ahihud,] Or, Achihud; in 
Gr- Achiod son of Seletni. 

Ver. 28. — Pedahel,] In Gr. Phadicl. 
Observe here the order of the tribes, as they 
were named with their princes; 1. Judah, 
2. Simeon, 3. Benjamin, 4. Dan, 5. Manas- 
ses, 6. Ephraim, 7. Zebulon, 8. Issachar, 9. 
Aser, 10. Naphtali. This order agreeth not 
with that in Num. i., nor with that in Num. 
vii., nor in Num. xxvi., nor any before set 
down ; but is thus disposed by God's wisdom 
and providence before hand, as they did after 
inherit the land. Judah is first, having the 
first lot, and he dwelt in the south part of the 
land, Josh. xv. 1, &c. Simeon is next him, 
because his inheritance ' was within the in- 




sons of Naphtali, Pedahel the son of Ammihud. ^^ These are they 
whom Jehovah commanded to divide tlie inheritance unto the sons 
of Israel, in the land of Canaan. 

heritance of the sons of Judah,' Josh. xix. 1. 
The next was Benjamin, who had his lot by 
Judah, ' between the sons of Judah and the 
sons of Joseph,' Josh, xviii. 11. The fourth 
was Dan, for his lot fell by Benjamin's west- 
ward, in the Philistines' country, as is to be 
seen by his cities, in Josh. xix. 40, 41, &c. 
Then Manasses, and by him Ephraim his 
brother, whose inheritances were behind Ben- 
jamin's, as before is noted, Josh. xvi. xvii. 
Next them dwelt Zabulon and Issachar, of 
whose lots see Josh. xix. 10, 17. Last of 
all dwelt Aser and Naphtali in the north 
parts of Canaan, of whose lots see Josh. xix. 
24, 32, &c. And as when they encamped 
about God's tabernacle, they were ordered 
according to their brotherhoods, as is noted 
on Num. ii., so in the dividing and inherit- 
ing of the land we may see the like. For 
Judah and Simeon, both sons of Leah, dwelt 
abreast one by another. Benjamin of Rachel, 
and Dan of Rachel's maid, dwelt next abreast, 
Manasses and Ephraim, both sons of Joseph, 

by his mother Rachel, had the next place 
one by another. Zabulon and Issachar, who 
dwelt next together, were both sons of Leah. 
So the last pair were Aser of Leah's maid, 
and Naphtali of Rachel's maid. Thus God, 
in nominating the princes that should divide 
the land, fore-signified the manner of their 
possession, and that they should be seated to 
dwell as brethren together in unity, for the 
mutual help and comfoit one of another, as 
is noted of the first two, Judah and Simeon, 
who joined together in war against the Ca- 
naanites, Judg. i. 1 — 3. 


UNTO,] Or, to give the sons of Israel inheri- 
tance. According to this commandment, so 
was it fulfilled by ' Eleazar the priest, and 
Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the 
fathers of the tribes of the sons of Israel,' 
who divided the inheritance unto the people 
' by lot, in Shiloh, before the Lord, at the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation,' 
Josh. xix. 51. 


1 . The Lord commandeth Israel to give eight and forty cities for the 
Levites, with their suburbs and measure tliereof. 6. Six of them are to 
be cities of refuge. 9. The larvs of murder, when the man-slayer might 
have the benefit of the cities of refuge, and when he must be put to death. 
31. No ransom might be taken for the murderer that mas worthy of 

^ And Jehovah spake unto Moses, in the plains of Moab by Jor- 
dan, near Jericho, saying, ^ Command the sons of Israel that they 
give unto tlie Levites of the inlieritance of their possession, cities 
to dwell in ; and suburbs to the cities round about them, shall ye 
give unto the Levites. 

Ver. 2.— That they give,] Or, and let 
them give unto the Levites. The Lord hav- 
ing given order in chap, xxxiv. for dividing 
the land unto Israel, commandeth here a por- 
tion to be given out of all their possessions 
unto him, which he bestoweth on his mini- 
sters the Levites, for a part of their liveli- 
hood. The equity of which law, both for 
honouring the Lord with our substance, Prov. 
ill. 9; and for maintaining his ministers, 
Gal. vi. 6, is perpetual. Therefore, speak- 

ing of the church under the gospel, according 
to these legal figures, he saith, ' when ye 
shall divide by lot the land for inheritance, 
ye shall offer an oblation unto the Lord, an 
holy portion of the land,' &c. The holy por- 
tion of the land shall be for the priests, the 
ministers of the sanctuary, which shall come 
near to minister unto the Lord, &c,, Ezek. 
xlv. 1, 4, 5; xlviii. 9, 10,13. Suburbs to 
the cities,] Or, as tlie Gr. translateth, the 
suburbs of the cities : which suburbs are call- 



^ And the cities shall be for them to dwell in, and tlie suburbs of 
them shall be for tlieir cattle, and for tlieir goods, and for all tlieir 
beasts. * And the suburbs of tlie cities which ye shall give inito 
Ihe Levites, shall be from the wall of tlie city and outward, a thou- 
sand cubits round about. ^ And ye sliall measure from without the 
city on the east-side two thousand cubits, and on the south-side 
two thousand cubits, and on the sea-side two thousand cubits, and 
on tlie north-side two thousand cubits, and the city shall be in the 
midst ; this shall be to them the suburbs of tlie cities. And the 
cities which ye shall give uuto the Levites, shall be the six cities of 

ed in Heb. Migrash, that is, a place cast out 
as lying without the walls of the city ; in 
Chald. Revach, that is, a space ; in Gr. 
Proastcia, as lying before the city ; and in 
ver. 3, Aphorismata, as being separated from 
the city ; and in ver. 5, hoviora, covfines or 

Ver. 3. — Their goods,] Or, their sub- 
stance, their gathered goods : see the notes on 
Gen. xii. 5 ; it is a general word, and some- 
times implieth cattle also, as 2 Chron. xxxi. 
3; xxxii. 29 ; xxxv. 7. Beasts,] In Ileb. 
Chajah, which is a general name for living 
things ; but here translated in Gr. four- 
footed beasts. And from hence the Hebs. 
gather, " that they gave the Levites a place 
of burial to livery city witliout those bounds 
(or suburbs:) for they buried not their dead 
in the suburbs of their cities, because it is 
said, 'and for all their living things;' they 
gave it for the living and not for burial." 
Maim, treat, of Release and Jubilee, chap, 
xiii, sect. 3. That they used in Israel to 
bury their dead without the cities, appcareth 
by Luke vii. 11, 12. 

Ver. 4 A thousand cubits,] The Gr. 

saith, ttvo thousand cubits, as it is in the ver. 
following, where the Lord speaketh of two 
thousand cubits: so the thousand cubits here 
mentioned, some think to be meant of holy 
measure double so mucli as the common mea- 
sure, and that the latter do expound the for- 
mer. The Hebs. explain it thus, " the su- 
burbs of the cities are expressed in the law 
to be three thousand cubits on every side, 
from the wall of the city and outward. Num. 
xxxv. 4, 5. The first thousand are the sub- 

east wi7id: see the Notes on Num. xxxiv. 3. 
Sea side,] That is, the west side, as the 
Chaid. saith, the west ivind. Moses useth to 
call the west the sea, as is noted on Gen. xii. 
8. So in Num. xxxiv. 6. 

Ver. fi. — Of refuge,] That city is call- 
ed in Heb. Miklat, of gathering, because the 
man-slayer was there gathered and detained; 
in Gr. Phugadeuterion, a place oi flight iad 
exile; in Chald. Shezabuth, o( deliverance 
&nA preservation. The six cities appointed 
for refuge, were these: Bezer, of the Reuben- 
ites' country, Ramoth in Gilead of the Gad- 
ites, and Golan in Basan of the Manassites, 
these three Moses separated, Deut. iv. 41, 
43; the other three appointed by Joshua, 
were Kedesh in Galilee in mount Naphtali, 
Shechem in mount Ephraim, and Kirjah- 
arba (which is Hebron) in the mount of 
Judah, Josh. xx. 7; the use of these is after 
showed. FoRTT-TWO CITIES,] These with the 
like cities of refuge, are declared in Josh, xxi.; 
how they were given out of every tribe. Of 
the Kohathites, the priests the sons of Aaron 
had thirteen cities. Josh. xxi. 19; the resi- 
due of the Kohathites, had ten cities. Josh, 
xxi. 26. The Gershonites had thirteen 
cities. Josh. xxi. 33, The Merarites had 
twelve cities. Josh. xxi. 40. So 'all the 
cities of the Levites, within the possession of 
the sons of Israel, were forty and eight cities 
with their suburbs,' Josh. xxi. 41. Thus 
Jacob's prophecy of Levi was fulfilled, that 
he should be scattered in Israel, Gen. xlix. 
5, 7. But because of the Levites' zeal for 
the Lord, the curse was turned into a bless- 
ing (as is noted on Exod. xxxii. 29,) and 

urbs, and the two thousand wliich they they were teachers of the law unto the tribes 
measured without the suburbs, were for fields of Israel, Deut. xxxiii. 8,10. Wherefore 

and vineyards." M:iim. treat, of the Release 
and Jubilee, chap. xiii. sict. 2. 

V'er. 5. — Without the city,] By the 
city, the Hebs. understand liere the city with 
the suburbs, that is, the thousand cubits fore- 
mentioned, which were for their cattle, and 
these two thousands more for fields and vine- 
yards, as is before noted. 

East sini;.] Or, east quarter ; in Chah'. 

God gave them cities out of every tribe how- 
belt, whatsoever remained of these cities, be- 
sides the habitations of the Levites, and the 
suburbs forementioned, as the fields of the 
cities and their villages, continued under the 
dominion, and in the possession of the tribes, 
to whom they had been distributed before, as 
the examjile of Hebron given unto Caleb 
showeth. Josh. xiv. 13, 14; xxi, II, \2. 



refuge, which ye shall give, for the maw-slayer to flee thither ; and 
above them ye shall give forty and two cities. ^ All the cities 
which ye shall give unto the Levites, shall be forty and eight cities, 
them and their suburbs. ^ And the cities which ye shall give for 
the possession of the sons of Israel, from them that have many, ye 
shall give many, and from them that have few, ye shall give few ; 
every man according to his inheritance which they inherit, lie sliall 
give of his cities unto the Levites. 

® And Jehovah spake unto Moses saying, 

" Speak unto the sons of Israel, and say unto them, When ye 
be come over Jordan into the land of Canaan, " Then ye shall 
appoint for you cities, cities of refuge shall they be for you, that 
the man slayer may flee thither, which smiteth a soul by error. 
*' And the cities shall be unto you for refuge from the avenger, 
that the /«aw-slayer die not until he stand before the congregation 
for judgment. '^ And the cities which ye shall give, the six cities 
of refuge shall be for you. '^ Three cities ye shall give on this side 
Jordan, and three cities shall ye give in the land of Canaan, cities 
of refuge shall they be. '* For the sons of Israel, and for the stran- 

Veb. 8. — Ye shall give many,] Or, ye 
shall multiply to give : so tlie tribes that had 
many cities, and more large inheritances, 
gave the more cities. For out of the tribes 
of the sons of Judah and of Simeon, were 
given nine cities, out of Benjamin four, out 
of Ephi'aim four, out of Dan four, out of the 
half tribe of Manasses two, out of the other 
half tribe of Manasses two, out of Issachar 
four, out of Aser four, out of Naphtali three, 
out of Zabulon four, out of Reuben four, out 
of Gad four. Josh. xxi. 9, 16, &c. 

Ver. 11. — Shall appoint,] Ov prepare, 
as the Chald. explaineth it, in Gr. ye shall 
distinguish (or distinctly separate:) elsewhere 
it is called separating, Deut. iv. 41; and 
sanctifying, Josh. xx. 7. By error,] Or, 
ignorantly, unadvisedly, unawares : the Gr. 
translateth, unwillingly ; this is opened in 
ver. 22, 23; and Deut. xix. 5; in Josh. 
XX. 3 ; it is declared by two words, by error, 
(or unawares), and without knowledge, (oi' 

Ver. 12. — The avenger,] To wit, of 
the blood, as is expressed in ver. 19, and the 
Chald. and Gr. here add the same. Goel 
here Englished an avenger, elsewhere signi- 
fiefh a redeemer, but properly one of the 
same blood and kindred, as Ruth ii. 20; iii. 
9, 12; who, if things were sold, was to re- 
deem them, as Lev. xxv. 25; if blood were 
shed was to avenge it, as in this case. And 
so the Gr. here and usually calleth him Ag- 
ckisteuoti, that is, one near of kin. Of this 
kinsman the avenger, it is said in ver. 19, 

that he should put the murderer to death ; 
see the notes there. Before the congre- 
gation,] VVhen a man had done a murder, 
he fled to some city of refuge, the way being 
always prepared, that he might flee thither 
without hindrance, as is noted on Deut. xix. 
3. Coming thither, at the entering of the 
gate, he showed his cause to the elders of the 
city of refuge, who took him in till he was 
sent after, and fetched home to the city where 
he had done the murder, and there he stood 
before the congregation, Josh. xx. 4, 6; who, 
if they found him worthy of death, they deli- 
vered him to the avenger to kill him ; if not, 
they returned him to his city of refuge, where 
he lived in a kind of exile and imprisonment, 
until the death of the high priest, as after 
foUoweth. See Deut. xix. 12. Before the 
cities of refuge were appointed, the altar was 
a place of refuge, as is probable by Exod. 
xxi. 13, 14. And from that place the Hebs. 
gather, that " the altar was a place of re- 
fuge." Maim, treat, of Murder, chap. v. 
sect. 12. 

Ver. 14. — Three cities,] Which were 
Bezcr, Rarnoth, and Golan, Deut. iv. 41, 
43. And three cities,] Kedesh , Shechem, 
and Hebron, Josh. xx. 7. And if the Lord 
enlarged their coast, and gave them all the 
land, they were to add three cities more, 
Deut. xix. 8, 9. 

Ver. 15. — The stranger,] In Gr. the 
proselyte, meaning him that was not an Is- 
raelite by nature, but by religion. The so- 
.iourner,] That dwelt a stranger in the land 



ger, and for tlie sojourner among them, shall these six cities be for 
a refuge ; that every one tliat smitetli a soul by error may flee 
thitlier. "^ x\nd if lie smite him with an instrument of iron, and he 
die, he is a wiaw-slayer ; the man-slayer shall be surely put to death. 
" And if lie smite him with a stone of the hand, wherewith he may 
die, and he die, he is a wzaw-slayer, the man-slayer shall be surely put 
to death. ^'^ Or, if he smite him with an instrument of wood of tlic 
hand, wherewith he may die, and he die, he is a rnan-slayer ; the 
?Maw-slayer shall be surely put to death. ^^ Tlie avenger of the blood, 
lie shall put to death the man-slayer ; when he meeteth him, he 
shall put him to death. ^° And if he thrust him of hatred, or have 
cast upon Jiim by lying of wait, and he die. '' Or in enmity smite 
him with his liand, and lie die, the smiter shall be surely put to 
death, he is a man-slayer -. the avenger of the blood shall put to 

of Israel, and yet not of their church and re- smote, and of him that was killed, and the 
ligioii, Deut. xiv. 21. These all had bene- place of the blow," &c. Maim, treat, of 
fit by the cities of refuge ; but if an heathen Murder, chap. iii. sect. 1, &c. 
by error killed an heathen, the cities of re- 
fuge received him not, saith Maim, treat, 
of Murder, chap. v. sect. 4. Smiteth a 
SOUL,] That is, kilkth any person ; so ver. 

Ver. 16. — If he smite hiji,J To wit, 
purpuscly and presumptuously, as the pun- 
ishment after showeth. Surely put to 
DEATH,] Or, put to die the death ; Heb. dy- 
ing he shall be put to death; so in ver. 17, 
18, 21. 

Ver. 17. — A stone of the hand,] That 
is, throivn with the hand ; the Gr. translat- 
eth it, a stone otit of the hand ; the Chald. 
a stone that is taken iji the hand. He may 
DIE,] The Chald. more fully explaineth it, 
which is enough for him to die therewith ; so 
in ver. IS. 

Ver. 18. — Wood of the hand,] Gr. o?tt 
of the hand ; Chald. wood taken in the hand, 
which is stifficient for him to die thereby ; as 
in ver. 17. These cautions are here added 
to discern of murders ; the Hebs. explain 
them thus: " he that smiteth his fellow pre- 
sumptuously with a stone, or with wood, that 
he die, they measure the thing wherewith he 

smote him, and the place whereon he smote 

him, to see if that thing were enough to kill 

him upon such a member (of his body) or 

not, as it is written, ' with a stone of the 

hand,' &c., so that it be enough to kill him. 

They measure, also the might of him that 

smote, &c. For iron instruments the law 

gives no measure. Num. xxxv. 16. He is 

to die that killed him, though it were with a 

needle ; and whatsoever is sharp like a nee- 
dle, as bodkin, knife, or the like. He that 

smiteth his fellow without any instrument, 

and killeth him, as with his hand, or his foot, 

&c., they measure the strength of him that 

Ver. 19. — He shall put to death,] 
Or, he tnay put him to death, to wit, after 
he is adjudged to death by the magistrate, 
ver. 12. " If the avenger of blood will not, 
or if he be not able to kill him, or if he have 
no avenger of blood, then the judges shall kill 
the murderer with the sword." Maim, treat, 
of Murder, chap. i. sect. 1. When he 
meeteth him,] Though it be within the 
cities of refuge, saith Jarchi. But this is to 
be understood, after lawful judgment by the 
magistrate ; for the elders of his city were to 
send and fetch him from the city of refuge, 
' and deliver him into the hand of the aven- 
ger of blood,' Deut. xix. 12. Wherefore the 
Chald., instead of meeting him, saith, 
' when he shall be condemned unto him by 
judgment.' So in ver. 21. 

Ver. 20. — Of hatred,] Which is inve- 
terate anger, and inward grudge, differing 
from enmity or open hostility, spoken of in 
ver. 22. * He that hatetli, dissembleth with 
his lips, and layeth up deceit within him,' 
Prov. xxvi. 24. The Hebs. say, " he that 
hateth, if he kill by error (or unadvisedly) he 
is not kept in the city of refuge, as it is said, 
and he was not his enemy, (Num. xxxv. 23,) 
&c. And who is he that hateth ? he that 
for enmity's sake speaketh not ui\to him for 
three days (space.)" Maim, treat, of Mur- 
der, chap. vi. sect. 10. Cast upon hi.m,] 
To wit, any iiistrumcnt, as is expressed in 
ver. 22 ; and so the Gr. explaineth it here. 
Bv laving of wait,] With intent and pur- 
pose of evil, when occasion is ofiered : so 
Saul laid wait (or hunted) for David's soul, 
1 Sam. xxiv. 11 ; the Jews for Christ, Luke 
xi. 54; and for Paul's life, Acts xxiii. 21. 

Ver. 21. — Enmity,] Or, hostility, ill 
will, open and professed. 



death the man-alayev wlien he meeteth him. ^^ But if he thrust 
him suddenly, without enmity, or have cast upon liim any instru- 
ment without laying of wait. ^^ Or with any stone, wherewith he 
may die, without seeing him ; and he hath caused it to fall upon 
him, and he die, and he was not his enemy, nor a seeker of his 
evil. ^* Then the congregation shall judge between tlie smiter and 
the avenger of the blood, according to these judgments. " And 
the congregation shall deliver the man-s\a,ycY out of the hand of 
the avenger of the blood, and the congregation shall restore him 
unto tlie city of his refuge, whither he was fled ; and he shall abide 
in it until the death of the great priest, which was anointed with 
the oil of holiness. ^® And if the maw-slayer going shall go forth out 
of the border of the city of his refuge, whitlier he was fled. " And 
the avenger of the blood find him without the border of the city of 
his refuge, and tlie avenger of the blood shall slay the maw-slayer, 
no blood shall be unto him. ^* Because he should have abiden in 
the city of liis refuge, until tlie death of the great priest ; and after 
the death of the great priest, the maw-slayer shall retui-n into the 
land of his possession. ^® And these things shall be unto you for a 
statute of judgment, throughout your generations, in all your 

Ver. 22. — Suddenly,] Or, unawares, 
and as it were by chance. 

Ver. 23. — With any stone,] That is, 
f/ave smitten him ivith any stone., as in ver. 
17. Wherewith he may die,] In Chald. 
which is siifficient thai he may die therewith : 
see the notes on ver. 18. 

Ver. 25. — Of the great priest,] A fi- 
gure of Christ, called the ' great priest over 
the house of God,' Heb. x. 21 ; and the 
' great high priest that is passed into the 
heavens,' Hcb. iv. 14; 'who is the Media- 
tor of the New Testament, that by means of 
death, for the redemption of the transgres- 
sions under the first testament, they which 
are called might receive the promise of the 
eternal inheritance,' Heb. ix. 15. As the 
high priests, while they lived by their service 
and sacrificing made atonement for the sins 
of the people, especially one day in the year, 
Lev. xvi.; wherein they figured the work of 
Christ for us; so at the high priest's death, 
by releasing such as were exiled for unwitting 
murder, tliere was a shadow of redemption in 

Ver. 26. — Going shall go forth,] That 
is, shall at any time, upon any occasion, go 
forth. So he was not only exiled from hi? 
own city, but confined as a prisoner within 
the limits of the city of refuge. The Hebs. 
say, " he might never go out of the city of 
his refuge, no not though it were for a thing 
commanded, [as to worship at the sol'^mn 

feasts, or the like,] or for to bear witness, 
whether it were in money matters, or to tes- 
tify in case of life and death," &c. Maim. 
tieat. of Murder, chap. vii. sect. 8. 

Ver. 27. — Without the border,] So 
not the city only, but the borders and limits 
of the territories thereof were his refuge. 
" Every city of refuge, the borders thereof 
are a refuge as well as it, &c. and if (the 
avenger of blood) kill him there, he is to be 
killed for him. Notwithstanding though the 
border be a refuge, yet the man-slayer may 
not dwell in it ; for it is said (in ver. 25,) 
' and he shall abide in it ;' in it, (the city,) 
and not iu the border of it." Maim. ibid, 
chap. viii. sect. 11. No blood shall be 
ONTO HIM,] That is, the avenger shall have 
no blood imputed to him; or, as the Gr. 
translateth it, he shall not be guilty, to wit, 
of blood-shed. 

Ver. 28. — Into the land of his posses- 
sion,] Into his own city or village, that part 
of the land which he possessed. It is holden 
by the Hebs. that although by the high priest's 
death " atonement was made for him, yet 
he never returned to the princely state (or 
dignity) that he had (in the city,) but was 
debased from his greatness all his days, be- 
cause that great scandal came by his hand." 
Maim. ibid. chap. vii. sect. 14. Moreover 
they say, •' a man-slayer upon whom sentence 
is past that he shall be exiled, if he die before 
he go into exile, they carry his bones thi- 



dwellings, ^" Every one that smitetli a soul by tlie mouth of wit- 
nesses, the maw-slayer shall be slain ; but one witness shall not 
ansvver against a soul to die. ^' And ye shall take no ransom for 
the soul of the mati-slayer, which is guilty of death, but he shall be 
surely put to deatli. ^' Neither shall ye take ransom for him that 
is fled unto the city of his refuge, to return to dwell in the land, 
until tlie death of the priest. ^^ And ye shall not pollute the land 
wherein ye are, for blood, it polluteth the land ; and for the land, 
there shall be no expiation for the blood that is shed therein, 
but by the blood of him that shed it. ^* And thou shalt not defile 
the land which yc inhabit in, within which I do dwell, for I Jeho- 
vah dwell among tlie sons of Israel. 

ther. And a man-slayer that dieth in the 
city of liis refuge, tliey bury him there; and 
when the high priest dieth, they carry the 
man-slayer's bones from thence unto the se- 
pulchres of his fathers. Ibid. sect. 3. 

Ver. 30. — Every one th.\t smiteth a 
SODL,] That is, who killeth a person, to wit, 
him that is a murderer. By the mouth,] 
That is, by the testimony of three tvitnesses, 
which after is explained ' of two witnesses 
or three witnesses, Deut. xvii. 6; xix. 15. 
See the annot. there. Not answer,] That 
is, not testify, as the Gr. and Chald. trans- 
late it, meaning, to have the sentence of 
death confirmed against him: see Deut. xix. 
15. To DIE,] That is, to cause him to die, 
or, that he should die: see the notes on Gen. 
vi. 19. 

Ver. 31. — The sool of the man-slay- 
er,] That is, the life of the murderer, to re- 
deem him from death. " The judges are 
warned that they take no ransom of the mur- 
derer, and though he could give all the 
wealth that is in the world, and though the 
avenger of blood should be willing to free 
him ; for the soid of him that is liilled, is not 
the possession of the avenger of blood, but the 
possession of the holy blessed (God,) Maim, 
treat, of Murder, ciiap. i. sect. 4. Guilty 
OF death,] Heb. which is wicked, to die, 
that is, as the Gr. and Chald. explain it, 
guilty, or condemned to die. According to 
this phrase, David saith, ' when he shall 
be judged, let him go forth wicked, (that is, 
condemned,) Ps. cix. 7. 

Ver. 32. — For hi.m that is fled,] Heb. 
to flee ; which is explained by Jarchi and 
others, " for him that is fled." In the 

land,] In the land of his possession, as in 
ver. 28. 

Ver. 33. — Polluteth,] Or, impiously 
siainelh, foully deformeth the land. This 
word which Moses liere useth of murder, and 
the prophets after apply unto spiritual whore- 
dom or idolatry, Jer. iii. 2, 9 ; and idola- 
trous blood-shed, Ps. cvi. 38 ; showeth the 
heinousness of this sin, that defileth not only 
him that doth it, but the whole land if it be 
not avenged. Hereupon the Hebs. say, "thou 
hast not any thing concerning which the law 
giveth such a charge, as for shedding of blood, 
as it is said (in Num. xxxv. 33,) ' and ye 
shall not pollute the land,' " &c. Maim. 
treat, of Murder, chap. i. sect. 4. The 
blood of him that shed it,] If it were 
wilful murder; or by the death of the high 
priest, if it were unwilling manslaughter. 
Hereupon it is said, ' a man that doth vio- 
lence to the blood of any person, shall lly to 
the pit, let no man stay him,' Prov. xxviii. 

Ver. 34.^1 do dwell,] The land of 
' Israel was the Lord's land,' Hosea ix. 3; 
and by his dwelling there among his people, 
was sanctified, and called ' the holy land.' 
Zech. ii. 12 ; and though he dwelt most 
specially in his sanctuary there, which after- 
ward was in Jerusalem, Ps. Ixxiv. 2 , cxxxv. 
21 ; yet the whole land was sanctified by his 
habitation therein, which was a reason why 
the people might not pollute it, either with 
blood, or with any other wickedness, for holi- 
ness becometh his house for ever, Ps. xciii. 
5. And for this cause the unclean were to 
be put out of the camp of Israel, in the midst 
whereof God did dwell,' Num. v, 3. 



1 . The inconvenience of the inheritance of daughters is remedied hy 
marrying in their own tribes, lest the inheritance should he removed 
from the tribe. 10. TJie daughters of Zelophehad obey the Lord's com- 
mandment, and marry their uncles' sons. 

^ And tlie heads of the fathers of tlie family of the sons of Gi 
lead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasses, of the families of 
tlie sons of Joseph, came near, and spake before Moses and before 
the princes, the heads of the fathers of the sons of Israel. ^ And 
they said, Jehovah commanded my lord to give the land for an in- 
heritance, by lot, to the sons of Israel : and my lord was com- 
manded by Jehovah to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our 
brother unto his daughters. ^ And if they become wives to any of 
the sons of the tribes of the sons of Israel, then shall their inheri- 
tance be taken away from the inheritance of our fathers, and shall 
be put to the inheritance of the tribe unto whom they shall be ; 
so it shall be taken away from the lot of our inheritance, * And 
wlien the jubilee of the sons of Israel shall be, then shall tlieir in- 
heritance be put unto the inheritance of the tribe, unto whom they 
shall be : so their inheritance shall be taken away from the inheri- 
tance of the tribe of our fatliers. 

^ And Moses commanded the sons of Israel according to the 
mouth of Jehovah, saying, The tribe of the sons of Joseph speak 
right. ^ This is the thing which Jehovah doth command concern- 
ing the daughters of Zelophehad, saying. Let them become wives 
to whom it is good in their eyes, only to the family of the tribe of 

Ver. 1. — The HEADS,] In Gr. the princes, Vee. 3. — Of the tribes,] Of any of the 
that is, the chief fathers, God having de- other tribes, beside their own. Be takek 
signed the limits of the holy land which Is- away,] Or, be diminished, contrary to add- 
rael should inherit, in Num. xxxiv. and ap- ing or putting to, after mentioned: so the in- 
pointed his own portion out of the same, to heritances of this, and of other tribes by like 
be given unto the priests and Levites, Num. accidents might in time be changed, dis- 
XXXV., doth now conclude his laws with an turbed, and come to confusion, contrary to 
ordinance for the settled continuing of the the order before set of God. 
inheritances unto the tribes, as they should be Ver. 4. — The jubilee shall be,] Which 
at first allotted unto them. The occasion of was every fiftieth year, in which the inheri- 
this ordinance is a complaint made by some tances that were alienated to others, were by 
of the Manassites, concerning Zelophebad's the law given in Lev. xxv. to return unto the 
daughters, if they should be married to men first owners; which ordinance also should by 
of other tribes. Gilead,] In Gr. Galaad, such marriages be disannulled, 
of whom see Num. xxvii, 1. Ver. 5. — The mouth,] That is, the word 

Ver. 2. — My lord,] Meaning Moses, for of the Lord, as the Chald. translateth ; in 

to him was the commandment given. Num. Gr. by the commandment of the Lord. So 

xxvi. 52, 53, &c. ; xxvii. 6, 7. And by the answer which Moses gave, was not of 

this title they give honour unto Moses, and himself, but by advice from God: see Num. 

show their obedience; as the scripture noteth xxvii. 5. 

by the like title given unto others, 1 Pet. iii. Ver. 6. — Good in their eyes,] That is, 

6; Matt. xxii. 44, 45. Zelophehad,] In pleaseth them. Daughters are not to be 

Gr. Salpaad: see Num. xxvii. 1, &c. forced to marry with such as they like not: 



their fatlier shall they become wives. ' And the inheritance of tlie 
sons of Israel shall not remove from tribe to tribe ; for every man 
of the sons of Israel shall cleave to the inheritance of tlie tribe of 
his fathers. ^ And every daughter tliat possesseth an inheritance 
of tlie tribes of the sons of Israel, shall be wife unto one of the 
family of the tribe of her father, that the sons of Israel may pos- 
sess, every man the inheritance of his fathers. ® And the inlieri- 
tance shall not remove from one tribe to another tribe, but every 
man of the tribes of the sons of Israel shall cleave to his inheri- 

'" Even as Jehovah commanded Moses, so did the daughters of 
Zelophehad. " For Machlah, Tirzali, and Hoglah, and Milcah, 
and Noah, the daughters of Zelopheliad, were wives unto their 
uncles' sons. '^ fTo men) of the families of the sons of Manasses, 
tlie son of Josepli, they became wives ; and their inlieritance was 
unto the tribe of tlie family of their father. 

" TJiese are the commandments and the judgments which Jeho- 
vah commanded, by the hand of Moses, unto the sons of Israel, in 
tlie plains of Moab, by Jordan, near Jericho. 

see Gen. xxiv. 57, 58. To the family,] 
To some of the family, or ?'« the family ; 
see ver. 12. 

Ver. 7. — Shall cleave to the inheri- 
tance,] Keeping himself thereto, atid (for 
tlie better performance hereof) marrying 
within his tribe. For this word cleave, is 
often used in case of marriage, Gen. ii. 24; 
Dan. ii. 43. Thus God provideth that the 
order which he should set for the inheritances 
in his land, to be divided by lot, might con- 
tinue throughout all generations ; by which 
means strife also might be cut off, and peace 
preserved among his people. 

Ver. 8. — That pussesseth an inheri- 
tance,] Or, that is heir of a possession; by 
reason that her father had no son to inhe- 
rit, as in this case of Zelophehad. So here 
is no restraint of other women, save such as 
had inheritance. The priests also and Le- 
vites, (which might have no inheritance with 
Israel, Deut. xviii. I,) had liberty to marry 
with the women of any tribe ; as Jehoiada 
the priest had to wife the king's daughter of 
Judah, 2 Chron. xxii. 11, another 'took a 
wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gilead- 
jte,' Ezra ii. Gl, and the like. By reason of 
such marriages there might be kindred be- 

VoL. II. 2 

twecn Elizabeth the mother of John the Bap- 
tist, who was of the daughters of Aaron, and 
Mary the Virgin, the mother of our Lord 
Christ, who was of the lineage of David, of 
the tribe of Judah, Luke i. 5, 36; iii. 23 — 

Ver. 11. — OR Machlah,] Heb. and 
Machlah, &c. Of these daughters, see Num. 
xxvii. 1. Their uncles' sons,] The sons 
of their fathers' brethren. Compare Lev. 
xviii. 12—14. 

Ver. 12. — Was unto the tribe,] That 
is, remained unto (or in) the tribe. So ' Da- 
niel was (that is, continued) even unto the 
first year of king Cyrus,' Dan. i. 21 ; and 
' they were (that is, continued) there, Ruth i. 
2, and sundry the like. By this example and 
oliservation of the law for inheritances in the 
holy land, the people of God are taught to 
hold fast their inheritance in his promises, 
and right in Christ, which they enjoy by 
faith ; that as the Father hath made them 
meet ' to be partakers of the inheritance of 
the saints in light,' Col. i. 12 ; so they may 
kee]) the faith and grace which they have 
obtained unto the end, 1 Kings xxi. 3; Ezek. 
■ xlvi. 18; Jude ver. 3; Heb. vi. 12. 




1. Moses" speech in the end of the fortieth year, briefly rehearsing the 
story. 6. Of God's promise and offer to give Israel the land of Canaan. 
9. Of officers given them. 19- Of spies sent to search the land. 31. Of 
God's anger for Israel's incredulity, 41. and disobedience. 

' These be the words wliicli Moses spake unto all Israel on this 
side Jordan, in the wilderness, in the plain, over against the Red 
se«, between Pharan, and Tophel, and Laban, aJid Hazeroth, and 

spake these things and died, Deut. xxxiv. 5. 
The Cliald. saith Moses rebuked them, " be- 
cause they had provoked God in the plain." 
The Red sea,] So both Gr. and Chald. do 
translate it, adding the word sea : others 
keep the Heb. name Su])h, which signifieth 
flags, such as grow by the sea and rivers' 
sides, Exod. ii. 3; and so expound it not of 
the sea Suph, called the Red sea) but of a 
flaggy place by the sides of Jordan towards 
the wilderness of Arabia. So in Num. xxi. 
14. Pharan,] Or, Paran, a wilderness 
southward from the place where Moses now 
was, through which Israel had passed. Num. 
xiii. 1 ; in it was a mountain so named, 
Deut. xxxiii. 2. The Chald. here addeth, 
" in Pharan where they murmured against 
the manna." Tophel,] This is thought to be 
a town, called afterwards Pella, whicli was 
northward from where Moses now spake. 
Laban,] In Gr. hohon ; of others Lybias ; 
a city lying from them northwest. Haze- 
roth,] By interpretation, court-yards, and 
so the Gr. expounds it: a place lying east- 
ward. Of Hazeroth, we read also in Num. 
xi. 35; xiii. I. Unto it the Chald. here 
referreth it, saying, " In Hazeroth where 
they provoked God for flesh." Dizahab,] 
A region wherein was the city Mezihab, as 
some suppose. Zahab signifies gold ; and so 
the Gr. here translateth, by the goldmines. 
The Chald. |-efers it to the golden calf which 
they made. All these are limits of tlie place 
where Moses gave this Deuteronomy, which 
was without the holy land, and river Jordan 

Deuteronomy,] A Gr. word, by interpreta- 
tion, the repetition, (or second declaration) of 
the law. This name is borrowed from Deut. 
xvJi. IS, where Misneh hatorah, the copy of 
the laiv, is in Gr. translated Deuteroiiomion, 
which title is given to the whole book, as that 
which containeth a repetition and explana- 
tion of the laws before given, as ver. 5. The 
Hebs. call this book by the first words there- 
of, " Eileh Hadbarim, these be the words." 
And here beginneth the forty-fourth section, 
or lecture of the law: see the notes on Gen. 
vi. 9. 

Ver. I. — On this side,] Or, on the out- 
side; that is, beyond Jordan, as the Gr. trans- 
lateth. The word signifieth both sides, and 
by circumstance of place is to be understood. 
To those out of the land of Canaan, it was 
on this side ; to the Israelites in Canaan, it 
was beyond, or the outside of Jordan, where 
Moses spake these things: for Moses might 
not enter into tiie land. Here Thargum 
Jerusalemy (whom Onkelos the Chald. para- 
phrast also followeth) explaineth it thus: 
'' these be the words which Moses spake un- 
to all Israel ; he rebuked them, for that they 
had sinned onthisside Jordan,"&c. Hereupon 
the Rabbins call this book, Scphor Thoche- 
choih, that is, the book of rebukes. Jordan,] 
Heb. Jardcn : a river springing out of mount 
Lebanon, in the north end of Canaan, run- 
ning along the country. Of it, and the mys- 
tery thereof, see Num. xxxiv. 12 ; Josh. iii. 
The plain,] To wit, of Moab's land, as 
ver. 5; see Num. xxii. 1. There Moses 



Dizahab. ^ Eleven days' journey from Hoieb, by the way of inouiit 
Seir unto Kadesh-Barnea. ^ And it was in the fortietli year, in 
the eleventli month, in the first day of the month, Moses spake 
unto the sons of Israel, according unto all that Jehovah com- 
manded him, unto them. After he liad smitten Sihon king of the 
Amorites, which dwelt in Heshbon, and Og king of Bashan, which 
dwelt in Ashtaroth, in Edrei. ^ On this side Jordan, in the land 
of Moab, began Moses to declare tliis law, saying, ' Jehovali our 
God spake unto us in Horeb, saying. Ye have dwelt long enougli 
in this mountain. ' Turn you and take your journey, and go to 

(wherein baptism was administered, Matt. 
iii.) environed with places, which in name 
and situation, signified affliction: and teach 
us the use of this law, which is to afflict the 
soul by showing it sin, and to prepare us tor 
Christ, who by faith bringeth us to his rest 
in the heavenly Canaan, Heb. iv. 1 — 3, &c. 

Veb. 2 Eleven days' journey,] So 

the Chald. expounds it, adding also the word 
journey. Some of the Hebs. think, that in 
eleven days, all things in this book of Deu- 
teronomy were by Moses rehearsed. Neither 
could it be any long time, seeing Moses be- 
gan ' the first day of the eleventh month,' 
ver. 3; and having ended all things in this 
book, died, and was mourned for thirty days, 
Deut. xxxiv. 8. Then Joshua sendeth spies 
to view the land. Josh, ii; leadeth the people 
through Jordan, Josh, iii j circumciseth 
them, and after keepeth the ' passover the 
fourteenth day of the first month,' Josh. v. 
Horeb,] Called also Sinai, the mount where 
the law was given ; see Exod. iii. 1. Mount 
Seir,] The moinitainous country of Seir, 
wherein the Edomites dwelt. Gen. xxxvi. 8, 
9. Kadesh-b.^rn'ea,] The southern border 
of the land of Canaan, Num. xxxiv. 4. 
Though the way was so short, yet Israel for 
their sins wandered forty years in the wilder- 
ness, as God had threatened. Num. xiv. 33, 
34, in which time all the fathers died. 

Ver. 3. — Fortieth year,] Of Israel's 
coming out of Egypt. In the first month of 
this year, Mai-y, Moses' sister died, Num. 
XX. 1, * in the first day of the fifth month 
thereof, Aaron his brother died,' Num. xxxiii. 
38 ; and now at the end of the year, Moses 
himself dieth, when he had repeated the law, 
and renewed the covenant between God and 
his people Israel. 

Ver. 4. — Sihon,] The story hereof see 
in Num. xxi ; and after in Deut. ii. 26, &c. 
The slaughter of Sihon and Og was an en- 
couragement to Israel, for their after wars, 
and an argument to move them unto thank- 
ful obedience to the law now repeated. In 
Ashtaroth, in Eprei,] He dwelt in Asta- 

roth, and was smitten in Edrei, wheie the 
battle was fought, Num. xxi. 33; or as the 
Gr. translattth it, he dwelt in Astaroth and 
in Edrei, for they were both cities in Og's 
land, Josh. xiii. 31 ; and Og is said to have 
reigned in Astaroth and Edrei, Josh. xiii. 
12. In Gen. xiv. 5; it is called Astaroth 

Ver. 5.' — Began,] Or, willingly took up- 
071 him : for the word implieth willingness 
and contentedness: see Gen. xviii. 27. So 
all ministers should feed their flocks ' wil- 
lingly, and of a ready mind,' 1 Pet. v. 2. 
And Moses began to declare, that is, he de- 
clared as Jesus began to say unto his disci- 
ples, Luke xii. 1 ; that is, he said unto them, 
Matt. xvi. G ; and his disciples began to pluck 
the ears of corn. Matt. xii. 1 ; that is, they 
plucked, Luke vi. 1. To declare,] Or, to 
make plain, clearly manifest, to the under- 
standing of the people, as in Hab. ii. 2, a 
thing is said to be ' made plain,' in writing, 
' that he may run that readeth it.' 

Ver. 6. — Dwelt,] Or sitten (that is, 
continued) much. They came to that mount, 
in the third month after their departure out 
of Egypt, Exod. xix. 1, 2 ; and removed 
from the mount, ' the twentieth of the second 
month in the second year,' Num. x. 11, 12; 
so they remained there almost a whole year, 
where they received the law, or Old Testa- 
ment, and had made a tabernacle for God to 
dwell among them: from thence God called 
them by word and sign, the cloud removing. 
Num. X, 11, 13, 33; to journey towards 
Canaan the land promised to Abraham, the 
figure of their heavenly inheritance by faith 
in Christ. The law is not for men to con- 
tinue under, but for a time, till they be fitted 
and brought unto Christ: see Gal. iii. 16, 
17, 18; iv. 1—5; Heb. iii. IS, 19; iv. 

Ver. 7. — Amorite,] Put for Amorites, 
as the Gr. translatcth, whose neighbours were 
the Canaanites, Pherizites, and otlier nations 
promised to be their possession, Exod. xxiii. 
23, 28, 31. Sipe,] Of, sea poji, which was 



(lie mount of the Amorite, and unto all his neighbours, in the 
plain, in the mountain, and in the vale, and in the south, and by 
the sea side : to tlie land of the Canaanite, and Lebanon, vmto the 
great river, the river Euphrates. ® Behold, I have given the land 
before you, go in and possess tlie land which Jehovah sware unto 
your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give unto 
them, and to their seed after them. ^ And I spake unto you at that 
time, saying, I am not able myself alone to bear you. ^° Jehovah 
your God hath multiplied you -. and behold you are this day, as the 
stars of the heavens for multitude. '' Jehovah, God of your fathers, 
add unto you a thousand times so many as you are, and bless you 
as he hath spoken unto you. ^^ How shall I bear myself alone, 
your cumbrance, and your burden, and your strife ? " Give ye 
for you wise men and understanding, and known among your 
tribes, and I will appoint them for to be your heads. ^* And ye 
answered me and said. The word which thou hast spoken is good 
to do. '" And I took the heads of your tribes, wise men and known, 
and gave them to be heads over you ; rulers of thousands, and rulers 

their western border, Num. xxxiv. 6. Le- 
banon,] Which was a mount on the north 
part of the land. Euphrates,] In Heb. 
Phrath, wliich was their eastern bound, in 
the utmost extent without Jordan. And so 
far Solomon reigned, 1 Kings iv. 21. Of 
this Euphrates, see the notes on Gen. ii. 14. 

Ver. 8. — I HAVE GIVEN,] Or, / give : 
which implieth both Israel's right unto the 
land, Lev. xxv. 23; Judg. xi. 23, 24; and 
their assured victory over the inhabitants, 
Exod. xxiii. 27—31. Both these proceed- 
ing from the gracious gift of God : as eternal 
life, (shadowed by this land,) is also ' the gift 
of God through Jesus Christ our Loi'd,' Rom. 
vi. 23. Seed,] That is, children or posteri- 
ty : see the notes on Gen. xiii. 15. 

Ver. 9. — I said,] Moses was constrained 
unto this motion, not only by the conscience 
of his own inability, (here mentioned) but by 
the counsel of Jethro, and commandment of 
the Lord, Exod. xviii. 14, 18, 19, 21, 23. 
Thus the people were furnished with all 
helps, for their orderly and peaceable travels. 

Ver. 10. — As the stars,] So the promise 
was fulfilled which Abraham believed, Gen. 
XV. 5, G. They weie six hundred thousand 
men, besides women and children, Exod. xii. 
37 ; Num. i. ; see also Deut. x. 22. 

Ver. 11.— Add,] That is, increase : Mo- 
ses envied not their multitude, but wished 
them still more, as David also did, Ps. cxv. 
14. And the increase of the church is a 
special blessing, fulfilled in Christ, as Is. 
xlix. 20, 21; liv. 1—3. 

Ver. 12. — Your cumbrance,] Or, weari- 

some molestation, trouble, as Is. i. 14; this 
showeth the magistrate's office to be weighty 
and laborious. And by your cumbrance, 
understand, the cumbrance that cometh unto 
me by you. For when a people is increased, 
the care and trouble of their governors is in- 
creased also, 1 Kings iii. S, 9 ; 2 Cor. xi. 

Ver. 13. — Give ye,] Of your own looking 
out and choice. So ministers were selected, 
and presented by the people, Acts i. 15, 23; 
vi. 3, 6, 6. In Exod. xviii. 25, it is said, 
' Moses chose men of ability,' &c. Here 
the people gave them, and after in ver. 15. 
Again, Moses gave, that is, made them 
heads: for when things are done by many, 
under the government of one principal, they 
are said to be done by them, or by him. See 
the annot. on Num. xxi. 21. Understand- 
ing,] Or, prudent ; the Gr. translateth, skil- 
ful, or endued with knowledge ; which word 
the apostle useth, James iii. 13. Known,] 
Or, expert, as the word signifieth in Isa. liii. 
3. This latter the Gr. favoureth here, and 
in ver. 15. Compare Exod. xviii. 21, where 
the qualities of rulers are set down. Heads,] 
That is, captains, governors, or leaders, as 
the Gr. here translateth; and in ver. 15, and 
chap. V. ver. 23, and often elsewhere. 

Ver. 15. — And gave them,] That is,set 
them, made them, or constituted them, as the 
Gr. and Chald. versions explain it. So he 
hath given thee over them for king, 2 Chron. 
ix. 8 ; is expounded, ' he hath set (or con- 
stituted) thee king,' 1 Kings x. 9. Offi- 
cers,] In Heb. Shotrim, : they were such as 



of hundreds, and rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens, and officers 
among your tribes. " And I commanded your judges at that time, 
saying, Hear between your brethren, and judge justice between a 
man and his brotlier, and liis stranger, *' Ye shall not respect 
persons in judgment; you shall hear alike the small and tlie great; 
you shall not be afraid of the face of man, for the judgment that 
is God's : and the cause which shall be too hard for you, bring it unto 
me, and I will hear it. 

'^ And I commanded you at that time, all the things which ye 
should do. 

*® And we journeyed from Horeb, and went through all that great 
and fearful wilderness wliicli you have seen, by the way of the 
mountain of the Amorites, as Jehovah our God commanded us ; 
and we came unto Kadesh-Barnea. ^° And I said unto you. Ye 
are come unto the mountain of tlie Amorites, which Jehovah our 

excruted the magistrates' laws, as the Hebs. 
tliiiik: see the notes on Deut, xvi. 18. A- 
MONG,] Or, to your tribes. The Gr. trans- 
lateth it, to your judges : which seemeth to 
be a mistaking, Shojjhte for Shibtc : although 
even in the Heb. text we may see one of 
these put for another, as judges in 1 Chron. 
xvii. 6, which in 2 Sam. vii. 7, is tribes. 

Ver. 16. — Me^r between your bre- 
thren,] To "it, the causes and controver- 
sies between them ; Heb. to hear, which 
phrase is often used in commandments, as is 
noted on Exod. xiii. .S ; and it may be a 
defective speech ; for hearing, hear ye, that 
is, hear diligently. Judge justice,] That 
is, just and righteous judgment: which is 
opposed unto judging ' according to the ap- 
pearance,' John vii. 24. His stranger,] 
That is, the stianger that is with him, or 
contendeth with him: as, he that ' eateth 
my bread,' Ps. xli. 10 ; that is, which ' eat- 
eth biead with me,' John xiii. 18. 

Veii. 17 Respect persons,] Or, ac ■ 

knowledge faces, either by ' honouring the 
person of the mighty, or by countenancing 
a poor man in his cause,' Lev. xix. 15; Exod. 
xxiii. 3. Solomon noteth this as one of the 
things belonging to the wise, that it is ' not 
good to acknowledge faces (or respect persons) 
in judgment,' Prov. xxiv. 2.'5. Alike the 
SMALL, &c. ] That is, the small as ivcll as the 
great, and the great as well as the small : 
Heb. Hie small like great. It implieth both 
persons and causes. Of man,] Or, of any 
man. That is God's,] Or, of God, and 
belonging to him : ap|>ointed by his law. 
So in 2 Chron. xix. C, ' ye judge not for 
man, but for tlie Lord.' And a like phrase 
is in another case, ' the battle is not yours, 
but God's,' 2 Chron. xx. 15. The cause,] 

Or, the word, the matter. See Exod. xviii. 

Ver. 18. — All the things,] Heb. all 
the words. Thus Moses faithfully taught the 
judges and people all their duties, and they 
had a perfect law. So Christ (' who was 
faithful to him that appointed him, as Mose3 
was,' Heb. iii. 2,) made known to his disci- 
ples all things that he had heard of his Fa- 
ther, John XV. 15; which they should teach 
also his people to observe, Matt, xxviii. 20. 

Ver. 19. — Journeyed,] Or, departed. 
Here Moses showeth the obedience which 
they began to show unto God, in leaving the 
mount of God, the place which might seem 
sanctified, and where men might have said, 
' Lord, it is good for us to be here:' as Matt, 
xvii. 4. Great,] For it bordered upon 
many countries, Median, Edom, Moab, &c., 
and fearful for the many troubles anc leiTors 
in it. Num. xi. 1, &c„ it was ' a land of 
deserts and of pits, a land of diought and of 
the shadow of death, a land that no man 
passed through, and where no man dwelt,* 
Jer. ii. 6 ; ' wherein were fiery serpents and 
scorpions,' Deut. viii. 15. It was ' the wil- 
derness of Pharan,' Num. x. 12; xiii. 1 ; 
where Ishmael dwelt, when his mother Agar 
and he had lost themselves in wandering, 
after that they were cast out of Abraham's 
house, Gen. xxi. 21. It figured the estate 
and dominion of the law, through which 
God's people pass with many wants, sins, 
terrors, and stings of conscience, &c. Com- 
pare Ps. Ixiii. 2 ; xxxii. 4; cvii. 4, 5; and 
the healing of all these spiritual defects by 
the gospel, I?a. xl. 3, 4 ; Mark xvi. 18. 
Ov the mount,] That is, ' which leadeth 
to the mount of the Amorites; a people high 
as cedars, strong as oaks, Amos ii. 9, 10. 



God givetli unto us. ^' Behold, Jehovah thy God hath given tlie 
land before thee, go up, possess it, as Jehovah the God of thy fa- 
thers hath spoken unto thee ; fear not, neither be discouraged. 

^^ And ye came near unto me, all of you, and said. We will 
send men before us, and they shall search out for us the land, and 
shall bring us v/ord again, by wliat way we shall go up, and into 
what cities we shall come. 

^^ x\nd the word was good in mine eyes, and I took of you twelve 
men, one man of a tribe. ^* And they tui-ned and went up into the 
mountain, and came unto the valley of Eshcol : and they searched 
it out. ^* And they took in their liand of the fruit of the land, and 
brought it down unto us, and brouglit us word again and said, It is 
a good land which Jehovah our God giveth us. '^^ But ye would 
not go up, but rebelled against the mouth of Jehovah your God. 
^'' And murmured in your tents, and said. In the hatred of Jehovah 
towards us, lie hatli brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to 
give us into the hand of the Amorite to destroy us. ^^ Whither go 
we up ? Our brethren have caused our heart to melt, saying. 
The people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and 
walled up to heaven : and moreover we have seen the sons of the 
Anakims there. 

^^ And I said unto you, Be not terrified, neither be afraid of 
them. ^° Jehovah your God that goeth before you, he will figlit 

Kadesh-barnea,] Called sometime Kadesli 
only ; it was ' in the wilderness of Phaian,' 
Num. xiii. 20. 

Ver. 21. — Discouraged,] Or, cast dotvn, 
broken ; which word, when it is applied to 
the mind, sigiiifieth discouragement through 
fear. Here Moses showeth them the right 
that they had in the promises of God ; the 
ability which they had in him to obtain them; 
and his commandment to take their inheri- 
tance set before them. 

Ver. 23. — Was good,] That is, pleased, 
liked me tvell : because it was approved, or at 
least permitted of the Lord, Num. xiii. 2, 3. 
For prudent policy (so it be not mixed with 
unbelief) doth well beseem us, in the execu- 
tion of God's commandments. So Joshua 
sendelh spies and useth other stratagems, 
Josh. ii. &c. One man of a tribe,] Or, 
for a tribe, of every tribe one: see Num. 
xiii. 2, 4, &c. where their names are set 
down, and the charge given them. 

Ver. 24. — EshcolJ That is, the cluster 
of grapes, whereof the place had the name, 
Num. xiii. 25. 

Ver. 25. — The fruit,] As grapes, pome- 
granates, figs. Num. xiii. 23. A good 
LAND,] Flowing with milk and honey. Num. 
xiii. 27. 

Ver. 26. — Rebelled,] In Gr. disobeyed; 
properly it signifieth turned or ihanged, as 
in Ezek. v. 6 ; which figuratively is used for 
rebellion or disobedience, whereby God's 
word is as it were changed and disannulled. 
The mouth,] That is, the rvord, as the Gr. 
translateth. So Exod. xvii. 1 ; Gen. xxiv. 
57 ; and after here in ver. 43. Of their re- 
bellion, see Num. xiv. 2, 3, &c. 

Ver. 27. — In the hatred,] Or, for the 
hatred of Jehovah (wherewith he hateth) us: 
that is, for that the Lord hateth vs ; as is 
in the Gr. version. See the like phrase in 
Gen. xix. IC ; xxix. 20; Hos. iii. 1. This 
evil saying, Moses would not have to come 
out of the mouth of their enemies, Deut. ix. 
28; and it showeth the height of their 
sin, which imputed that to hatred, wherein 
God manifested his love, Deut. iv. 37; vii. 

Ver. 28. — To melt,] That is, discour- 
aged, or (as the Chald. translateth it) broken. 
The Gr. saith, have turned away our heart. 
David amplifieth this similitude, in Ps. xxii. 
15, ' my heart is as wax, it is molten,' &c. 
So Josh. ii. 11 ; vii. 6; xiv. 8; Isa. xix. 
1. These brethren were ten of the twelve 
spies, sent to view the land. Num. xiii. 28, 
&c. Anakims,] In Gr. and Chald. Giants: 




for you, according to all that he did for you in Egypt, before your 
eyes; ^' And in the wilderness, which thou hast seen, how that 
Jcliovah thy God bare thee, as a man doth bear his son, in all the 
way that ye went, until ye came unto this place. ^'^ Yet in this 
thing you did not believe in Jehovah your God. 

^^ Who went before you in the way, to search you out a place 
to pitch your tents in : in fire by night, to show you by what way 
ye should go ; and in a cloud by day. " And Jehovali heard the 
voice of your words, and was wroth, and sware, saying, ^^ If tliere 
shall a man see, of tliese men, of this evil generation, tlie good 
land which I sware to give unto your fathers, ^^ Except Caleb, tlic 
son of Jeplmnneli, he shall see it, and to him will I give the land 
that he hath trodden upon, and to his sons, because he hath fully 
followed Jehovah. ^' Also Jehovah was angry with me for your 
sakes, saying. Thou also shalt not go in thither. ^^ Joshua the son of 
Nun, wliich standeth before tliee, he shall go in thither ; strengtlien 
tliou him, for lie shall cause Israel to inherit it. ^'^ And your little 
ones, which you said should be for a prey, and your sons which 
know not this day good and evil, they shall go in thither, and unto 
them will I give it, and they sliall possess it. 

see Num. xiii. 28, 33 ; where it is singular 

Ver. 30. — He,] The Chald. paraphras- 
eth, his word ivill Jight for you, 

Ver. 31. — Bare thee,] This word meaii- 
eth not bearing of the budy only, but bearing 
of their infirmities, and sullering the evils 
and troubles in the education of them, as a 
father doth in his children: which the Gr. 
explaiueth by ctrophojjhorese, a word that 
Paul useth in Acts xiii. IS; where the Sy- 
riac expoundeth it, Jiourished, ov, as some 
copies have it, etropophorese, he suffered 
ihtir 7iianners 

Ver. 32. — Yet in this thing,] Or, for 
this word : notwithstanding this exhortation 
and encouragement, you believed not. In 
Jehovah,] Chald. i}i the word of the Lord. 
This unbelief Paul noteth to be the cause 
why they entered not into the Lord's rest, 
Hcb. iii. 1,2, IS, 19 

Ver. 33. — Who went,] Namely, by his 
ark, fire, and cloud, the signs of his presence. 
Num. X. 33, 34, or, who goeth, to wit, still 
before you. 

Ver, 35. — If there shall,] That is, 
surely there shall not : as Paul openeth the 
phrase, Heb. iii. 11, 18. Though Moses 
entreated for the people, Num. xiv. 13 — 19; 
and the Lord pardoned them, that tliey were 
not then destroyed. Num. xiv. 20 ; yet he 
sware (and so it was irrevocable, and with- 
out repentance, Ps. ex. 4 ;) that they should 
not come into the promise<l land; see the 

notes on Num. xiv. See,] That is, come 
into and enjoy: as to see good, is to enjoy 
the same, Ps. cvi. 5. 

Ver. 36. — Caleb,] One of the twelve 
spies who was faithful: see Num. xiii. 6, 
30 ; xiv. 6, &c. Fully followed,] Heb. 
fulfilled after Jehovah ; which the Gr. tians- 
lateth, followed the things pertaining to the 
Lord. This he did, being guided by anothei' 
spirit. Num. xiv. 24. 

Ver. 37. — With we,] With Aaron also; 
for they both were in one transgression and 
punishment, Num. xx. 10, 12, 24. For 
your sakes,] For the people ' provoked his 
Spirit,' whereupon he uttered his sin ' with 
his lips,' Ps. cvi. 32, 33 ; his sin proceeded 
also from unbelief: see Num. xx. 12. Thus 
God showed severity towards all, after many 
provocations : and by it the people were taught, 
that not Moses' law, but Jesus' gospel, should 
bring them into their heavenly rest. 

Ver. 38. — Joshua,] Or, Jehoshuah j {u 
Gr. Jesus ; he was another of the spies: sue 
Num. xiii. 8, 16; xiv. 6, 38. Standeth,] 
That is, ministereth, or, is thy servant, as 
the phrase meaneth, Gen. xviii. 8 ; and so 
he is named ' Moses' minister,' Josh. i. 1. 
Strengthen,] By word and sign, which was 
imposition of hands, whereby Moses put ofl 
his honour upon Jesus, and he was filled with 
the Spirit, Num. xxvii. 18, 20, 23; Deut. 
xxxiv. 9. 

Ver. 39. — For a prey,] To be spoiled 
and devoured of the enemy: of this their 



■"* But as for you, turn ye, and take your journey into the wil- 
derness, by the way of tlie Red sea. ^' And ye answered and said 
unto me, We have sinned against Jehovah : we will go up and figlit, 
according to all that Jehovah our God hath commanded us : and 
ye girded on every man his weapons of war, and pressed forward to 
go up into the mountain. ''^ And Jehovah said unto me. Say unto 
them. Go not up, neither fight, for I am not among you, that ye 
be not smitten before your enemies. ^^And I spake unto you, and 
you heard not, but rebelled against the mouth of Jehovah, and you 
were presumptuous, and went up into the mountain. ^^ And tlie 
Amorite that dwelleth in that mountain, came out against you, and 
they pursued you as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even unto 
Hormah. ^* And ye returned and wept before Jehovah -. but Jeho- 
vah heard not your voice, neither gave ear unto you. ^"^ And ye 
abode in Kadesh many days, according to the days that ye abode 

speech, see Num. xiv. 3. They shall go 
IN,] After forty years' wandering iii the wil- 
derness, and bearing their fathers' whoredoms: 
see Num. xiv. 31, 33. So God showeth 
grace to weaklings and babes in Christ, 1 
Cor. i. 28 ; Matt. xi. 25. 

Ver. 40. — Way of,] Tliat is, which lead- 
eth towards the Red sea, where Israel had 
been baptized, Exod. xiv.; and whither they 
were now led again to learn repentance and 
a new life. See Num. xiv. 25. 

Ver. 41. — Sinned,] The people mourned 
greatly, when they heard that evil tidings 
from the Lord ; confessed their sin, and of- 
fered amendment, Num. xiv. 39, 40 ; but 
their repentance was not according to God ; 
(for presently they rushed into another extre- 
mity ;) neither could they reverse the decree 
passed against them. His weapons of war,] 
Or the weapons of his war, which is an Heb. 
phrase very common, translated in Gr. his 
weapons of war : so in Dan. ix. 24, ' city 
of thy holiness, that is, thy holy city, and the 
house of my prayer ; and many the like. 
Pressed forward,] Assayed of your own 
accord, or thronged ; as the Gr. translateth, 
gathered together ; the Chald. ye began. The 
Heb. word is used here only: in Num. xiv. 
44, there is said, ' they loftily presumed,' 
or lifted up themselves ; answerable to their 
presumption here following. 

Ver. 42. — I am not,] The Chald. ex- 
poundeth it, my majesty (or presence) dwel- 
leth not among you: see Num. xiv. 42. 
Smitten,] In Gr. broken or crushed. The 
Lord threatened their fall by the sword of the 
Amalekites and Canaanites, Num. xiv. 43. 

Ver. 43. — Were presumptuous,] Or, 
tvere proud, arrogant : compare Num. xiv. 
44. The people having by their evil heart 
and unfaithful, departed from the living God, 
would return to him by the works of their 
own hands ; which was a presumptuous sin, 
and showed their repentance not to be sin- 
cere, but that the flesh repined and struggled 
against the chastisements of God, not willing 
to bear the punishment of their iniquity. Sec 
the notes on Num. xiv. 

Ver. 44. — Amorite,] With the Amale- 
kites: see Num. xiv. 45. Bees do,] Or, 
bees use to do : which, when they are anger- 
ed, get them together, and fly on the faces of 
their provokers; see Ps. cxviii. 12. Our 
sins are enemies, like bees, many compact in 
the hive of the heart: being troubled and pro- 
voked, they become more eager and fierce, 
sting and pursue us. They cannot be sub- 
dued but by faith in Christ, (as they that 
were stung of serpents were healed by him. 
Num. xxi.) for, by the works of the law, no 
sin can be expelled, Rom. vii. 7, 8, &c. 
Horjiah,] The Gr. saith, from Seir unto 
Henna : see Num. xiv. 45. 

Ver. 45. — Returned,] The Gr. saith, 
ye sat down and wept. He.\rd not,] Chald. 
accepted 7iot your prayer. This figured, 
how ' Israel following the law of justice, 
could not attain unto it, because they sought 
it not by faith, but as it were by the works 
of the law,' Rom. ix. 31, 32. 

Ver. 46. — Kadesh,] A large wilderness, 
where Israel abode long, as appeareth by 
Num. xiii. 27; xx. 1, 14, 21; Judg. xi. 
17 ; Deut. ii. 14. 



. CHAP. 11. 

1. The story is continued, that the Israelites were not suffered to 
meddle with the Edomites; 9. nor with the Moabites; 1 9- nor with the 
Ammonites; 24. hut with Sihon tlie Amorite; who refusing peace, and 
opposing himself, 33. was subdued by them. 

^ And we turned and took our journey into the wilderness, b j 
the way of the Red Sea, as JehovaJi had spoken unto me : and we 
compassed mount Seir many days. ^ And Jehovah spake unto me, 
saying, ^ Ye have compassed this mountain long enough : turn you 
northward. ' And command thou the people, saying. Ye are to 
pass through the coast of your brethren, tlie sons of Esau, whicli 
dwell in Seir : and they shall be afraid of you ; and take ye great 
heed unto yourselves. ^ Meddle not with them, for I will not give 
you of their land, even to the treading of the sole of the foot, be- 

Veu. 1. — Had spoken,] As is before men- 
tioned, Deut. i. 40, which then the people 
were unwilling to do, but would needs go 
fight, till they had learned by their discom- 
fiture what it was to disobey, and wore en- 
forced to yield unto the word of God. Mount 
Seir,] The mountainous country of Seir, 
which was Edom's land, Gen. xxxvi. 8, 9, 
20 ; but they went in the wilderness and 
were sore cumbered in the way: see Num. 
xxi. 4, 

Ver. 3. — Long enough,] A like speech 
God used before, Deut. i. 6, so here is men- 
tioned a second calling of Israel, from the 
deserts of Seir, to go northward again towards 
Canaan, after they had wandered almost 
thirty -eight years in Kadesh wilderness, 
about mount Seir, ver. 14, by which travel, 
God taught tliem to mortify their unriily af- 
fections, and by the death of so many thou- 
sands there, led them to seek life (by lepen- 
tance and faith) in the heavenly Canaan, see- 
ing they could not come into the earthly. In 
the meanwhile, the Amorites, Canaanites, 
&c., (unto whom God gave this long time of 
repentance) were hardened in their sins, and 
took occasion to insult over God's people, be- 
holding their afiliclions: but the posterity of 
Israel were humbled and prepared for to re- 
ceive the land promised. NoRxnwARn,] 
Towards Canaan; not the way they went be- 
fore by Kadesh-barnea, but between the coasts 
of Edom on the one hand, and of Moab and 
Ammon on the other ; so to enter into Ca- 
naan, through Sihon the Amorite's land. 
Thus God's word was their director, unto all 
places, and all actions : in which respect 
these histories of holy scripture excel all hu- 
man histories in the world, 

Vol.. H. 2 

Ver. 4.— Afraid,] As was prophesied of 
them, and others, in Exod. xv. 15, &c. yet 
Edom was a mighty people, settled in their 
mountain, and fortified. See also Num. xxii. 3. 
Great,] Or, vehement heed; meaning, that 
they ofi'ered Edom no wrong, neither suffered 
themselves to be overcome by them: 'Walk 
wisely towards them that are without,' Col. 
iv. 6. 

Ver. 5. — Meddle not,] Or, contendnot 
with them, to wit, in battle, as is explained 
in ver. 9, and so the Gr. here saith, make 
not war tvith them. As all wars should be 
made ' by wise counsels,' Prov. xxiv. 6, so 
chiefly by the mouth of God, who teacheth 
man's hand to war, Ps. cxliv. 1, who hath 
willed us, ' If it be possible, as much as lieth 
in you, be at peace with all men,' Rom. xii. 
18. In special it was commanded, ' Thou 
shall not abhor an Edomite; for he is thy 
brother,' Deut. xxiii. 7. To the tread- 
ing, &c.] That is, not a foot breadth; the 
Gr. translateth it, not the step (or breadth) 
of a foot: which phrase Luke useth, in Acts 
vii. 6, concerning Abraham in Canaan. 
Though the Edomites were wicked, yet God 
continued their state for a time; during 
which no man might lawfully disturb them. 
By this God teacheth also the difference 
between Esau's portion and Jacob's : see 
Rom. ix. 11, 12, &c.; Col. i. 12. See the 
notes on Gen. xxxvi. 4;-i. A possession,] 
Or, an inheritance to Esau; that is, (as the 
Gi-. translateth) to the sons of Esati. 'The 
most High divided to the nations their inheri- 
tance,' Deut. xxxii. 8, and Esau had their por- 
tion and state long before Israel, Gen. xxxvi. 
S, 31, 43; Josh. xxiv. 4, with such worldly 
baits God's people should not be allured. 



cause I liave given mount Seir^r a possession unto Esau. * Ye 
shall buy meat of them for money, that ye may eat : and ye shall 
also buy water of them for money, that ye may drink. ' For Je- 
hovah tliy God hath blessed tliec in every work of thy hand ; he 
knowetli thy walking through this great wilderness : these forty 
years Jehovah thy God hath been with thee, thou hast not lacked 
any thing. ® And we passed by from oui- brethren the sons of Esau, 
that dwelt in Seir, through the way of the plain, from Elath, and 
from Ezion-Gaber : and we turned and passed by, hy the way of 
the wilderness of Moab. ° And Jehovah said unto me, Distress not 
Moab, neither meddle thou with them in battle : for I will not give 
thee of his land, for a possession; because I have given Ar unto 
the sons of Lot for a possession. " The Emins before time dwelt 
therein, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakims. " They 
also were accounted giants, as the Anakims : and the Moabites call 
them Emims. ^^ And in Seir the Horims dwelt, before time, and 
the sons of Esau possessed them, and destroyed them from before 
them, and dwelt in their stead, as Israel did, unto the land of his 

Ver. 6. — B0Y,] Heb. break: which both 
Gr. and Chald. translate, buy: see Gen. xli. 
5fi, in the annot. In the strangers' Jand no- 
thing was to be had freely, but with money, 
figuring the estate of those under the law; in 
Canaan they had all things freely; signifying 
the free grace in Christ, Deut. xi. 9, 10, 
&c.; Is. Iv. 1 ; Rev. xxi. 6. Money,] Heb. 
silver. Buy,] Heb. dig; which the Chald. 
translateth, buy; the Gr. receive by measure. 
It may be meant of buying wells digged out 
of Edom's ground; for so they were wont; 
see Gen. xxvi. 18, &c. ; Num. xxi. 18, or, 
after the Arabic manner, which useth this 
word for buying. 

Ver. 7. — He knoweth,] This is meant 
of cai'eful regarding their estate, wants, &c., 
wherefore the Chald. paraphraseth, " He 
hath sufficiently given thee things necessary 
when thou walkest." Jehovah,] In Chald. 
the word of the Lord. 

Ver. 8. — We passed by,] Though the 
Edomites showed great unkindness, that 
would not suffer Israel to pass through their 
country quietly, Num. xx. 14, 18, &c., yet 
upon warning and charge given from God, his 
people turned away from fight, and contented 
themselves in their tentations, with the pro- 
mises of God. See Num. xx. 21 ; Judg. xi. 
17. Afterward this favour of Israel, and the 
ill reward of Edom, Moab, and Ammon, is 
remembered in the prayer of king Jehosa- 
phat, 2 Chron. xx. 10 — 12. Ezion-gaber,] 
These were port towns, by ' the brink of the 
Red Sea, in the land of Edom,' 1 Kings ix. 

Ver. 9. — Moab,] That is, the Moabites, 
as the next words manifest. So the Gr. 
deal not at enmity with the Moabites. They 
were the posterity of Lot, Gen. xix. 37, 
which dealt unkindly with Israel, as Edom 
had done, Judg. xi. 17, and were (for their 
neglect of duty) not to enter into the congre- 
gation of the Lord, Deut. xxiii. 3, 4. They 
were also become idolaters. Num. xxv. 1, 2; 
xxi. 29, yet God suffered not Israel to hurt 
them, for the reasons before alleged. Med- 
dle,] Or, contend, as before in ver. 5. Ar,] 
A chief mountain, and city thereon. Num. 
xxi. 15, 28, put here for the whole country. 
The Gr. for Ar, here hath Aroer, whereof 
see ver. 36, so in ver. 18, 29. 

Ver. 10. — Emins,] In Gr. Ommeins, by 
interpretation, terrible ones, and so the Chald. 
translateth: see Gen. xiv. 5. Anakims,] 
In the Chald. Giants: see Num. xiii. 29. 

Ver. 11. — Giants,] In Heb. Rephaim, 
which the Gr. keepeth as a proper name 
Raphaein, of one Rapha, who was a giant: 
whereupon it is a name for all giants : see 
the notes on Gen. xiv. 5, so after in Deut. 
iii. 11. 

Ver. 12. — Horims,] Or, Chorites; in 
Gr. Chorraatis: see Gen. xiv. 6; xxxvi. 
20. Possessed,] Oj-, disinherited, and so 
succeeded in their inheritance : the Gr. 
translateth, destroyed them. As Israel 
DID,] To wit, afterward, in the days of Jo- 
shua : thus it is spoken by way of prophesy ; 
or, it may have reference to that part of Is- 
rael's inheritance which they had now con- 
quered on the outside of Jordan. By this 



possession, whicli Jehovah gave unto tliem. " Now rise up, and 
pass you over the brook Zered : and we passed over the brook Ze- 
red. " And the days, in whicli we came from Kadesh-Barnea, un- 
til we passed over the brook Zered, were thirty and eight years, 
until all the generation of the men of war were wasted out from 
among the camp, as Jehovah sware unto them. '^ And indeed, the 
liand of Jehovah was against them, to destroy tliem from among 
the camp, until they were consumed. '® And it was, when all the 
men of war were consumed, and dead, from among the people j 
" Then Jehovah spake unto me, saying, '^ Thou art to pass over 
tliis day, tln-ough Ar, the coast of Moab. '^ x\nd tliou shalt come 
nigh, over against the sons of Ammon ; distress them not, neither 
meddle with them : for I will not give thee of the land of the sons 
of Ammon any possession, because I have given it for a possession 
to the sons of Lot. ^" That also was accounted a land of giants -. 
giants dwelt therein before time; and the Ammonites call them 
Zamzummuns. ^' A people great, and many, and tall, as the Ana- 
kims : and Jehovah destroyed them from before them ; and tliey 
possessed tliem, and dwelt in their stead. ^- As he did to the sons 
of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from 
before them ; and they possessed them, and have dwelt in their 
stead unto this day. ^^ And the Avims, which dwelt in Hazerim, 
even to Gaza -. the Caphtorims, which came fortli out of Caplitor, 
destroyed them, and dwelt in their stead. ^^ Rise ye up, take your 

and the like, in vtr. 22, 23, God would teach 
Israel not to insult upon their outward con- 
quests (such as he had given to other nations 
before them) but to seek for an heavenly- 
country. Tin's he remembered to them by 
the prophet, Amos ix. 7, ' Are ye not as the 
sons of Ethiopians unto me, O sons of Israel?' 

Ver. 13. — Brook,] Or bourne : a valley 
and river ruiuiing therein. So the Gr. 
yaith, the valley Zareth. Of it see Num. 
xxi. 12. 

Ver. 14. — From Kadesh-barnea,] To 
wit, from the time that they came to Kadesh- 
barnea (where they abode in the wilderness of 
Kadesh many days, Deut. i. 46,) and after 
till they passed over Zared. Sware,] Or, 
had sworn: see Num. xiv. 21 — 23. 

Ver. 15.— The hand,] The Chald. ex- 
pounds it, a plague from before the Lord. 
This is after mentioned, how God ' consumed 
their days in vanit)', and their years in hasty 
terror,' Ps. Ixxviii. 33, and upon occasion of 
this mortality, Moses made the ninetieth Vs. 
To destroy,] With trouble and tumult: for 
the word elsewhere signifieth, ' to trouble,' 
Exod. xiv. 24, so in Deut. vii. 23. 

Ver. 19. — Sons of Ammon,] The Am- 

monites, the posterity of Ben-ammi the sou 
of Lot, Gen. xix. .H8, so in ver. 37. 

Ver. 20. — Giants,] Or Rephaims, as 
ver. 11. Zamzummims,] That is, presump- 
tuous wicked ones; in Gr. Zommein. These 
are thought to be those that were of old called 
Zuzims, Gen. xiv. 5. The Chald. calleth 
them Chushbanin. 

Ver. 22. — HoRiMS,] Or, Horites; Heb. 
the Chorite; in Gr. the Chorraan: sec Gen. 
xiv. 6. 

Ver. 23. — Avims,] Or, Avites; in Gr. 
Evites; these were the ancient inhabitants of 
the Philistians' country, Josh. xiii. 3. CaI'H- 
THORiMS,] The Philistines: see Gen. x. 14. 
Though Israel fought the battles of the Lord, 
and had their limits and territories in special 
manner appointed by his word. Num. xxxiv., 
yet other nations also had by his secret provi- 
dence, their times appointed, ' and the bounds 
of their habitation,' Acts xvii. 2C. ' lie in- 
creaseth the nations, and dcstroyeth them , 
he enlargeth the nations, and straiteneth 
them,' Job xii. 23. Wherefore he saith by 
the prophet, ' Have not I brought up Israel 
out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines 
from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?' 
Amos ix. 7. 



journey, and pass over the brook Arnon : see, I have given into 
thy hand, Sihon king of Heshbon, the Amorite, and his land ; be- 
gin, possess it, and meddle with him in battle. ^ This day will I 
begin to give the dread of thee, and the fear of thee upon the peo- 
ple under all the heavens, who shall hear report of thee, and shall 
tremble and be in anguish because of thee. ^^ And I sent messen- 
gers out of the wilderness of Kedemoth, unto Sihon, king of Hesh- 
bon, with words of peace, saying, ^^ Let me pass through thy land ; 
by the way, by the way will I go ; I will not turn aside, to tlie 
right hand or to the left. ^^ Thou shalt sell me meat for money, 
that I may eat ; and give me water for money, that I may drink -. 
only, I will pass through on my feet. ^^ As did unto me the sons 
of Esau that dwell in Seir, and the Moabites that dwell in Ar : un- 
til I shall pass over Jordan, into the land which Jehovah our God 
giveth us. ^^ But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass 
through him ; for Jehovah tliy God hardened his spirit, and made 
his heart obstinate, that he might give him into thy hand, as at this 

^' And Jehovah said unto me. Behold, I have begun to give be- 
fore thee, Sihon and his land ; begin, possess it, that thou mayest 
possess his land. ^^ And Sihon came out against us, he and all his 

Ver. 24. — Brook,] Or, as the Gr. trans- 
Yitfiih, the valley Arnon, as ver. 13; Num. 
xxi. 13. Sihon,] In Gr. Seon king of Ese- 
bon. He had aforetime taken this country 
from the Moabites, Num. xxi. 26, which now 
God taketh again from him, and giveth to the 
Israelites, who else might not have taken any 
of Moab's possession, ver. 9. Meddle,] 
Or contend. Here after long travels in the 
wilderness, God calleth his people unto wars 
(which their fathers before were afraid of,) 
and gave them his word to embolden them, 
as his truth was their shield and buckler. 

Ver. 25. — Report,] Or fame; Heb. 
hearing, which the Gr. translateth 7iame. 
See this promise fulfilled among the Canaan- 
ites, Josh. ii. 9 — 11. Be in anguish,] Have 
pains as a woman in travail. A similitude 
often used to show the terrors of conscience 
in the wicked, Ps. xlviii. 7, and the mighty 
power of God, who ' taketh away the heart of 
the chief of the people of the earth,' .Job xii. 

Ver. 26. — Kedemoth,] There was a city 
of that name in Sihon's country, which after 
was given to the tribe of Reuben, Josh. xiii. 
18, and by them given to the Levites, Josh. 
xxi. 37, near which there was a wilderness 
where Israel now lay, when they sent this 
ambassage. Of peace,] According to the 
law after given, Deut. xx. 10, which being 
refused, tiie war was now just before God and 

Ver. 27. — By the way, by the way,] 
That is, only by the way, and not turning 
aside 'into fields, or into vineyards:' see 
Num. xxi. 21, 22, where it is called, 'the 
king's way.' So in Deut. xvi. 20, ' justice, 
justice,' that is, only justice, and all manner 
of justice. 

Ver. 2S. — Sell,] Heb. break, as in ver. 

Ver. 29, — Of Esau,] The Edomites, who 
though at first they denied Israel passage 
through their land. Num. xx. 18, &c., yet 
as they passed along their coast, they suffered 
them to buy necessaries. Until, &c.] It 
appeareth by this, that if Sihon had suflered 
them to pass through his land, they would 
not at this time have taken his country, but 
first have conquered the Canaanites beyond 
Jordan: but upon Sihon's denial they now set 
upon him. For God doth not impart all his 
counsel at once to the wicked; but they re- 
fusing to yield unto any thing, do hasten 
their own destruction. Compare Exod. iii. 
18. So the gospel, the word of peace, is of- 
fered unto all ; which they that refuse, hasten 
their own judgment. 

Ver. 30. — Through him,] That is, 
through his country: see Num. xx. 18. 
Hardened,] As is spoken of Pharaoh also, 
and others; see Exod. iv. 21, in the aunot. 
The like is said of the Canaanites beyond the 
river. Josh. xi. 20. 

Ver. 32. — To battle,] Or, ynlo tvar; 

CHAP. 11. 


people to battle, at Jahaz. ^^ And Jehovah our God delivered liim 
before us : and we smote him, and his sons, and all his people. 
^* And we took all his cities, at that time ; and utterly destroyed 
of every city the men, and the women, and the little ones ; we left 
none to remain. ^' Only the cattle we took for a prey unto our- 
selves, and the spoil of the cities which we took. 

^^ From Aroer, which is by the brink of the brook Arnon, and 
the city which is by the brook, even unto Gilead, there was not a 
city tliat exalted itself above us ; Jehovah our God delivered all 
before us. ^^ Only imto the land of the sons of Ammon, thou ap- 
proacliedst not, nor unto any place of the brook Jabbok, or the 
cities of the mountam, or whatsoever Jehovah our God commanded 

refusing peace, as they of whom David saith, 
' When I speak (for peace) they are for war,' 
I's. exx. 7. Jahaz,] In Gr. Jassa: see 
Num. xxi. 23. 

V^EB. 33. — S.MOTE HIM,] * With the edge 
of the sword,' Num. xxi. 24. His sons,] 
Or, his son: the Heb. hath both readings, the 
one in the consonant letters, the other in the 
vowels: so in Deut. xxxiii. 9. The Gr. 
and Chald. translate, his sons: it may intend 
all and every of his sons, or ail the sons he 
had, which were but one. So Manasses 
' caused his sons to pass through the fire,' 2 
Chron. xxxiii. 6, which another prophet 
writeth, ' his son,' 2 Kings xxi. 6. See the 
notes on Gen. xlvi. 23. 

Ver. 34. — Of every city,] Or, %ve des- 
troyed every city, (consisting) of ineii and 
women, and little ones: or, city full of men, 
and women, &c. This was according to the 
law, Deut. XX. 14 — IG, and here is fulfilled 
upon the wicked, the judgment which is 
written, ' His roots shall be dried up beneath, 
and above shall his branch be cut off: his re- 
membrance shall perish from the earth,' Job 
xviii. 16, 17. 

Ver. 36. — By the brook,] Or, in the 
bourne (or valley) as the Gr. tianslaleth it. 
Tliis city was Ar, Num. xxi. 15. Gilead,] 
The mount Galaad, as the Gr. saith. Of it 
see Gen. xxxi. 21, &c. Exalted itself,] 
That is, xvas too strong for us; or, as the 
Gr. expounds it, escaped ns. Ijefore us,] 
As the Gr. saith, into our hands. Here 
the whole victory is ascribed unto God, 
' whicli removeth tlie mountains, and they 
know not; which overturneth them in his 

anger; which shaketh the earth out of her 
place and the pillars thereof tremble, Job ix. 
5, 6. 

Ver. 37. — Thou approachedst not,] In 
Gr. we came not, meaning, to war against 
the Ammonites, or invade their possessions. 
Any place,] Or, all the place; Heb. all the 
land; in Gr. all (places) pertaining to the 
brook Jabbok ; to wit, on the outside there- 
of; for Sihon ruled from Aroer, &c., ' unto 
the river Jabbok, which was the border of the 
sons of Ammon,' Josh. xii. 2, and all that 
the Israelites possessed: but the land of the 
Ammonites, which also reached unto Jabbok, 
Num. xxi. 24, they took not: so that Jeph- 
thah answered truly, ' Israel took not away 
the land of Moah, nor the land of the sons of 
Ammon,' Judg. xi. 15. Of the moun- 
tain,] Possessed also by the Ammonites, 
whose border was strong. Num. xxi. 24. 
Commanded us,] Or, charged us, namely, 
to abstain from, that is, forbade us to meddle 
with. The word command is used also in 
things forbidden: see Deut. iv. 23. Now 
though the Moabites and Ammonites were 
thus spared by Israel, yet they ill rewarded 
them afterward, when they warred against 
God's people, to cast them out of their pos- 
session, Judg. xi. 4, 5, &c. ; 2 Chron. xx. 1, 
10, 11, and ' ript up the women with child of 
Gilead, that they might enlarge their border,' 
Amos i. 13, and dwelt in the cities of Gad, 
Jer. xlix. 1. For which the Lord God of 
Israel plagued them, as also for their un- 
kindness already past, a law is enacted against 
them, in Deut. xxiii. 3 — 6. 



1. The story of the conquest of Og king of Bashan. 11. TJte size of 
his bed. 1 2. 27ie distribution of those kinds to the two tribes and half. 
18. Jf^ho were to go over armed before their brethren till they also had 
rest. 1\. Moses encourageth Joshua. 1?,. Prayeth that himself might 
go into the land. 26. Which God would not permit, but suffereth him 
to see it afar off. 

' And we turned and went up the way of Baslian : and Og the 
king of Bashan came out agamst us, he and all his people, to the 
battle at Edrei. ^ And Jehovah said unto me, Fear liim not, for 
into thy hand have I given him, and all liis people, and his land -. 
and thou shalt do unto him, as thou didst unto Sihon king of the 
Amorites, which dwelt in Heshbon. ^ And Jehovah our God gave 
into our hand Og also the king of Bashan, and all his people: and 
we smote him until there was none left him remaining. * And we 
took all liis cities at that time ; there was not a city which we took 
not from tliem : threescore cities, all the region of Argob, the 
kingdom of Og in Bashan. * x\ll these cities were fenced with 
high walls, gates, and bars : besides unwalled cities very many. 
^ And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of 
Heshbon ; utterly destroying of every city, the men, the women, 
and the little ones. ' But all the cattle and the spoil of the cities, 
we took for a prey to ourselves. ^ And we took at that time, out 
of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites, the land which is on 
this side Jordan, from the brook of Anion, unto mount Hermon. 
" The Sidonians call Hermon, Shirjon ; and the Amorites call it 

Ver. 1. — Way of Bashan,] In Gr. the Argob,] A province or shire in Bashan fore- 
way that (Icadeth) unto Bashan ; which Ba- mentioned, 1 Kings iv. 13. 
shan the Chald. nameth Matnan ; so in Num. Ver. 5. — Unwalled,] Or, villages ; in 
xxi. 33. Edrei,] In Gr. Adraein, Of Heb. Peraai ; which the Gr. mistaking, 
this battle, see Num. xxi. 33, &c. turned cities of the Pherezites ; but it mean- 

Ver. 3. — His people,] In Num. xxi. eth unwalled towns, (as Esth. ix. 19 ; Zach. 

35, his sons also are mentioned. None re- ii. 4 ;) so named of their dwelling scattered. 
MAiNiNG,] The Gr. translateth it, no seed: Ver. 6.- — Destroying of everv city 

meaning none left alive, of whom, as of a the men,] Ot^ destroying every city of men, 

seed, others might spring. So when the pro- &c. as in Deut. ii. 34. Thus God destroyed 

phet speaketh of a remnant, Is. i. 9; the apos- the Amorite before them ; though his height 

tie in Gr. calleth it a seed, Rom. ix. 29. vvas like the cedars, and his strength as the 

Ver. 4. — Threescore citiesJ Which oaks, yet destroyed he ' his fruit from above, 

showeth the large dominion of this giant Og, and his root from beneath, Amos ii. 9. 
who ' reigned in mount Hermon, and in Ver. 8..^The land,] The killing of the 

Salcah, and in all Bashan, unto the border of Amorites, and taking of their land, was a 

the Geshurites, and the Maachathites,' &c., testimony of God's goodness and love unto 

Josh. xii. 4, 5. Region,] In Heb. a line his people, Ps. cxxxvi. 17, 22; an encour- 

or cord, such as lands are meted by, Amos agement of them to fight against the residue 

vii. 17; Mic. ii. 5; used figuratively for a of the heathen, Deut. iii. 21, 22; and a dis- 

country or region (as the Gr. and Chald. also couragement to the heathen themselves, Josh, 

translate it) which is measured by line. ii. 10, 11. 



Shenir. '" x\ll the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Ba- 
shan, unto Salcah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 
" For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants ; 
behold his bedstead was a bedstead of iron ; is it not in Rabbah of 
the sons of Ammon ? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four 
cubits tlie breadth thereof, after the cubit of a man. '^ And this 
land which we possessed at that time, from Aroer which is by the 
river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities tliereof, gave 
I to the Reubenites, and to the Gadites. '^ And the rest of Gilead, 
and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, gave I to the half tribe of Ma- 
nasses : all the region of Argob, witli all Bashan, that which is 
called the land of giants. '* Jair the son of Manasses, took all the 
country of Argob, unto the coast of Geshuri, and Maachathi, and 
called them after his own name, Bashan Havoth Jair, unto this 
day. '^ And to Machir I gave Gilead. " And to the Reubenites, 
and to the Gadites, I gave from Gilead, even unto the river Arnon, 
half the valley and the border-, and unto the river .Tabbok, the border 
of tlie sons of Ammon. " And the plain, and Jordan, and the coast 
thereof, from Chinnereth, and unto the sea of the plain, the sea of salt, 
under Ashdoth Pisgah, eastward. '^ And I commanded you at that 
time, sayingj Jehovah your God hath given you this land to pos- 

Ver. 9. — SiDONiANS,] The dwellers in 
Sidon the great city: the Gr. calleth the 
Phoenicia7is. Shirjon, In Gr. Sanior. 
This mount had five names, ' Hermon, 
Shirjon, Shenir, and Sion,' Deut. iv. 48 ; 
and • Hor,' Num. xxxiv. 7; for that divers 
people called it by divers names, and because 
of divers parts of this mountain: wherefore 
in Song iv. 8, Shenir and Hermon are set 
down as distinct: Shirjon, in Ps. xxix. 6, 
is by the Chald. paraphrast there expounded, 
the mount that hringeth forth fruits : and 
Shenir (in Gr. Sanei-) is by the Chald. here 
expounded, the Syiow-mount ; for it was so 
high that snow used to lie on the top of it. 
Amorites,] Heb. the Amorile they call it : 
which showeth the singular number to be put 
for the whole nation. 

Ver. 11. — Giants,] In Heb. Rephaim ; 
which name the Gr. retaineth Rephaein, as 
before in Deut. ii. 11. This Og seemeth to 
be of the remnant of those Rephaims, whom 
Chedorlaomer and the kings smote in Ash- 
teroth, Gen. xiv. 5; for Og reigned in Ash- 
teroth, Josh. xiii. 12. Is it not in Rahbah? 
That is, it is in Rabbah : the question mak- 
eth it an earnest affirmation, as the Gr. also 
translatcth it. Rabbah was the chief city of 
the Ammonites, their royal city, 2 Sam. xii. 
26. The Gr. here translateth it, the chief. 
Of a man,] Which ordinarily is a foot and 
a half; but the Chald. here translate it, the 
cubits of the king. 

Ver. 12, — Reubenites,] Heb. the Reu- 
benite, which the Chald. expoundeth, the 
tribe of Reuben, so ver. 16. Of this gilt, 
see Num. xxxii. 1, &c. 

Ver. 13. — Of Manasses,] For conquer- 
ing the Amorites there, Num. xxxii. 39, 
40. Argob,] This the Chald. calleth Tra- 
cona. Bashan,] In Chald. Matnan. Gi- 
ants,] In Heb. Rephaim which the Chald. 
expoundeth, mighties. 

Ver. 14. — Bashan Havoth Jair,] The 
Chald. saith, Alatnan the towns of Jair : ste 
Num. xxxii. 41. 

Ver. 15. — Gilead,] In Gr. Galaad; tliat 
is, the rest of Galaad, as ver. 13 

Ver. 17. — Chinneroth,] Or, Kinnereth, 
as the Gr. writeth it; which the Chald. call- 
eth (rinnosar j in the New Testament, Gen- 
nesaret, Matt. xiv. 34: see the notes on 
Num. xxxiv. II. Sea of salt,] Or, salt 
sea : see Gen. xiv. 3. Ashdoth Pisgah,] 
In Gr. Asedoth Phasga, by interpretation, 
the streams (or shcddings-out, tliat is, the 
springs) of Pisgah, (or of the hill,) and so 
tlie Chald. translateth it, the shedding (or 
piouring-out) of the xcatcrs of Ranmtha. 
Pisgah is a hill, mentioned after in ver. 27; 
and Ashdoth Pisgali was afterward the namy 
of a city there adjoining in Reuben's land. 
Josh. xiii. 20. So Joshua xii. 3. 

Ver. 18. — You,] He speaketh to the 
Reubenites, and the rest on this side Jor- 
dan : see Num. xxxii. 20, &c. Sons of 



sess it J ye shall pass over armed before your brethren the sons of 
Israel, all sons of power. "• But your wives, and your little ones, 
and your cattle, (I know that you have much cattle,) shall abide 
in your cities which I have given you. ^° Until Jehovah shall haA^e 
given rest to your brethren, as unto you ; and they also possess the 
land which Jehovah your God givef h them on that side Jordan -. 
and tketi ye shall return, every man luito his possession, which I 
have given unto you. ^' And I commanded Joshua at that time, 
saying, Tliine eyes liave seen all tliat Jehovah your God hath done 
unto these two kings ; so will Jehovah do unto all the kingdoms 
wliitlier thou passest. ^'^ Ye shall not fear them, for Jehovah your 
God, he fighteth for you. 

'^ And I besought Jehovah for grace at that time, saying, ^* O Lord 
Jehovah, thou liast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and 
thy mighty liand; for wliat God (is there J in the heavens, or in 
the earth, that can do according to thy works, and according to 
thy powerful acts ? ^' Let me pass over, I pray thee, and see the 
good land that is beyond Jordan, this good mountain and Lebanon. 
^ But Jehovali was exceeding wroth with me, for your sakes, and 
would not hear me : and Jehovah said unto me. Let it suffice thee, 

POWER,] Or, sons of valour ; that is, able 
and valiant meu, as in 2 Sam. xiii. 28, ' be 
ye sons of valour, that is, be valiant men: so 
in 2 Kings ii. 16 ; 1 Chron. v. 18. The 
Gr. here expounds it, evet-y prudent man ; 
the Chald. all armed men of the army. 

Ver. 21. — Joshua,] In Gr. Jesus ; see 
Num. xxvii. 18, &c. So will Jehovah 
DO,] The examples of God's former mercies 
serve for the encouragement and strengthen- 
ing of the faith of his people, in the like, or 
greater trials that may follow; such use also 
David made, I Sam. xvii. 36, 37 ; and Paul, 
2 Tim. iv. 17, IS. 

Ver. 22. — He fighteth,] Or, he it is 
that fighteth, or (as theGr. translatetli) will 
fight. The Chald. for he, saith, his word. 
As Moses here encouraged Joshua the son of 
Nun, to fight the Lord's battles in Canaan ; 
so Moses and Elias, talking with Jesus the 
Son of God, told him ' of his departing, which 
he should accomplish at Jerusalem,' Luke 
ix. 30, 31 ; at what time this figure was 

Here beginneth the forty-fifth lecture 
of the law: see Gen. vi. 9. 

Ver. 23. — 1 besooght Jehovah fob 
grace,] Or, I supplicated for grace unto 
Jehovah. Here Moses repeating his ear- 
nest prayer to go into the land, and God's 

denial of his request, showeth how greatly 
the people's sin, and his own, displeased the 
Lord, Num. xx. 

Ver. 24 — Lord Jehovah,] Or, Lord 
God ; the Gr. hath, Lord, Lord: see Gen. 
XV. 2. For what God ?] Meaning, there 
is none. The Chald. turneth it thus, " that 
thou art God, whose glorious habitation is in 
the heavens above, and thou rulest in the 
earth beneath, and there is none that can do 
according to thy works." Powerful acts,] 
Heb. powers : whereby powerful and mighty 
works are often meant: as Ps. cvi. 2; cxlv. 
4; Matt. vii. 22; 1 Cor. xii. 22 ; Gal. iii. 5. 

Ver. 25. — Mountain,] That is, 7noun- 
tain country : seeExod. xv. 17. Lebanon,] 
In Gr. Antilibanon ; in Chald. the house of 
the sanctuary, because the temple was built 
of the cedars that grew on mount Lebanon, 
1 Kings V. 6, 14. So the temple Is called 
Lebanon in Zach. xi. 1. But that seemeth 
not to be meant here ; but rather the mount 
Lebanon in the north part of the land, which 
was both an high and fragrant mountain, with 
sweet and goodly trees growing thereon : 
whereto the Scripture hath reference in Song 
iv. 11. This great desire Moses had, be- 
cause of the promises which God had made 
to Israel, to be accomplished in that land, the 
figure of our heavenly heritage. 

Ver. 26. — For your sake.*, _ For they 



speak no more unto me of this matter. ^' Go thou up to the top 
of Pisgah, and lift up thine eyes, seaward, and northward, and 
southward, and eastward, and see it witli thine eyes -. for tliou shalt 
not pass over this Jordan. ^^ But command thou Joshua, and en- 
courage him, and strengthen him : for he shall pass over before this 
people ; and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou 
shalt see. ^' And we abode in tlie valley over against Beth-peor. 

rebelling, grieved Moses, and caused him to 
sin; for which, this wrath came upon him, 
Num. XX. 3—12; Ps. cvi. 32, 33. And 
the Lord sware that Moses therefore should 
not come into Canaan, Deut. iv. 21, which 
oath Moses, though he repented and intreated 
for grace, could not get reversed : for when 
the Lord sweareth, he repeiiteth not after- 
ward, Ps. ex. 4. Would not hear me,] 
Heb. heard me not, or hearkened not unto 
tne: whereby God's will is signified; (as 
IJavid removed not the ark, 1 Chron. xiii. 
13, that is, would not remove the ark, 2 
Sam. vi. 10,) for, ' If we ask any thing ac- 
cording to his will he heareth us,' 1 John v. 

Ver. 27. — Pisgah,] The Gr. here trans- 
lateth, of the hewen hill, because it seemeth 
they used to hew stones out of it, as they did 
out of other mounts, 2 Chron. ii. 18. Tlie 

Chald. of the height calleth it Raraatha: 
see Deut. xxxiv. 1. Seaward,] That is, 
westward, as the Chald. expresseth. As the 
fathers saw the promises ' afar off and be- 
lieved,' Heb. xi. 13, so Moses afar off view- 
eth the promised land, and is comforted : see 
Deut. xxxiv. 1 — 4. 

Ver. 2S. — Joshua,] Or, ./(?«?<s; as ver. 
21. As Jesus, not Moses, bringeth Israel 
into the promised land. So the gospel of 
Jesus, not the law of Moses, bringeth us into 
the kingdom of heaven, John i. 17; Gal. ii. 
16; iii. 12, 13, 24. So it is said of the ta- 
bernacle, that it was ' brought in with Jesus, 
into the possession of the Gentiles,' Acts 
vii. 45. 

Ver. 29. — Beth-peor,] In Gr. the house 
of Phogor, an idol temple on the mount 
Peor, where Baal-peor was worshipped: see 
Num. xxiii. 28; xxv. 3; Deut. iv. 3. 


1. An exhortation to obedience unto the law, 6. because of the wisdom 
and righteousness, 9- and its miraculous giving forth. 15. Against 
images, and worshipping of creatures, 25. which provoke God's anger, 
and cause meiCs destruction, 29. unless they repent, and so find mercy 
with the Lord. 32. No people like Israel, who heard God speak, and 
saw his wonders, 37. and were his beloved and chosen. 41. Moses ap- 
pointeth three cities of refuge on the outside of Jordan. 

' And now Israel, hearken thou unto the statutes, and unto tlie 
judgments which I teach you for to do ; that ye may live, and go 
in, and possess the land, which Jehovah the God of your fathers 

Ver. 1. — Statutes,] Or ordinances, 
which taught the service of God, (Heb. ix. 
I,) as the next word judgments, are for du- 
ties towards men, and punishments of trans- 
gressors. These are often joined together: 
see Deiit. v. 1 ; vi. 1 ; xii. 1; Mai. iv. 7. 
And that statutes mean the legal services, 
appeareth by the continual use of this word, 
as in Exod. xii. 21, 43; xxvii. 21 ; xxix. 9; 
XXX. 21. Teach,] Or, atn teaching: this 

Vol. H. 2 

showeth the work of the law, still urging the 
conscience. To do,] For, 'not the hearers 
of the law are just before God, but the doers 
of the law shall be justified,' Rom. ii. 13. 
May live,] Moses ' describeth the justice 
which is of the law, that the man which doth 
those things shall live by them,' Rom. x. 5. 
Possess,] Or, inherit the land; which was a 
figure of our heavenly inheritance, (Gen. xii. 
5,) proposed to them that do the law, but 



giveth you. ^ Ye shall not add unto the word wliich I command 
you, neither shall ye diminish from it, for to keep the command- 
ments of Jehovah your God, which I command you. ^ Your eyes 
liave seen that which Jehovah did, because of Baal-peor: for every 
man whicli went after Baal-peor, Jehovah thy God hath destroyed 
him from the midst of thee. * But ye that did cleave unto Jeho- 
vah your God, are alive all of you, this day. ^ Behold, I have 
taught you statutes, and judgments, as Jehovah my God com- 
manded me, for to do so, within the land, wliither ye are going, to 
possess it. ® And ye shall keep and do them: for this is your wis- 
dom, and your understanding, in the eyes of the people, which 
shall hear all these statutes, and say. Surely, this great nation is a 
wise and understanding people. ' For what nation is there so great, 
whicJi hath God nigh unto the same, as Jehovah our God is, in all 
that we call upon him Jbr. ^ And what nation is there so great, 
which liath just statutes, and judgments, as all this law which I 
set before you this day ? '^ Only take heed to thyself, and keep tliy 
soul diligently, lest thou forget the tilings which thine eyes have 
seen, and lest they depart from thine heart, all the days of tliy 
life : but thou shalt make them known to thy sons, and to thy 

given to them that are of the faith of Christ, 
John i. 17; Rom. iv. 13—16; vi. 23. 

Ver. 2. — Not add,] Hereby all doctrines 
of men are condemned. Matt. xv. 9, and the 
all-sufficiency and authority of God's word, 
stablished for ever, Gal. iii. 15; 2 Tim. iii. 
16, 17. ' Add thou not unto his words, lost 
he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar,' 
Prov. XXX. 6. Diminished,] For, ' every word 
of God is pure,' Prov. xxx. 5, and ' profita- 
ble for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, 
for instruction in righteousness,' 2 Tim. iii. 
16. ' Till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or 
one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law,' 
Matt. V. 18. For to keep,] That is, i/iat 
you may keep; understanding the persons 
fore-mentioned : so iu ver. 5, see the notes on 
Gen. vi. 19. 

Ver. 3. — B.aal-peor,] In Gr. Beel-phe- 
gor, the idol of the Moabites, unto which 
many of Israel declined, by the counsel of 
Balaam: see Num. xxv. 1 — 18; xxxi. 16; 
Ps. evi. 28. The Chald. translateth, against 
them that served Baal-peor. Destroyed,] 
Or abolished: by sending a plague, to the 
death of twenty-four thousand, Num. xxv. 9. 
This judgment was remembered after, in 
Josh. xxii. 17, ' Have we too little for the 
wickedness of Peor?' &c. 

Ver. 4. — Unto Jehovah,] The Cliald. 
saith, unto the fear (or religion) of the Lord. 
Thus they that keep themselves pure in ge- 
neral defections, are saved from the common 
destruction, Ezek. ix. 4, 6 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19; 
Rev. XX. 4. 

Ver. 6 Wisdom,] Hereupon the oracles 

of God are often commended, as ' making 
wise the simple,' Ps. xix. 8, making us wiser 
than our enemies, and to have ' more under- 
standing than all our teachers, Ps. cxix. 98, 
99, and 'able to make us wise unto salva- 
tion, through the faith which is in Christ 
Jesus,' 2 Tim. iii. 15. On the contrary it 
is said, ' They have rejected the word of the 
Lord, and what wisdom is in them?' Jer. 
viii. 9. Surely,] Or otily. The Gr. turn- 
eth it, behold. 

Ver. 7. — What nation is there so 
great.?] Or, ivhat other great nation it 
there? meaning, there is not any. So in 
ver. 8. God nigh,] Or, Gods nigh. The 
Heb. words are both of the plural number, 
yet meaning one God in the plurality of per- 
sons; as the like is in Deut. v. 26; Josh, 
xxiv. 19. The Gi'. and Chald. here translate 
it singularly, God. And he is said to be 
nigh us, especially when he heareth, and 
granteth our requests, Ps. cxlv. 18. So the 
Chald. here paraphraseth, " nigh unto the 
same, to receive the prayer thereof, in the 
time of the tribulation thereof." We like- 
wise are said to draw nigh unto God, when 
we call upon him in faith, Ps. Ixxiii. 28 ; 
Heb. vii. 19; Is. Iviii. 2, and both are con- 
joined in Jam. iv. 8. 

Ver. 9. — Thy soul,] That is, thyself: 
the soxil is often put for the whole man. So 
where one evangelist saith, 'lose bis soul,' 
Matt. xvi. 26, another saith, 'lose himself,' 
Luke ix. 25. Diligently,] Or, vehement- 



sons' sons. '" The day that thou stoodst before Jehovah thy God 
in Horeb, when Jehovah said unto me, Gather together tlie people 
unto me, and I will make them hear my words, that they may 
learn to fear me, all the days that they live upon the earth, 
and that they may teach their sons. " And ye came near, and 
stood under the mountain -. and the mountain burned Avith fire, unto 
the heart of the heavens ; with darkness, cloud, and thick dark- 
ness. '" And Jehovah spake unto you out of the midst of the fire : 
you heard a voice of words, but saw no similitude, save a voice. 
" And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded 
you to do ; tlie ten words : and he wrote them upon two tables of 
stone. '* And Jehovah commanded me at that time, to teach you 
statutes and judgments, that ye may do them in tlie land whither 
ye are going over to possess it. ^^ And take ye heed diligently 
unto your souls ; for ye saw not any similitude, in the day that 
Jehovah spake unto you in Horeb, out of tlie midst of the fire. 
'® Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make unto you a graven thing, the 
similitude of any figure : the likeness of male or female. ^' The 
likeness of any beast that is on the earth -. the likeness of any winged 
fowl that flieth in the heavens. '^ The likeness of any thing that 
creepeth on the ground : the likeness of any fish that is in the waters 
beneath tlie earth. '^ And lest tliou lift up thine eyes to the hea- 

ly; so ver. 15, and often. The word implieth 
strength as well as diligence. See Deut. vi. 
5. Things,] Heb. ivords, which the Gr. 
also and Chald. here keepeth. Lest,] Or, 
that they depart not : in Gr. let them not 
depart from thy heart. Compare Prov. iii. 
1, :j; iv. 21. 

Ver. 10. — Horeb,] Or Choreb, called 
also <S/«««: see Exod. xix. Paul calleth it, 
' the mount that miglit be touched,' Heb. xii. 

Ver. 11. — Heart,] That is, the midst : 
as ' the heart of the sea ' is the midst thereof, 
Exod. XV. 8. So here, the heart of heaven 
is the midst of the air. Thick darkness,] 
Or, tempestuous darkness, gloomy tempest, 
as the Gr. version, and the Holy Spirit in 
Heb. xii. 18, implieth. See Exod. xx. 21. 
Unto this terrible mount where the law was 
given, Paul opposeth mount Zion, or the state 
of grace by the gospel, Heb. xii. 18 — 22. 
It noteth the hidden glory of God's kingly 
administration in his church, Ps. xcvii. 1, 2. 

Ver. 12. — Voice of mords,] This also 
Paul mentioneth, Heb. xii. 19. In the next 
verse Moses calleth them ten ivords, that is, 
ten commandments, whereof see the notes on 
Exod. xxxiv. 28. No sisiii.itdde,] To wit, 
of God: so after, save a voice, that is, the 
voice of God, as in ver. '33. Hereupon it is 
said, ' To whom then will ye liken God, or 

what likeness will ye compare unto him?' Is. 
xl. 18. 

Ver. 13. — Of stone,] Signifying the 
perpetuity of these words, and also the stoni- 
ness of men's hearts, as is noted on Exod. 
xxxi. 18. 

Ver. 14. — Statutes,] For the worship of 
God, as judgments were for the repressing 
and punishing of vice, Exod. xxi. 1. These 
were spoken to Moses only, and by him writ- 
ton to Israel : but the ten words were spoken 
to all the people, and written by the finger 
of God. 

Ver. 19. — The sun,] It was a common 
corruption, not only amongst the heathens, 
but in Israel, to worship the sun, and stars, 
and host of heaven, 2 Kings xxi. 3; xvii. 
16; Amos v. 25, 26, of which sin Job clear- 
eth himself. Job xxxi. 26, 27. Driven 
AWAY,] Or thrust, to wit, ' out of the way,' 
as is after expressed in Deut. xiii. 5, which 
is meant by the seduction of others, or of 
their own hearts. Therefore the Gr. and 
Chald. here well translate it, be deceived, or 
madfi to err and go astray; which the Heb. 
word implieth, being after used for the stray- 
ing of cattle, Deut. xxii. 1. Imparted,] 
Or divided, distributed as a portion. It 
noteth God's bounty in giving all people the 
use of those creatures, (as on the contrary, 
false gods are said to divide or impart nothing 



vens, and seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, all the host 
of the heavens ; and be driven away, and bow down thyself unto 
tliem, and serve them : tliem whicli Jehovah thy God hath im- 
parted to all people under all the heavens. ^'' But Jehovali hatli 
taken you, and brought you forth out of the furnace of iron, out 
of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as at this day. 
^^ And Jehovah was angry with me, for your sakes ; and sware. 
that I should not go over Jordan, and that I should not go in into the 
good land, which Jehovah thy God giveth tliee,yor an inheritance. 
^^ For I must die in this land ; I rnust not go over Jordan : but ye 
shall go over and possess that good land. ^^ Take lieed unto your- 
selves, lest ye forget the covenant of Jehovah your God, which lie 
struck with you, and make to you a graven thing, the likeness of 
any tiling, which Jehovah thy God hath charged tliee. ^* For Je 
liovah thy God, he is a consuming fire, a jealous God. 

^^ When thou shalt beget children, and children's children, and 
ye shall have waxen old in the land, and shall corrupt yourselves, 
and make a graven thing, the likeness of any thing ; and shall do 
evil in the eyes of Jehovah thy God, to provoke him to anger. 
^® I call the heavens and the earth to witness against you, this day, 
that perishing ye shall perish soon, from off the land, whereunto 
you pass over Jordan to possess it ; ye shall not prolong your days 
upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed. " And Jehovali will scat- 

unto them, Deut. xxix. 26,) and the base inanded thee, that is, commatided thee not 

mind of men, to worship such things as are 
given for servants unto aJl men. 

Ver. 20. — FuRN'ACE OF IRON,] That is, 
furnace wherein iron ivas 7nelted: so Egypt 
is called, for the cruel oppression of Israel: 
likewise in 1 Kings viii. 51; Jer. xi. 4. 
People of inheritance,] That is, whom 
God shall inherit and take foi" his possession: 
the Gr. translateth, and inheritance. As 
THIS DAY,] Understand, as ye are, or, as ye 
see this day. 

Ver. 21. — Your sakes,] Or, your words: 
as the Gr. translateth, the things spoken by 
you: meaning their murmmung words, Num. 
XX. 3 — 5, whereby Moses being grieved, 
obeyed not the commandment of God, Num. 
XX. 12; Ps. cvi. 32, 33. This he spake of 
before, Deut. iii. 26, and now again repeat- 
eth, to show God's severity against all trans- 

Ver. 23. — Stroke,] Or cut, that is, co- 
venanted or made. Moses doth often speak of 
the covenant first made between God and 
them, as that which was to be the ground of 
all religion, to them and their seed after 
them : and whatsoever men added, altered, 
or diminished from it, was to be reputed evil. 
So Paul reforming abuses in the churches, 
calleth them to the first institution, 1 Cor. 
xi. 23, 24. Charged thee,] Or corn- 

to do, or, forbidden thee: so in Deut. ii. 37, 
for God's precepts in the decalogue, are for 
the most part forebodes, or prohibitions; yet 
usually called commandments. The whole 
phrase is expressed in Gen. iii. 11, ' which 
I commanded thee not to eat of it,' that is, 
which I forebade thee to eat of. 

Ver. 24. — Fire] To consume all his ene- 
mies; and thine, if thou obey him, as Deut. 
ix. 3, and thee thyself, if thou disobey him, 
as Zeph. i. 18; Heb. xii. 29. See also 
Exod. xxiv. 17. The Chald. addeth, "his 
word is a consuming fire:" which is also true, 
Jer. xxiii. 29; Deut. xxxiii. 2. Jealous,] 
The former word signified God's power, this 
his will: having a jealous affection, whereby 
he will not spare; as Prov. vi. 34, 35. See 
Exod. XX. 5. 

Ver. 25. — Waxen old,] That is, con- 
tinued long, as the Gr. explaineth it, and 
become a7icient inhabitants . God's blessings 
were by Israel abused to sin, as is here fore- 
told, and again in Deut. xxxii. 15. 

Ver. 26. — Perishing ye shall perish,] 
That is, surely and speedily perish : in G r. 
perish with perdition: so in Deut. xxx. 18, 
19, where again he calleth 'heaven and earth 
to witness.' 

Ver. 27. — Few men,] Heb. men of num- 
ber, that is, soon numbered for your tuwness; 



ter you among tlie people ; and ye shall be left few men in num- 
ber, among the heathens, whither Jehovah shall lead you. ^^ And 
there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and 
stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. "^^ Bat if 
from thence ye shall seek Jehovah thy God, tlien thou shalt fiad 
him : if thou shalt seek him with all thy lieart, and with all thy 
soul. ^'^ When tribulation shall he on thee, and all these things 
shall find thee, in tlie latter days, and thou shalt turn to Jehovah 
thy God, and hearken unto his voice. ^' For Jehovah thy God is 
a merciful God ; he will not leave thee, neither destroy tliee : nei- 
tlier will he forget the covenant of thy fathers which lie sware 
unto them. ^^ For ask now of the days forepast, which were be- 
fore thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth ; and 
(ask) from the utmost part of the heavens, and unto the (other) 
utmost part of the heavens, whether there hath been (any such 
thing) as this great thing is; or hath been heard like it. ^^ Hatli a 
people heard the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the 
fire, as thou hast heard, and lived ? ^* Or, hath God assayed to 

as the Gr. translateth, few in 7iuinber ; and 
ill Job xvi. 22, ' years of number,' are a few 
years: see Gen. xxxiv. 30. Tliis is con- 
trary to that promise in Gen. xv. 5. 

Ver. 2S. — Serve GODS,] Being given over 
to your own lusts, as it is written, ' God 
turned, and gave them up to worship the host 
of heaven,' Acts vii. 42. Tliis same God 
threatened afterward, in Jer. xvi. 13. But 
the Cliald. here turnetli it, "ye shall serve 
peoples that serve idols, the work of men's 
hands." Nor smell,] The vanity of idols 
is after this sort described in Ps. cxv. 4 — 7; 
Jer. X. 3—9. 

Ver. 29. — Seek Jehovah,] The Chald. 
translateth, seek the fear of the Lord; mean- 
ing his true service. Here Moses annexeth 
promises, to comfort repenting sinners: as 
also in Dent. xxx. 1 — 3, &c. All thy 
heart,] See an example of this in 2 Chroii. 
XV. 15. 

Ver. 30 Find thee,] That is, cotnc 

upon, or befall thee, as the Chald. explaiii- 
eth it. 

Ver. 31. — Thy fathers,] Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob. See Lev. xxvi. 42, &c. 

Ver. 32. — Of the heavens,] Tliat is, 
from one utmost part of the tvurld unto the 
other. By the heavens are meant the parts 
of the world under tlie heavens: and the 
Holy Spirit openeth this phrase; for in Matt. 
xxiv. 31, it is written, 'from the utmost 
parts of the heavens, unto the utmost parts of 
them:' for which in Mark xiii. 27, is said, 
' from the utmost part of the earth, unto the 
utmost part of the heavens.' By which it is 
evident, that the heavens in this speech, is 

put for the earth under the heavens ; for hea- 
vens comprehendeth the air also, wherein 
we breathe, as is noted on Gen. i. 8. Great 
THING,] Heb. great word. Moses hereby 
would teach, that God's words and works unto 
his church are more great and marvellous 
than all his actions to other people whatso- 
ever: and therefore ought the more seriously 
to be considered. 

Ver. 33.— Voice of God,] The Chald. 
saith, the voice of the word of the Lord: the 
Gr. of the living God. And lived,] At the 
appearance of God, men were wont to fear 
they should die, Judg. xiii. 22, and vi. 22. 
So at the giving of the law, all Israel desired 
that they might hear the voice of God no 
more, lest they died, Exod. xx. 19; Deut. 
xviii. 16, which manifested the power of the 
law, and the weakness of men, Heb. xii. J 9. 
So no man can see the face of God and live, 
Exod. xxxiii. 20, when God giveth his voice, 
the earth melteth, Ps. xlvi. 7. 

Ver. 34. — Hath God,] Or, hath any 
God; speaking of the true God, and his works 
unto Israel, above all other people: or of the 
reputed gods of the Gentiles, none of whicli 
ever did such a thing. Assayed,] Or, 
tempted. This is spoken not of God trying 
his own strength, but proving the obedience 
of his people, and trying the strength of his 
adversaries. The Chald. translateth, or the 
tentations, (or signsj which the Lord hath 
made to reveal himself, fyc. Tentations,] 
Moses here reckoneth seven things about Is- 
rael's deliverance; Tentations, whereby God, 
propounding his will, tried their obedience: 
(as when God tempted Abraham, Gen. xxii. 



come to take liim a nation, from the midst of a nation, by tenta- 
tions, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by a strong hand, 
and by a stretclied out arm, and by great terrors, according to all 
that Jehovah your God did for you in Egypt, before j'our eyes. 
^^ Thou hast been made see to know, that Jehovah he is God : 
tliere is none else besides him. ^^ Out of the heavens he made thee 
to hear his voice, to instruct thee ; and upon the earth he made 
thee to see his great fire ; and thou heardest his words out of the 
midst of the fire. ^' And because he loved thy fathers, therefore he 
chose his seed after him ; and he brought thee out, in his sight, with 
his great power, out of Egypt. ^^ To drive out nations greater and 
miglitier than thou, from before thee ; to bring thee in, to give 
thee their land for an inheritance, as it is this day. ^^ And thou 
shalt know this day, and cause it to return into thy heart ; that Je- 
hovah, lie is God, in the heavens above, and on the earth beneath: 
there is none else. ^^ And thou shalt keep liis statutes and his 

1.) Signs, which many times are of ordi- 
nary works, and natural, as fixed, iii. 12. 
fVonders, which are of extraordinary, and 
supernatural works, as Exod. iv. 21 ; vii. 9. 
fVar, upon the refusal and resistance of the 
enemy, Exod. viii. 1, 2. Strong hand, not 
by cunning policies and stratagems, as men 
often use in wars; but by force, compelling 
the enemy to yield, Exod. vi. 1. Stretched- 
out arm, by openly manifesting his power, and 
plagues continually upon the resisters, Is. ix. 
12, 17; Exod. vi. 6, and great terrors, 
which wounded the hearts of the very ene- 
mies, Exod. ix. 20, 27, 28; x. 7; xii. 30. 
Terrors,] Or fears, the Gr. and Chald. 
translate, visions, or sights, which are often- 
times fearful ; but the Heb. for fears and vi- 
siotis, are one much like another, which 
might cause the mistaking. So in Deut. 
XX vi. 8. 

Ver. 35.— To know,] That is, that thou 
mightest know, and acknowledge. The 
end of all God's works was the manifesting 
of his glory, to the information and salvation 
of his people. This Moses often urgeth in 
this book. 

Ver. 36. — To instruct,] Or, to nurture, 
chastise : by restraining from vice. So 
God's chastening, and teaching out of his 
law, are joined together, in Ps. xciv. 12. 
Though chastening be often with works (as 
Lev. xxvi. 18, 28; Deut. viii. 5,) yet is it 
also with words; as here, (where the Chald. 
translateth it teach,) and Prov. ix. 7; xxxi. 
1 ; Ezek. xxiii. 48; Job iv. 3. The fire,] 
Before, he said, ' out of heaven,' and now, 
' out of the midst of the fire:* " for though 
the voice came out of heaven, Israel perceived 
it not, but only out of the fire," saith R. 
Menachcm on Deut. iv. 

Ver. 37. — Therefore he chose,] Or, 
and chose, (that is, loved) his seed after 
him, therefore he brought thee out. God's 
love, and election out of love, is the cause of 
man's redemption and salvation. His seed,] 
That is, the seed of thy fathers, every one 
particularly; as the promise was made to 
Abraham, then to Isaac, and after that to Ja- 
cob severally. The Gr. and Chald. translate 
it plurally, their seed (or so7is) after them. 
In his sight,] Or, with his face (or pre- 
sence.) The Gr. saith, he brought thee out 
himself; the Chald. he brought thee out by 
his word. Thus the face or presence of 
God, may imply Christ, the Word, the Angel 
of God's face. Is. Ixiii. 9. He it was that 
brought Israel out, as 1 Cor. x. 1, 9, and the 
sign of his presence was in the pillar of the 
cloud and fire, Exod. xiii. 21; xiv. 19, 20. 

Ver. 38. — To drive out,] To wit, out of 
possessio7i, (as the original word implieth) 
or, to disinherit ; the Gr. saitli, to destroy, 
(or, root out.) As it is,] The Gr. addeth, 
as thou hast this day. Meaning of the 
land of Sihon and Og, which they had now 
in possession, a sign of further victory, Deut. 
iii. 21. 

Ver. 39. — And thou shalt know,] Or, 
k7iow (and acknowledge) therefore: see ver. 
35. The knowledge of, and obedience unto 
God, is continually urged, upon the remem- 
brance of his former mercies. So 1 Chron. 
xxviii. 9. Cause it to return,] Or, bri7ig 
again, reduce, that is, call to 7ni7id, and 
consider, that not only for the present, but al- 
ways after, God's true fear might continue in 
them. So in Deut. xxx. 1, where this 
phrase is used : see the annot. 

Ver. 40. — All days,] This may be re- 
feried both to the latter, the possessing of the 



commandments, which I command thee this day, that it may be 
well with thee, and with thy sons after thee ; and that thou niayost 
prolong thy days upon the land, which Jehovah tliy God giveth 
thee, all days. 

*' Tl)en Moses separated three cities on this side Jordan, towards 
the sun-rising. ^^ For the /waw-slayer to flee tliither, which should 
kill his neighbour unwittingly, and lie hated liim not in times past -. 
and that he might fly unto one of these cities and live. *^ Bezer in 
the wilderness, in the plain country of tlie Reubenites : and Ra- 
moth in Gilead, of the Gadites : and Golan m Basan, of the Ma- 
nassites. " And this is the law, which Moses set before the sons 
of Israel. *^ These are the testimonies, and the statutes, and the 
judgments, which Moses spake unto the sons of Israel, after they 
came forth out of Egypt. *^ On this side Jordan, m the valley 
over against Beth-peor, in the land of Silion, king of the Amorites, 
who dwelt in Heshbon : wliom Moses and tlie sons of Israel smote, 
after tliey were come forth out of Egypt. " And they possessed 
Jiis land, and the land of Og, king of I3ashan, two kings of the 
Amorites, which were on this side Jordan, toward the sun-rising. 
^^ From Aroer, which is by the bank of the river Anion, and unto 
mount Zion, that is Hermon. *^ And all tlie plain of this side Jor- 
dan, eastward, and unto the sea, of the plain, under Ashdoth-Pis- 

land, and to the former, the welfare a)id 
length of life. In Matt, xxviii. 20, all 
days, is explained, 'unto the end of the 

Ver. 42. — Unwittixglv,] Or, ivithout 
knowledge thereof, unaivares. See the law 
for thi^, in Num. xxxv. 9, 10, &r., and after 
ill Dent. xix. 2. In tibies past,] Or, in 
former days; Htih. from yesterday, and the 
third day . See Gen. xxxi. 2. 

Ver. 43. — Bezor,] In Gr. Bosor: see 
Josh. XX. 8; xxi. 30; I Chron. vi. 78, 80. 
Golan,] In Gr. Gaulon. 

Ver. 44. — This is,] He meaneth, that 
which hereafter followeth; so this belongelh 
to the next chapter, where the repetition of 
the laws begiu. 

Ver. 45. — After they came forth,] 
Ileb. in their comiinj forth : but in is often 

used for after, as is noted on Exod. ii. 23, 
so again in ver. 46 

Ver. 46. — Beth-peor,] In Gr. the house 
of Phogor, an idol temple: see Dent. iii. 29. 
Amorites,] Heb. Amorite: in Gr. Amor- 
reans. Smote,] That is, killed, as is noted 
on Gen. xiv. 17. This victory is here again 
touched, the more to stir up the hearts of the